Repeatability of FDG PET/CT metrics assessed in free breathing and deep inspiration breath hold in lung cancer patients.
ABSTRACT: We measured the repeatability of FDG PET/CT uptake metrics when acquiring scans in free breathing (FB) conditions compared with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for locally advanced lung cancer. Twenty patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Two FDG PET/CT scans per patient were conducted few days apart and in two breathing conditions (FB and DIBH). This resulted in four scans per patient. Up to four FDG PET avid lesions per patient were contoured. The following FDG metrics were measured in all lesions and in all four scans: Standardized uptake value (SUV)peak, SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), based on an isocontur of 50% of SUVmax. FDG PET avid volumes were delineated by a nuclear medicine physician. The gross tumor volumes (GTV) were contoured on the corresponding CT scans. Nineteen patients were available for analysis. Test-retest standard deviations of FDG uptake metrics in FB and DIBH were: SUVpeak FB/DIBH: 16.2%/16.5%; SUVmax: 18.2%/22.1%; SUVmean: 18.3%/22.1%; TLG: 32.4%/40.5%. DIBH compared to FB resulted in higher values with mean differences in SUVmax of 12.6%, SUVpeak 4.4% and SUVmean 11.9%. MTV, TLG and GTV were all significantly smaller on day 1 in DIBH compared to FB. However, the differences between metrics under FB and DIBH were in all cases smaller than 1 SD of the day to day repeatability. FDG acquisition in DIBH does not have a clinically relevant impact on the uptake metrics and does not improve the test-retest repeatability of FDG uptake metrics in lung cancer patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study explores various volume of interest (VOI) delineation techniques for fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT) scans during neoadjuvant extremity soft tissue sarcoma (ESTS) treatment. RESULTS:During neoadjuvant treatment, hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) and preoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), 11 patients underwent three 18F-FDG PET-CT scans. The first scan was made prior to the HILP, the second after the HILP but prior to the start of the EBRT, and the third prior to surgical resection. An automatically drawn VOIauto, a manually drawn VOIman, and two gradient-based semi-automatically drawn VOIs (VOIgrad and VOIgrad+) were obtained. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUVpeak, SUVmean, metabolically active tumor volume (MATV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were calculated from each VOI. The correlation and level of agreement between VOI delineation techniques was explored. Lastly, the changes in metabolic tumor activity were related to the histopathologic response. The strongest correlation and an acceptable level of agreement was found between the VOIman and the VOIgrad+ delineation techniques. A decline (VOIman) in SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmean, TLG, and MATV (all p?<?0.05) was found between the three scans. A >?75% decline in TLG between scan 1 and scan 3 possibly identifies histopathologic response. CONCLUSIONS:The VOIgrad+ delineation technique was identified as most reliable considering reproducibility when compared with the other VOI delineation techniques during the multimodality neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced ESTS. A significant decline in metabolic tumor activity during the treatment was found. TLG deserves further exploration as predictor for histopathologic response after multimodality ESTS treatment.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine the impact of FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging of cervical cancer among women with and without HIV and to determine the abilities of FDG-PET/CT metabolic parameters in predicting the presence of distant metastasis. METHODS:We reviewed the FDG-PET/CT images of women with FIGO stage IB2 to IVA carcinoma of the cervix. We compared the FIGO stage before and after FDG-PET/CT. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the primary lesion were determined. We compared these parameters between the HIV-infected and uninfected woman and also determined their abilities to predict the presence of distant metastasis. RESULTS:126 women, mean age 48.05 ± 11.80 years were studied. Seventy-three patients were HIV-infected. The disease was upstaged in 65 patients, 32 of which were upstaged to stage IVB. HIV-infected women were younger (43.36 ± 8.03 years versus 54.51 ± 13.12, p<0.001) and had more advanced disease (p = 0.022) compared with HIV-uninfected. In a univariate logistic regression adjusted for the FIGO stage of the disease, there were significant associations between MTV and TLG of the primary tumor and distant metastasis. SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV and TLG performed well in predicting the presence of distant metastasis with areas under the curves (AUCs) of 0.63, 0.66, 0.80 and 0.77 respectively. These performances improved after adjustment for the FIGO stage of the disease with AUCs of 0.80, 0.79, 0.84 and 0.82 for SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV and TLG respectively. CONCLUSION:Inclusion of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the pre-therapy assessment of cervical cancer improves the accuracy of staging in about half of the patients. The metabolic parameters of the primary tumor perform well in predicting the presence of distant metastases.
Project description:This study aimed to compare the prognostic value of quantitative measures of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) for the response monitoring of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). In this prospective study, 22 patients with biopsy-verified MBC diagnosed between 2011 and 2014 at Odense University Hospital (Denmark) were followed up until 2019. A dual-time-point FDG-PET/CT scan protocol (1 and 3 h) was applied at baseline, when MBC was diagnosed. Baseline characteristics and quantitative measures of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), corrected SUVmean (cSUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and corrected TLG (cTLG) were collected. Survival time was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and was regressed on MTV, TLG, and cTLG while adjusting for clinicopathological characteristics. Among the 22 patients included (median age: 59.5 years), 21 patients (95%) died within the follow-up period. Median survival time was 29.13 months (95% Confidence interval: 20.4-40 months). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses of survival time showed no influence from the SUVmean, cSUVmean, or SUVmax, while increased values of MTV, TLG, and cTLG were significantly associated with slightly higher risk, with hazard ratios ranging between 1.0003 and 1.004 (p = 0.007 to p = 0.026). Changes from 1 to 3 h were insignificant for all PET measures in the regression model. In conclusion, MTV and TLG are potential prognostic markers for overall survival in MBC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a valuable tool for monitoring response to therapy in oncology. In longitudinal studies, however, patients are not scanned in exactly the same position. Rigid and non-rigid image registration can be applied in order to reuse baseline volumes of interest (VOI) on consecutive studies of the same patient. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various image registration strategies on standardized uptake value (SUV) and metabolic volume test-retest variability (TRT). METHODS:Test-retest whole-body [18F]FDG PET/CT scans were collected retrospectively for 11 subjects with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies (colorectal carcinoma). Rigid and non-rigid image registration techniques with various degrees of locality were applied to PET, CT, and non-attenuation corrected PET (NAC) data. VOI were drawn independently on both test and retest scans. VOI drawn on test scans were projected onto retest scans and the overlap between projected VOI and manually drawn retest VOI was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). In addition, absolute (unsigned) differences in TRT of SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were calculated in on one hand the test VOI and on the other hand the retest VOI and projected VOI. Reference values were obtained by delineating VOIs on both scans separately. RESULTS:Non-rigid PET registration showed the best performance (median DSC: 0.82, other methods: 0.71-0.81). Compared with the reference, none of the registration types showed significant absolute differences in TRT of SUVmax, SUVmean and TLG (p > 0.05). Only for absolute TRT of metabolic volume, significant lower values (p < 0.05) were observed for all registration strategies when compared to delineating VOIs separately, except for non-rigid PET registrations (p = 0.1). Non-rigid PET registration provided good volume TRT (7.7%) that was smaller than the reference (16%). CONCLUSION:In particular, non-rigid PET image registration showed good performance similar to delineating VOI on both scans separately, and with smaller TRT in metabolic volume estimates.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>This study aims to determine whether semiquantitative parameters obtained from both the primary tumor and metastatic pelvic lymph nodes (PLN) diagnosed in fluoro-18-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET-CT) are associated with disease-free survival (DFS), local control (LC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced squamous cervical cancer (LACC) and metastatic pelvic lymph nodes.<h4>Materials</h4>Retrospective analysis was performed on 93 female patients with FIGO IIIC1. The median age was 53 years (27-75). The PET parameters both in the primary tumor and metastatic pelvic lymph nodes, including SUVmax, SUVmean, TLG, MTV, heterogeneity, along with clinical variables, before radical cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy (RCT) were analyzed. The <i>p</i>-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.<h4>Results</h4>Median follow-up was 38 months (4.5-92.6). Three years and five years OS were 75% and 70% respectively. Patients with SUVmax above 12.6, SUVmean above 7.6 and with TLG in tumors >245.7 lived longer (<i>p</i> < 0.05). The higher SUVmax or SUVmean reduced increased DMFS (HR 0.3 95%CI 0.56-0.96 and 0.59 95%CI 0.37-0.93). The clinical factors and other FDG PET CT parameters were not found to be statistically relevant in terms of OS, DFS, DM and LC.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study is the first report showing that in LACC patient population with PLN involvement treated with definitive RCT, high SUVmean, SUVmax and TLG of the primary tumor in FDG-PET-CT were linked with longer OS. Lower SUVmean and SUVmax were linked with shorter DMFS. None of the clinical factors and the nodal FDG-PET-CT parameters influenced the outcome.
Project description:Background: Platinum-based chemotherapy is widely used as first-line therapy for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC). Intratumor heterogeneity derived from fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a potential predictor of treatment outcomes and the prognosis of breast cancer. However, the presence of multiple lesions and complex calculation methods leads to difficulties in the clinical use of this parameter for metastatic breast cancer. The aim of this study is to provide a convenient and effective measurement of intratumor heterogeneity to predict treatment outcomes for mTNBC patients with lung metastasis. Patients and methods: We enrolled mTNBC patients with lung metastasis who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scans before ?rst-line therapy from three clinical trials (NCT01287624, NCT02341911 and NCT02546934). Apart from the regular FDG parameters, including standard uptake value (SUV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV), we defined the lung index as the SUVmean divided by the difference between the SUVmax and SUVmean for the targeted lung lesion. The MTV was automatically exported from the manual delineation using software based on an adaptive threshold of SUV intensity >2.5 within the contouring margin. The TLG was calculated using the following formula: TLG=SUVmean×MTV. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: The data from 31 patients were available for analysis. The median PFS of low-lung index (LI) patients was 8.1 months, which was significantly longer than that of high-LI patients (HR=3.3, 95% CI 1.5-7.3, p=0.003). Patients with low TLG had a significantly better PFS than those with high TLG (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.8, p=0.014). Patients with low TLG had significantly longer overall survival than those with high TLG (31.2 months vs 13.9 months, HR=3.1, 95% CI 1.2-8.6, p=0.029). Multivariate analysis confirmed the predictive value of LI and TLG. Conclusions: This study proposed a new "PET biopsy" method to evaluate the intratumor heterogeneity of mTNBC on pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT scans and indicated the predictive value of LI and TLG for first-line platinum-based treatment outcomes and overall survival. These findings could help clinicians recognize patients who are likely to not only have a favorable response to platinum-based therapy but also a good prognosis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The purpose of our present study was to assess the prognostic impact of FDG PET-CT after induction chemotherapy for patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS:This retrospective study included 50 patients with inoperable stage II/III NSCLC from January 2012 to July 2015. They were treated for curative intent with induction chemotherapy, followed by concomitant chemoradiation therapy or sequential radiation therapy. FDG PET-CT scans were acquired at initial staging (PET1) and after the last cycle of induction therapy (PET2). Five parameters were evaluated on both scans: SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmean, TLG, MTV, and their respective deltas. The prognostic value of each parameter for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was evaluated with Cox proportional-hazards regression models. RESULTS:Median follow-up was 19 months. PET1 parameters, clinical and histopathological data were not predictive of the outcome. TLG2 and ?TLG were prognostic factors for OS. TLG2 was the only prognostic factor for PFS. For OS, log-rank test showed that there was a better prognosis for patients with TLG2< 69g (HR = 7.1, 95%CI 2.8-18, p = 0.002) and for patients with ?TLG< -81% after induction therapy (HR = 3.8, 95%CI 1.5-9.6, p = 0.02). After 2 years, the survival rate was 89% for the patients with low TLG2 vs 52% for the others. We also evaluated a composite parameter considering both MTV2 and ?SUVmax. Patients with MTV2> 23cc and ?SUVmax> -55% had significantly shorter OS than the other patients (HR = 5.7, 95%CI 2.1-15.4, p< 0.01). CONCLUSION:Post-induction FDG PET might be an added value to assess the patients' prognosis in inoperable stage II/III NSCLC. TLG, ?TLG as well as the association of MTV and ?SUVmax seemed to be valuable parameters, more accurate than clinical, pathological or pretherapeutic imaging data.
Project description:Background:The pro-tumoral action of the cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), which is associated with the chemotherapy resistance of lung adenocarcinoma, is partly due to accelerated tumor cell glycolysis. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) metabolic parameters included maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), which are non-invasive markers of the glucose metabolism of tumor cells in vivo. This study aimed to clarify the correlation between PET metabolic parameters and CD147 expression, and to evaluate the prognostic value of CD147 expression in resectable lung adenocarcinoma patients. Methods:A total of 89 lung adenocarcinoma chemotherapy-naive patients who underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computerized tomography scan before pulmonary surgery were retrospectively analyzed. The PET metabolic parameters were calculated by 18F-FDG PET imaging, and CD147 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV, and TLG compared for their performance in predicting the expression of CD147 were illustrated with statistical analysis. All patients were then followed-up for survival analysis. Results:The SUVmax was significantly correlated with the CD147 expression and was the primary predictor for the CD147 expression of lung adenocarcinoma. A cut-off value of the SUVmax, 9.77 allowed 85.1% sensitivity and 64.3% specificity for predicting the CD147 positive lung adenocarcinoma. CD147 expression was correlated with tumor differentiation and metastasis. Univariate survival analysis showed that CD147 expression was significantly associated with a shorter overall survival (OS) time. Multivariate analysis revealed that CD147 was an independent prognostic factor of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Conclusion:The SUVmax of a primary tumor measured with 18F-FDG PET may be a simple and non-invasive marker for predicting CD147 expression in lung adenocarcinoma. CD147 is an independent prognostic factor related to OS of postoperative lung adenocarcinoma patients.
Project description:In patients undergoing pelvic exenteration for recurrent gynecological malignancies, we assessed the performance of [(18)F]-FDG PET/CT for delineating disease extent and evaluated the association between quantitative FDG uptake metrics (SUVmax, total lesion glycolysis [TLG] and metabolic tumor volume [MTV]) and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).Retrospective study of patients undergoing pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies between January 2002 and November 2011 who had FDG PET/CT within 90days before surgery. Two readers (R1, R2) independently determined the presence of bladder, rectum, vagina, cervix and pelvic side wall invasion and measured SUVmax, TLG and MTV in each patient. Areas under the curve (AUCs), for detecting organ invasion were calculated. Kaplan-Meier graphs were used to determine associations between FDG uptake and PFS/OS. Inter-reader agreement was assessed.33 patients (mean age 56years, range: 28-81) were included; primary sites of disease were the cervix (n=18), uterus (n=8) and vagina/vulva (n=7). AUCs for organ invasion ranged from 0.74 to 0.96. There was a significant association between FDG uptake metrics incorporating tumor volume (TLG and MTV) and OS (p?0.001) as well as between MTV and PFS (p=0.001). No significant association was identified between SUVmax and OS/PFS (p=0.604/0.652). Inter-reader agreement for organ invasion was fair to substantial (k=0.36-0.74) and almost perfect for FDG quantification (ICC=0.97-0.99).In patients undergoing pelvic exenteration for recurrent gynecological malignancies, (18)F-FDG PET/CT is useful for preoperative assessment of disease extent. Furthermore, quantitative metrics of FDG uptake incorporating MTV serve as predictive biomarkers of progression-free and overall survival in this population.
Project description:Purpose. To investigate the value of SUV metrics and radiomic features based on the ability of 18F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating between breast lymphoma and breast carcinoma. Methods. A total of 67 breast nodules from 44 patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT pretreatment were retrospectively analyzed. Radiomic parameters and SUV metrics were extracted using the LIFEx package on PET and CT images. All texture parameters were divided into six groups: histogram (HISTO), SHAPE, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), neighborhood gray-level different matrix (NGLDM), and gray-level zone-length matrix (GLZLM). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were generated to evaluate the discriminative ability of each parameter, and the optimal parameter in each group was selected to generate a new predictive variable by using binary logistic regression. PET predictive variable, CT predictive variable, the combination of PET and CT predictive variables, and SUVmax were compared in terms of areas under the curve (AUCs), sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Results. Except for SUVmin (p=0.971), the averages of FDG uptake metrics of lymphoma were significantly higher than those of carcinoma (p ? 0.001), with the following median values: SUVmean, 4.75 versus 2.38?g/ml (P < 0.001); SUVstd, 2.04 versus 0.88?g/ml (P=0.001); SUVmax, 10.69 versus 4.76?g/ml (P=0.001); SUVpeak, 9.15 versus 2.78?g/ml (P < 0.001); TLG, 42.24 versus 9.90 (P < 0.001). In the ROC curves analysis based on radiomic features and SUVmax, the AUC for SUVmax was 0.747, for CT texture parameters was 0.729, for PET texture parameters was 0.751, and for the combination of CT and PET texture parameters was 0.771. Conclusion. The SUV metrics in 18FDG PET/CT images showed a potential ability in the differentiation between breast lymphoma and carcinoma. The combination of SUVmax and PET/CT texture analysis may be promising to provide an effectively discriminant modality for the differential diagnosis of breast lymphoma and carcinoma, even for the differentiation of subtypes of lymphoma.