Prevalence of high bloodpressure, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and their determinants in Ethiopia: Evidences from the National NCDs STEPS Survey, 2015.
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemias, and high blood pressure is increasing worldwide especially in low and middle income countries. World Health Organization has emphasized the importance of the assessment of the magnitude of the specific disease in each country. We determined the prevalence and determinant factors of high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemias and metabolic syndrome in Ethiopia. A community based survey was conducted from -April to June 2015 using WHO NCD STEPS instrument version 3.1. 2008. Multistage stratified systemic random sampling was used to select representative samples from 9 regions of the country. A total of 10,260 people aged 15-69 years participated in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured for 9788 individuals. A total of 9141 people underwent metabolic screening. The prevalence of raised blood pressure (SBP ?140 and/or DBP ? 90 mmHg) was 15.8% (16.3% in females and 15.5% in males). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (FBS ? 126 mg /dl) including those on medication was 3.2% (3.5% males and 3.0% females). The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 9.1% with ADA criteria and 3.8% with WHO criteria. Hypercholesterolemia was found in 5.2%, hypertriglyceridemia in 21.0%, high LDL cholesterol occurred in 14.1% and low HDL cholesterol occurred in 68.7%. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using IDF definition was 4.8% (8.6% in females and vs. 1.8% in males). Advanced age, urban residence, lack of physical exercise, raised waist circumference, raised waist hip ratio, overweight or obesity, and total blood cholesterol were significantly associated with raised blood pressure (BP) and diabetes mellitus. Increased waist- hip ratio was an independent predictor of raised blood pressure, hyperglycemia and raised total cholesterol. Our study showed significantly high prevalence of raised blood pressure, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in Ethiopia. Community based interventions are recommended to control these risk factors.
Project description:This study sought to characterize the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its 5 components, and their pharmacological treatment in U.S. adults by sex and race/ethnicity over time.MetS is a constellation of clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.Prevalence estimates were estimated in adults (? 20 years of age) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010 (in 2-year survey waves). The biological thresholds, defined by the 2009 Joint Scientific Statement, were: 1) waist circumference ? 102 cm (males adults) and ? 88 cm (female adults); 2) fasting plasma glucose ? 100 mg/dl; 3) blood pressure of ? 130/85 mm Hg; 4) triglycerides ? 150 mg/dl; and 5) high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <40 mg/dl (male adults) and <50 mg/dl (female adults). Prescription drug use was estimated for lipid-modifying agents, anti-hypertensives, and anti-hyperglycemic medications.From 1999 and 2000 to 2009 and 2010, the age-adjusted prevalence of MetS (based on biologic thresholds) decreased from 25.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.5% to 28.6%) to 22.9% (95% CI: 20.3% to 25.5%). During this period, hypertriglyceridemia prevalence decreased (33.5% to 24.3%), as did elevated blood pressure (32.3% to 24.0%). The prevalence of hyperglycemia increased (12.9% to 19.9%), as did elevated waist circumference (45.4% to 56.1%). These trends varied considerably by sex and race/ethnicity. Decreases in elevated blood pressure, suboptimal triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol prevalence have corresponded with increases in anti-hypertensive and lipid-modifying drugs, respectively.The increasing prevalence of abdominal obesity, particularly among female adults, highlights the urgency of addressing abdominal obesity as a healthcare priority. The use of therapies for MetS components aligns with favorable trends in their prevalence.
Project description:Dyslipidemia is a major health problem in China and an important modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of dyslipidemia and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and associated risk factors among adults in rural northwest China.In a cross-sectional analyses involving 2,980 adults aged >18 years, information on the demographics, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and medical history was collected via face-to-face interviews. Blood samples were collected to determine total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), and HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) levels.The prevalence of high TC, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol, and high TG were 1.0%, 0.6%, 60.9%, and 13.7%, respectively. TC, LDL-cholesterol, and TG increased with age in females. Elevated TC was more common in females than in males. The prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was 67.6% in males and 55.4% in females. Current smokers, those with less education, those who were overweight or obese, and those with large waist circumference were more likely to have low HDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). Multivariable regression showed that male gender showed an association with low HDL-cholesterol (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.68-2.61), age ?60 years (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64-0.99), BMI (BMI = 24-27.9, OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.04-1.54, p = 0.02 and BMI?28, OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.10-2.20, p = 0.01) and enlarged waist circumference (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.51-2.92). Non-alcohol drinker was associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels (OR 0.72, 95%CI 0.53-0.99, p = 0.04).This study found that the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was 67.6% and 55.4% for males and females. Male gender, non-alcohol drinker, BMI and central obesity were important risk factors for low HDL-cholesterol in Chinese adults.
Project description:To confirm the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) gene are associated with the occurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).A total of 250 NAFLD patients (147 males and 103 females) and 200 healthy individuals who served as controls (control, 109 males and 91 females), aged between 6 and 16 years were enrolled in this study. The four non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the UCP3 gene polymorphisms of rs1726745, rs3781907, rs11235972 and rs1800849, were genotyped using MassArray. Body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin and lipid profiles were measured and B-ultrasound examination was performed in all subjects.NAFLD patients showed risk factors for metabolic syndrome: elevated BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, BP, FBG, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, total triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, while decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level compared with the control group. The GG genotype distributions of rs11235972 in the NAFLD group differed significantly from that in the control group. We found that waist circumference between CC (58.76 ± 6.45 cm) and CT+TT (57.00 ± 5.59 cm), and hip circumference between CC (71.28 ± 7.84 cm) and CT+TT genotypes (69.06 ± 7.75 cm) were significantly different with and without rs1800849 variation (P < 0.05).A higher prevalence of rs11235972 GG genotype was observed in the NAFLD group compared with the control group. No differences were observed for the other SNPs. However, there was a significant difference in body height in addition to waist and hip circumference between the CC (mutant type group) and CT+TT group with and without rs1800849 variation.
Project description:Metabolic disorders, such as obesity, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemias, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia have all been identified as risk factors for an epidemic of important and widespread chronic-degenerative diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, that constitute some of the world's most important public health challenges. Their increasing prevalence can be associated with an aging population and to lifestyles within an obesogenic environment. Taking educational level as a proxy for lifestyle, and using both logistic and linear regressions, we study the relation between a wide set of metabolic biomarkers, and educational level, body mass index (BMI), age, and sex as correlates, in a population of 1,073 students, academic and non-academic staff at Mexico's largest university (UNAM). Controlling for BMI and sex, we consider educational level and age as complementary measures-degree and duration-of exposure to metabolic insults. Analyzing the role of education across a wide spectrum of educational levels (from primary school to doctoral degree), we show that higher education correlates to significantly better metabolic health when compared to lower levels, and is associated with significantly less risk for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein and metabolic syndrome (all p < 0.05); but not for diastolic blood pressure, basal insulin, uric acid, low density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. We classify each biomarker, and corresponding metabolic disorder, by its associated set of statistically significant correlates. Differences among the sets of significant correlates indicate various aetiologies and the need for targeted population-specific interventions. Thus, variables strongly linked to educational level are candidates for lifestyle change interventions. Hence, public policy efforts should be focused on those metabolic biomarkers strongly linked to education, while adopting a different approach for those biomarkers not linked as they may be poor targets for educational campaigns.
Project description:A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic syndrome is associated with endocrine disorders including thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid dysfunction in metabolic syndrome patients may further add to cardiovascular disease risk thereby increasing mortality. This study was done to assess thyroid function in metabolic syndrome patients and evaluate its relationship with the components of metabolic syndrome.A cross sectional study was carried out among 169 metabolic syndrome patients at B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference) and blood pressure were taken. Fasting blood samples were analysed to measure glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone).Thyroid dysfunction was seen in 31.9 % (n?=?54) metabolic syndrome patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism (26.6 %) was the major thyroid dysfunction followed by overt hypothyroidism (3.5 %) and subclinical hyperthyroidism (1.7 %). Thyroid dysfunction was much common in females (39.7 %, n?=?29) than males (26 %, n?=?25) but not statistically significant (p?=?0.068). The relative risk of having thyroid dysfunction in females was 1.525 (CI: 0.983-2.368) as compared to males. Significant differences (p?=?0.001) were observed in waist circumference between patients with and without thyroid dysfunction and HDL cholesterol which had significant negative correlation with thyroid stimulating hormone.Thyroid dysfunction, particularly subclinical hypothyroidism is common among metabolic syndrome patients, and is associated with some components of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference and HDL cholesterol).
Project description:MyPlate is a guidance system for healthier eating choices. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the influence of MyPlate food group consumption and exercise on metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters in college students. Participant (n = 462) blood was analyzed using Cholestech for triglycerides (TG), glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In addition, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Diet and Wellness Plus was used to compute participant diet records. Regression analysis and a recursive decision tree were made to predict MetS using RStudio (V.1.1.463). BP decision tree predicted high risk of elevated blood pressure with a recall rate of 93.7%. For males; exercise, empty calories, dairy, and protein were main predictors. For females, vegetable and empty calorie consumption were primary determinants. HDL-C decision tree had a recall rate of 91.8% and showed that the main low HDL-C risk determinants for males were; exercise and grain consumption. Conversely, for females; empty calories, grain, and vegetable consumption were the key factors determining low HDL-C risk. This study shows that MyPlate recommendations are valuable to achieve adequate HDL-C and blood pressure and provides insight into the importance of tailoring food intake guidance based on gender.
Project description:There is a surge in chronic diseases in the developing world, driven by a high prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors. This study described differences in prevalence of obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors between urban and rural settlements in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. This comparative cross-sectional study included 672 participants (median age 50 years), of which 312 were from Kumasi (urban) and 360 from Jachie-Pramso (rural). Demographic, anthropometric and other cardio-metabolic risk factors were gathered and venous blood samples were drawn for biochemical assays. Results suggested significant differences in diastolic blood pressure (80.0 mmHg vs 79.5 mmHg; p = 0.0078), and fasting blood sugar (5.0 mmo/l vs 4.5 mmol/l; p < 0.0001) between the two groups. Further differences in anthropometric measures suggested greater adiposity amongst participants in the urban area. Participants in the urban area were more likely than rural participants, to have high total cholesterol and LDL-c (p < 0.0001 respectively). Risk factors including BMI ≥ 25 (p < 0.0001), BMI ≥ 30 (p < 0.0001), high waist circumference (p < 0.0001), high waist-to-height ratio (p < 0.0001) and alcohol consumption (p = 0.0186) were more prevalent amongst participants in the urban area. Markers of adiposity were higher amongst females than males in both areas (p < 0.05). In the urban area, hypertension, diabetes and lifestyle risk factors were more prevalent amongst males than females. Differences in risk factors by urban/rural residence remained significant after adjusting for gender and age. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are more prevalent amongst urban settlers, highlighting an urgent need to avert the rise of diet and lifestyle-related chronic diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing worldwide. Adults with abdominal obesity have been reported to have increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether non-obese subjects (body mass index (BMI) <?25?kg/m2) with abdominal obesity examined in the framework of the Swiss-Hungarian Cooperation Programme had increased metabolic risk compared to participants without abdominal obesity. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was carried out in 5228 non-obese individuals. Data were collected between July 2012 and February 2016. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple logistic regression models were applied, odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) being the outcomes. RESULTS:607 (11.6%) out of the 5228 non-obese individuals had abdominal obesity. The correlation analysis indicated that the correlation coefficients between BMI and waist circumference (WC) were 0.610 in males and 0.526 in females. In this subgroup, the prevalence of high systolic blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, and high total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher. The logistic regression model based on these data showed significantly higher risk for developing high systolic blood pressure (OR?=?1.53; 95% CI?=?1.20-1.94), low HDL cholesterol (OR?=?2.06; 95% CI?=?1.09-3.89), and high trygliceride level (OR?=?1.65; 95% CI?=?1.27-2.16). CONCLUSIONS:There was a very high, significant, positive correlation between WC and BMI. Abdominal obesity was found to be strongly related to certain metabolic risk factors among non-obese subjects. Hence, measuring waist circumference could be recommended as a simple and efficient tool for screening abdominal obesity and related metabolic risk even in non-obese individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies from Saudi Arabia have reported a continued increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and their associated risk factors. The objective of this study was to measure the gender differences in the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk based on Framingham risk scores (FRS) and to explore the association of FRS with sedentary life style including physical inactivity, sitting time and central obesity among Saudi adults. METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 2997 Saudi adults (males = 968, females = 2029) selected from 18 primary health care centres in Riyadh city, from December 2014 to August 2015. A detailed interview that evaluated lifestyle and past medical history was conducted; furthermore, anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected for lipid profiling. The FRS were calculated based on the age, gender, systolic blood pressure, treatment for hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, total blood cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels. These scores were categorized into low risk (FRS < 10) and high/intermediate risk (≥10). A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS:The mean (±SD) age of the males and females was 43.1(±11.7) vs 43.8(±10.9) years (p = 0.07), respectively. The number of Saudi male participants with intermediate-to-high FRS scores (≥10) was almost twice that of females (males 33% vs 17%). The multivariable logistic regression model after adjusting for education level and housing type, found that low physical activity (aOR & 95%CI for males 2.91 (1.45, 5.80); females 1.38 (1.06, 1.81); prolonged sitting time (aOR &95%CI for males 1.36 (0.98, 1.90) females 1.58 (1.20, 2.07), high central obesity (defined as waist circumference in males > 102 cms, and females > 88 cms) (aOR & 95%CI for males 2.38 (1.67, 3.41); females 3.35 (1.92, 5.87) were associated with high/ intermediate risk for CVD. CONCLUSIONS:A significant percentage of Saudi population revealed FRS ≥10. Females beyond the age of 50 were found to have a higher prevalence for CVD risk compared with males of the same age group. Modifiable risk factors like low physical activity, prolonged sitting time and central obesity have strong implications for primary prevention and management services that can change the risk profile of the Saudi population.
Project description:To compare obese versus non-obese Jamaican adolescents' risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); and to explore a suitable and economical method of screening for these risk factors in the school settings.A descriptive cross-sectional study of adolescents' risk for T2D and CVD. All the participants were examined at their respective schools.Jamaica, West Indies.276 Jamaican adolescents aged 14-19 years, randomly selected from grades 9 to 12 from 10 high schools on the island and included both boys and girls. All ethnicities on the island were represented.High fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, family history of obesity, T2D and CVDs, low physical activity, and presence of Acanthosis Nigricans. All blood measures were analysed using the finger prick procedure.Waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, Acanthosis Nigricans, total cholesterol, family history of T2D and blood pressure were the strongest predictors of BMI (p=0.001). Over one-third of the participants were overweight. Jamaican adolescent females had a significantly higher number of risk factors and were less physically active than males (p<0.05). Over 80% of participants reported ?3 risk factors for T2D and CVD. Participants with BMI ?25 reported five or more risk factors. One-third of the overweight participants were classified with metabolic syndrome.Jamaican adolescents are at risk of T2D and CVD. Family history of disease and anthropometric measures identified more participants at risk than did the blood measures. Jamaican adolescent females reported more risk factors for T2D and CVD as compared to males. Collection of this type of data was feasible within the school settings. All data were collected in 1 day per school. Intervention measures are needed to educate Jamaican adolescents to reduce overweight and subsequently the risk factors.