Polymeric Nanoparticles for Increasing Oral Bioavailability of Curcumin.
ABSTRACT: Despite the promising biological and antioxidant properties of curcumin, its medical applications are limited due to poor solubility in water and low bioavailability. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) adapted to oral delivery may overcome these drawbacks. Properties such as particle size, zeta potential, morphology and encapsulation efficiency were assessed. Then, the possibility of storing these NPs in a solid-state form obtained by freeze-drying, in vitro curcumin dissolution and cytocompatibility towards intestinal cells were evaluated. Curcumin-loaded Eudragit® RLPO (ERL) NPs showed smaller particle diameters (245 ± 2 nm) and better redispersibility after freeze-drying than either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) NPs. The former NPs showed lower curcumin encapsulation efficiency (62%) than either PLGA or PCL NPs (90% and 99%, respectively). Nevertheless, ERL NPs showed rapid curcumin release with 91 ± 5% released over 1 h. The three curcumin-loaded NPs proposed in this work were also compatible with intestinal cells. Overall, ERL NPs are the most promising vehicles for increasing the oral bioavailability of curcumin.
Project description:Nanotechnology is a promising approach both for restoring or enhancing activity of old and conventional antimicrobial agents and for treating intracellular infections by providing intracellular targeting and sustained release of drug inside infected cells. The present paper introduces a formulation study of gentamicin loaded biodegradable nanoparticles (Nps). Solid-oil-in water technique was studied for gentamicin sulfate nanoencapsulation using uncapped Polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA-H) and Polylactide-co-glycolide-co-Polyethylenglycol (PLGA-PEG) blends. Screening design was applied to optimize: drug payload, Nps size and size distribution, stability and resuspendability after freeze-drying. PLGA-PEG concentration resulted most significant factor influencing particles size and drug content (DC): 8 w/w% DC and 200 nm Nps were obtained. Stirring rate resulted most influencing factor for size distribution (PDI): 700 rpm permitted to obtain homogeneous Nps dispersion (PDI = 1). Further experimental parameters investigated, by 2³ screening design, were: polymer blend composition (PLGA-PEG and PLGA-H), Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and methanol concentrations into aqueous phase. Drug content was increased to 10.5 w/w%. Nanoparticle lyophilization was studied adding cryoprotectants, polyvinypirrolidone K17 and K32, and sodiumcarboxymetylcellulose. Freeze-drying protocol was optimized by a mixture design. A freeze-dried Nps powder free resuspendable with stable Nps size and payload, was developed. The powder was tested on clinic bacterial isolates demonstrating that after encapsulation, gentamicin sulfate kept its activity.
Project description:In this work, we aimed to improve the encapsulation efficiency of sepiapterin (SP), the natural precursor of the essential cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) that displays mild water-solubility and a short biological half-life, within methoxy-poly(ethylene-glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)(mPEG-PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) by means of its complexation and hydrophobization with 2,3,6-triacetyl-β-cyclodextrin (TAβCD). For this, SP/TAβCD complexes were produced by spray-drying of SP/TAβCD binary solutions in ethanol using the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 HP. Dry powders were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, respectively) and compared to the pristine components and their physical mixtures (PMs). Next, SP was encapsulated within mPEG-PCL NPs by nano-precipitation of an SP/TAβCD complex/mPEG-PCL solution. In addition to the nano-encapsulation of a preformed complex within the polymeric NPs, we assessed an alternative encapsulation approach called drying with copolymer (DWC) in which pristine SP, TAβCD, and mPEG-PCL were co-dissolved in a mixture of acetone and methanol at the desired weight ratio, dried under vacuum, re-dissolved, and nano-precipitated in water. The dissolution-drying step was aimed to promote the formation of molecular hydrophobic interactions between SP, TAβCD, and the PCL blocks in the copolymer. SP-loaded mPEG-PCL NPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and SEM. NPs with a size of 74-75 nm and standard deviation (S.D., a measure of the peak width) of 21-22 nm were obtained when an SP:TAβCD (1:1 molar ratio) spray-dried complex was used for the nano-encapsulation and SEM analysis revealed the absence of free SP crystals. The encapsulation efficiency (%EE) and drug loading (%DL) were 85% and 2.6%, respectively, as opposed to the much lower values (14% and 0.6%, respectively) achieved with pristine SP. Moreover, the NPs sustained the SP release with relatively low burst effect of 20%. Overall, our results confirmed that spray-drying of SP/TAβCD solutions at the appropriate molar ratio leads to the hydrophobization of the relatively hydrophilic SP molecule, enabling its encapsulation within mPEG-PCL NPs and paves the way for the use of this strategy in the development of novel drug delivery systems of this vital biological precursor.
Project description:Nowadays, biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) remain the most common biomaterials to produce drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs). Pipemidic acid (PIP) is a poorly soluble antibiotic with a strong tendency to crystallize. PIP incorporation in PLA/PLGA NPs was challenging because of PIP crystals formation and burst release. As PIP had a poor affinity for the NPs, an alternative approach to encapsulation was used, consisting in coupling PIP to PCL. Thus, a PCL-PIP conjugate was successfully synthesized by an original drug-initiated polymerization in a single step without the need of catalyst. PCL-PIP was characterized by NMR, IR, SEC and mass spectrometry. PCL-PIP was used to prepare self-assembled NPs with PIP contents as high as 27% (w/w). The NPs were characterized by microscopy, DLS, NTA and TRPS. This study paves the way towards the production of NPs with high antibiotic payloads by drug-initiated polymerization. Further studies will deal with the synthesis of novel polymer-PIP conjugates with ester bonds between the drug and PCL. PIP can be considered as a model drug and the strategy developed here could be extended to other challenging antibiotics or anticancer drugs and employed to efficiently incorporate them in NPs.
Project description:The exploitation of curcumin for oral disease treatment is limited by its low solubility, poor bioavailability, and low stability. Surface-functionalized poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) have shown promising results to ameliorate selective delivery of drugs to the gastro-intestinal tract. In this study, curcumin-loaded PLGA NPs (C-PLGA NPs) of about 200 nm were surface-coated with chitosan (CS) for gastro-intestinal mucosa adhesion, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) for colon targeting or GE11 peptide for tumor colon targeting. Spectrometric and zeta potential analyses confirmed the successful functionalization of the C-PLGA NPs. Real-time label-free assessment of the cell membrane-NP interactions and NP cell uptake were performed by quartz crystal microbalance coupled with supported lipid bilayers and by surface plasmon resonance coupled with living cells. The study showed that CS-coated C-PLGA NPs interact with cells by the electrostatic mechanism, while both WGA- and GE11-coated C-PLGA NPs interact and are taken up by cells by specific active mechanisms. In vitro cell uptake studies corroborated the real-time label-free assessment by yielding a curcumin cell uptake of 7.3 ± 0.3, 13.5 ± 1.0, 27.3 ± 4.9, and 26.0 ± 1.3 ?g per 104 HT-29 cells for noncoated, CS-, WGA-, and GE11-coated C-PLGA NPs, respectively. Finally, preliminary in vivo studies showed that the WGA-coated C-PLGA NPs efficiently accumulate in the colon after oral administration to healthy Balb/c mice. In summary, the WGA- and GE11-coated C-PLGA NPs displayed high potential for application as active targeted carriers for anticancer drug delivery to the colon.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various stabilizers on the encapsulation efficiency and release of exenatide-loaded PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) microspheres prepared by the water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) solvent evaporation (SE) method. It was shown that the stabilizers affected exenatide stability in aqueous solutions, at water/dichloromethane interfaces, on PLGA surfaces, or during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying procedures. Sucrose predominantly reduces instability generated during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. Phenylalanine prevents the destabilization at the water-dichloromethane (DCM) interface through decreased adsorption. Poloxamer 188 enhances stability in aqueous solutions and prevents adsorption to PLGA. Proline and lysine decrease adsorption on PLGA surfaces. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to find the molecular interaction of additives with exenatide or PLGA. Additives used in stability assessments were then added stepwise into the inner or outer water phase of the W/O/W double emulsion, and exenatide-loaded microspheres were prepared using the solvent evaporation method. The effect of each stabilizer on the encapsulation efficiency and release behavior of microspheres correlated well with the stability assessment results, except for the negative effect of poloxamer 188. Particle size analysis using laser diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water vapor sorption analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy were also employed to characterize the prepared exenatide-loaded PLGA microsphere. This study demonstrated that an adequate formulation can be obtained by the study about the effect of stabilizers on peptide stability at the preformulation step. In addition, it can help to overcome various problems that can cause the destabilization of a peptide during the microsphere-manufacturing process and sustained drug release.
Project description:Pioglitazone-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) were stabilized by the spray drying technique as an alternative to the treatment of ocular inflammatory disorders. Pioglitazone-NPs were developed and characterized physiochemically. Interaction studies, biopharmaceutical behavior, ex vivo corneal and scleral permeation, and in vivo bioavailability evaluations were conducted. Fibrillar diameter and interfibrillar corneal spacing of collagen was analyzed by synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques and stability studies at 4 °C and was carried out before and after the spray drying process. NPs showed physicochemical characteristics suitable for ocular administration. The release was sustained up to 46 h after drying; ex vivo corneal and scleral permeation profiles of pioglitazone-NPs before and after drying demonstrated higher retention and permeation through cornea than sclera. These results were correlated with an in vivo bioavailability study. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis did not show a significant difference in the organization of the corneal collagen after the treatment with pioglitazone-NPs before and after the drying process, regarding the negative control. The stabilization process by Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was shown to be useful in preserving the activity of pioglitazone inside the NPs, maintaining their physicochemical characteristics, in vivo bioavailability, and non-damage to corneal collagen function after SAXS analysis was observed.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>Ergosterol is a plant sterol with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities, but is poorly soluble. In this study, we attempted to enhance its anti-tumor action and oral bioavailability via poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticle encapsulation.<h4>Methods</h4>Ergosterol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (NPs/Erg) were prepared using the emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. Their physicochemical properties were characterized, and their cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines was evaluated with MTT assay. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of NPs/Erg were investigated in rats and mice, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>NPs/Erg were spherical in shape with a particle size of 156.9±4.8 nm and a Zeta potential of -19.27±1.13 mV, and had acceptable encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity. NPs/Erg exerted much stronger cytotoxicity against human cancer cells than the free ergosterol, and showed significantly reduced IC50 values (14.69±0.48 ?g/mL in glioma U251 cells; 9.43±0.52 ?g/mL in breast cancer MCF-7 cells; 4.70±0.41 ?g/mL in hepatoma HepG2 cells). After oral administration of a single dose in rats, NPs/Erg displayed a prolonged plasma circulation with a 4.9-fold increase of oral bioavailability compared with the free ergosterol. After mice received NPs/Erg, the ergosterol in NPs/Erg was rapidly distributed in stomach, kidneys, liver, brain, spleen, and virtually non-existent in heart and lungs. The presence of NPs/Erg in brain was particularly improved compared with the free ergosterol.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The PLGA nanoparticles serve as a promising carrier for the poorly soluble ergosterol and significantly improve its bioavailability, biodistribution and in vitro anti-tumor activities.
Project description:Cholesterol-rich arterial plaques characterize atherosclerosis, a significant cause of heart disease. Nutraceuticals have received attention over the years, demonstrating potential benefits towards treating and preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including atherosclerosis. Curcumin, a potent polyphenol present in <i>Curcuma longa</i>, has shown remarkable anti-atherosclerotic activity via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. The bioavailability and low water solubility of curcumin limit its clinical translational purposes. These issues can be circumvented effectively by nano-drug delivery systems that can target atherosclerotic plaque sites. In this work, we chose to use curcumin and a natural bioenhancer called Bioperine (derived from <i>Piper nigrum</i>) inside a polymeric nano-drug delivery system for targeting atherosclerotic plaque sites. We selected two different ratios of curcumin:Bioperine to study its comparative effect on the inhibition of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)-induced foam cell formation. Our studies demonstrated that Cur-Bio PLGA NPs (both ratios) maintained the cell viability in THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages above 80% at all periods. The 1:0.2:10 ratio of Cur-Bio PLGA NPs at a concentration of 250 μg/mL illustrated an enhanced reduction in the relative cholesterol content in the THP-1-derived foam cells compared to the 1:1:10 ratio. Confocal microscopy analysis also revealed a reduction in macrophage-mediated foam cell formation when administered with both the ratios of Cur-Bio PLGA NPs. Relative fold change in the mRNA expression of the genes involved in the inflammatory pathways in the atherosclerotic process downregulated NF-κB, CCL2/MCP-1, CD-36, and STAT-3 activity while upregulating the SCAR-B1 expression when treated with the Cur-Bio PLGA NPs. This study thus highlights the importance of natural-based compounds towards the therapeutic intervention against atherosclerotic activity when administered as preventive medicine.
Project description:Curcumin has many pharmacological activities despite its poor bioavailability and in vivo stability. Here, we show that a nanoformulated curcumin (PLGA-curcumin) has better therapeutic index than native curcumin in preventing the onset of neurological symptoms and delaying the death of mice in experimental cerebral malaria. Oral PLGA-curcumin was at least as effective as native curcumin at a 15-fold lower concentration in preventing the breakdown of blood-brain barrier and inhibition of brain mRNAs for inflammatory cytokines, chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL10, with an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. This was also reflected in serum cytokine and chemokine levels. At equivalent concentrations, a single oral dose of PLGA-curcumin was more effective in inhibiting serum IFN? levels and enhancing IL-10 levels than native curcumin. Even at low concentrations, PLGA-curcumin was superior to native curcumin in inhibiting the sequestration of parasitized-RBCs and CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells in the brain. A single oral dose of 5?mg PLGA-curcumin containing 350??g of curcumin resulted in 3-4 fold higher concentration and prolonged presence of curcumin in the brain than that obtained with 5?mg of native curcumin, indicating better bioavailability of PLGA-curcumin. PLGA-curcumin has potential as an adjunct drug to treat human cerebral malaria.
Project description:Calcium phosphate materials are widely used as bone-like scaffolds or coating for metallic hip and knee implants due to their excellent biocompatibility, compositional similarity to natural bone and controllable bioresorbability. Local delivery of drugs or osteogenic factors from scaffolds and implants are required over a desired period of time for an effectual treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders. Curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule, enhances osteoblastc activity in addition to its anti-osteoclastic activity. However, due to its poor solubility and high intestinal liver metabolism, it showed limited oral efficacy in various preclinical and clinical studies. To enhance its bioavailability and to provide higher release, we have used poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL), poly ethylene glycol (PEG) and poly lactide co glycolide (PLGA) as the polymeric system to enable continuous release of curcumin from the hydroxyapatite matrix for 22 days. Additionally, curcumin was incorporated in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coated Ti6Al4V substrate to study in vitro cell material interaction using human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells for load bearing implants. MTT cell viability assay and morphological characterization by FESEM showed highest cell viability with samples coated with curcumin-PCL-PEG. Finally, 3D printed interconnected macro porous ?-TCP scaffolds were prepared and curcumin-PCL-PEG was loaded to assess the effects of curcumin on in vivo bone regeneration. The presence of curcumin in TCP results in enhanced bone formation after 6 weeks. Complete mineralized bone formation increased from 29.6 % to 44.9% in curcumin-coated scaffolds compared to pure TCP. Results show that local release of curcumin can be designed for both load bearing or non-load bearing implants with the aid of polymers, which can be considered an excellent candidate for wound healing and tissue regeneration applications in bone tissue engineering.