ASF1 is required to load histones on the HIRA complex in preparation of paternal chromatin assembly at fertilization.
ABSTRACT: Anti-Silencing Factor 1 (ASF1) is a conserved H3-H4 histone chaperone involved in both Replication-Coupled and Replication-Independent (RI) nucleosome assembly pathways. At DNA replication forks, ASF1 plays an important role in regulating the supply of H3.1/2 and H4 to the CAF-1 chromatin assembly complex. ASF1 also provides H3.3-H4 dimers to HIRA and DAXX chaperones for RI nucleosome assembly. The early Drosophila embryo is an attractive system to study chromatin assembly in a developmental context. The formation of a diploid zygote begins with the unique, genome-wide RI assembly of paternal chromatin following sperm protamine eviction. Then, within the same cytoplasm, syncytial embryonic nuclei undergo a series of rapid, synchronous S and M phases to form the blastoderm embryo. Here, we have investigated the implication of ASF1 in these two distinct assembly processes.We show that depletion of the maternal pool of ASF1 with a specific shRNA induces a fully penetrant, maternal effect embryo lethal phenotype. Unexpectedly, despite the depletion of ASF1 protein to undetectable levels, we show that asf1 knocked-down (KD) embryos can develop to various stages, thus demonstrating that ASF1 is not absolutely required for the amplification of cleavage nuclei. Remarkably, we found that ASF1 is required for the formation of the male pronucleus, although ASF1 protein does not reside in the decondensing sperm nucleus. In asf1 KD embryos, HIRA localizes to the male nucleus but is only capable of limited and insufficient chromatin assembly. Finally, we show that the conserved HIRA B domain, which is involved in ASF1-HIRA interaction, is dispensable for female fertility.We conclude that ASF1 is critically required to load H3.3-H4 dimers on the HIRA complex prior to histone deposition on paternal DNA. This separation of tasks could optimize the rapid assembly of paternal chromatin within the gigantic volume of the egg cell. In contrast, ASF1 is surprisingly dispensable for the amplification of cleavage nuclei, although chromatin integrity is likely compromised in KD embryos.
Project description:The differentiation of post-meiotic spermatids in animals is characterized by a unique reorganization of their nuclear architecture and chromatin composition. In many species, the formation of sperm nuclei involves the massive replacement of nucleosomes with protamines, followed by a phase of extreme nuclear compaction. At fertilization, the reconstitution of a nucleosome-based paternal chromatin after the removal of protamines requires the deposition of maternally provided histones before the first round of DNA replication. This process exclusively uses the histone H3 variant H3.3 and constitutes a unique case of genome-wide replication-independent (RI) de novo chromatin assembly. We had previously shown that the histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA plays a central role for paternal chromatin assembly in Drosophila. Although several conserved HIRA-interacting proteins have been identified from yeast to human, their conservation in Drosophila, as well as their actual implication in this highly peculiar RI nucleosome assembly process, is an open question. Here, we show that Yemanuclein (YEM), the Drosophila member of the Hpc2/Ubinuclein family, is essential for histone deposition in the male pronucleus. yem loss of function alleles affect male pronucleus formation in a way remarkably similar to Hira mutants and abolish RI paternal chromatin assembly. In addition, we demonstrate that HIRA and YEM proteins interact and are mutually dependent for their targeting to the decondensing male pronucleus. Finally, we show that the alternative ATRX/XNP-dependent H3.3 deposition pathway is not involved in paternal chromatin assembly, thus underlining the specific implication of the HIRA/YEM complex for this essential step of zygote formation.
Project description:Histone chaperones have been implicated in nucleosome assembly and disassembly as well as histone modification. ASF1 is a highly conserved histone H3/H4 chaperone that synergizes in vitro with two other histone chaperones, chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) and histone repression A factor (HIRA), in DNA synthesis-coupled and DNA synthesis-independent nucleosome assembly. Here, we identify mutants of histones H3.1 and H3.3 that are unable to interact with human ASF1A and ASF1B isoforms but that are still competent to bind CAF-1 and HIRA, respectively. We show that these mutant histones are inefficiently deposited into chromatin in vivo. Furthermore, we found that both ASF1A and ASF1B participate in the DNA synthesis-independent deposition of H3.3 in HeLa cells, thus highlighting an unexpected role for ASF1B in this pathway. This pathway does not require interaction of ASF1 with HIRA. We provide the first direct determination that ASF1A and ASF1B play a role in the efficiency of nucleosome assembly in vivo in human cells.
Project description:Histone variants are nonallelic isoforms of canonical histones, and they are deposited, in contrast to canonical histones, in a replication-independent (RI) manner. RI deposition of H3.3, a histone variant from the H3.3 family, is mediated in mammals by distinct pathways involving either the histone regulator A (HIRA) complex or the death-associated protein (DAXX)/?-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation protein (ATRX) complex. Here, we investigated the function of the Drosophila DAXX-like protein (DLP) by using both fly genetic approaches and protein biochemistry. DLP specifically interacts with H3.3 and shows a prominent localization on the base of the X chromosome, where it appears to act in concert with XNP, the Drosophila homolog of ATRX, in heterochromatin assembly and maintenance. The functional association between DLP and XNP is further supported by a series of experiments that illustrate genetic interactions and the DLP-XNP-dependent localization of specific chromosomal proteins. In addition, DLP both participates in the RI deposition of H3.3 and associates with anti-silencing factor 1 (ASF1). We suggest, in agreement with a recently proposed model, that DLP and ASF1 are part of a predeposition complex, which is recruited by XNP and is necessary to prevent DNA exposure in the nucleus.
Project description:In mammals, the canonical histone H3 and the variant H3.3 are assembled into chromatin through replication-coupled and replication-independent (RI) histone deposition pathways, respectively, to play distinct roles in chromatin function. H3.3 is largely associated with transcriptionally active regions via the activity of RI histone chaperone, HIRA. However, the precise role of the RI pathway and HIRA in active transcription and the mechanisms by which H3.3 affects gene activity are not known. In this study, we show that HIRA is an essential factor for muscle development by establishing MyoD activation in myotubes. HIRA and Asf1a, but not CHD1 or Asf1b, mediate H3.3 incorporation in the promoter and the critical upstream regulatory regions of the MyoD gene. HIRA and H3.3 are required for epigenetic transition into the more permissive chromatin structure for polymerase II recruitment to the promoter, regardless of transcription-associated covalent modification of histones. Our results suggest distinct epigenetic management of the master regulator with RI pathway components for cellular differentiation.
Project description:The mammalian genome encodes multiple variants of histone H3 including H3.1/H3.2 and H3.3. In contrast to H3.1/H3.2, H3.3 is enriched in the actively transcribed euchromatin and the telomeric heterochromatins. However, the mechanism for H3.3 to incorporate into the different domains of chromatin is not known. Here, taking the advantage of well-defined transcription analysis system of yeast, we attempted to understand the molecular mechanism of selective deposition of human H3.3 into actively transcribed genes. We show that there are systemic H3 substrate-selection mechanisms operating even in yeasts, which encode a single type of H3. Yeast HIR complex mediated H3-specific recognition specificity for deposition of H3.3 in the transcribed genes. A critical component of this process was the H3 A-IG code composed of amino acids 87, 89 and 90. The preference toward H3.3 was completely lost when HIR subunits were absent and partially suppressed by human HIRA. Asf1 allows the influx of H3, regardless of H3 type. We propose that H3.3 is introduced into the active euchromatin by targeting the recycling pathway that is mediated by HIRA (or HIR), and this H3-selection mechanism is highly conserved through the evolution. These results also uncover an unexpected role of RI chaperones in evolution of variant H3s.
Project description:The organization of chromatin affects all aspects of nuclear DNA metabolism in eukaryotes. H3.3 is an evolutionarily conserved histone variant and a key substrate for replication-independent chromatin assembly. Elimination of chromatin remodeling factor CHD1 in Drosophila embryos abolishes incorporation of H3.3 into the male pronucleus, renders the paternal genome unable to participate in zygotic mitoses, and leads to the development of haploid embryos. Furthermore, CHD1, but not ISWI, interacts with HIRA in cytoplasmic extracts. Our findings establish CHD1 as a major factor in replacement histone metabolism in the nucleus and reveal a critical role for CHD1 in the earliest developmental instances of genome-scale, replication-independent nucleosome assembly. Furthermore, our results point to the general requirement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-utilizing motor proteins for histone deposition in vivo.
Project description:Histone chaperones prevent promiscuous histone interactions before chromatin assembly. They guarantee faithful deposition of canonical histones and functionally specialized histone variants into chromatin in a spatial- and temporally-restricted manner. Here, we identify the binding partners of the primate-specific and H3.3-related histone variant H3.Y using several quantitative mass spectrometry approaches, and biochemical and cell biological assays. We find the HIRA, but not the DAXX/ATRX, complex to recognize H3.Y, explaining its presence in transcriptionally active euchromatic regions. Accordingly, H3.Y nucleosomes are enriched in the transcription-promoting FACT complex and depleted of repressive post-translational histone modifications. H3.Y mutational gain-of-function screens reveal an unexpected combinatorial amino acid sequence requirement for histone H3.3 interaction with DAXX but not HIRA, and for H3.3 recruitment to PML nuclear bodies. We demonstrate the importance and necessity of specific H3.3 core and C-terminal amino acids in discriminating between distinct chaperone complexes. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing experiments reveal that in contrast to euchromatic HIRA-dependent deposition sites, human DAXX/ATRX-dependent regions of histone H3 variant incorporation are enriched in heterochromatic H3K9me3 and simple repeat sequences. These data demonstrate that H3.Y's unique amino acids allow a functional distinction between HIRA and DAXX binding and its consequent deposition into open chromatin.
Project description:Unlike the core histones, which are incorporated into nucleosomes concomitant with DNA replication, histone H3.3 is synthesized throughout the cell cycle and utilized for replication-independent (RI) chromatin assembly. The RI incorporation of H3.3 into nucleosomes is highly conserved and occurs at both euchromatin and heterochromatin. However, neither the mechanism of H3.3 recruitment nor its essential function is well understood. Several different chaperones regulate H3.3 assembly at distinct sites. The H3.3 chaperone, Daxx, and the chromatin-remodeling factor, ATRX, are required for H3.3 incorporation and heterochromatic silencing at telomeres, pericentromeres, and the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. By evaluating H3.3 dynamics at a CMV promoter-regulated transcription site in a genetic background in which RI chromatin assembly is blocked, we have been able to decipher the regulatory events upstream of RI nucleosomal deposition. We find that at the activated transcription site, H3.3 accumulates with sense and antisense RNA, suggesting that it is recruited through an RNA-mediated mechanism. Sense and antisense transcription also increases after H3.3 knockdown, suggesting that the RNA signal is amplified when chromatin assembly is blocked and attenuated by nucleosomal deposition. Additionally, we find that H3.3 is still recruited after Daxx knockdown, supporting a chaperone-independent recruitment mechanism. Sequences in the H3.3 N-terminal tail and ?N helix mediate both its recruitment to RNA at the activated transcription site and its interaction with double-stranded RNA in vitro. Interestingly, the H3.3 gain-of-function pediatric glioblastoma mutations, G34R and K27M, differentially affect H3.3 affinity in these assays, suggesting that disruption of an RNA-mediated regulatory event could drive malignant transformation.
Project description:The HIRA chaperone complex, comprised of HIRA, UBN1, and CABIN1, collaborates with histone-binding protein ASF1a to incorporate histone variant H3.3 into chromatin in a DNA replication-independent manner. To better understand HIRA's function and mechanism, we integrated HIRA, UBN1, ASF1a, and histone H3.3 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and gene expression analyses. Most HIRA-binding sites colocalize with UBN1, ASF1a, and H3.3 at active promoters and active and weak/poised enhancers. At promoters, binding of HIRA/UBN1/ASF1a correlates with the level of gene expression. HIRA is required for deposition of histone H3.3 at its binding sites. There are marked differences in nucleosome and coregulator composition at different classes of HIRA-bound regulatory sites. Underscoring this, we report physical interactions between the HIRA complex and transcription factors, a chromatin insulator and an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex. Our results map the distribution of the HIRA chaperone across the chromatin landscape and point to different interacting partners at functionally distinct regulatory sites.
Project description:Efficient supply of new histones during DNA replication is critical to restore chromatin organization and maintain genome function. The histone chaperone anti-silencing function 1 (Asf1) serves a key function in providing H3.1-H4 to CAF-1 for replication-coupled nucleosome assembly. We identify Codanin-1 as a novel interaction partner of Asf1 regulating S-phase histone supply. Mutations in Codanin-1 can cause congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type I (CDAI), characterized by chromatin abnormalities in bone marrow erythroblasts. Codanin-1 is part of a cytosolic Asf1-H3.1-H4-Importin-4 complex and binds directly to Asf1 via a conserved B-domain, implying a mutually exclusive interaction with the chaperones CAF-1 and HIRA. Codanin-1 depletion accelerates the rate of DNA replication and increases the level of chromatin-bound Asf1, suggesting that Codanin-1 guards a limiting step in chromatin replication. Consistently, ectopic Codanin-1 expression arrests S-phase progression by sequestering Asf1 in the cytoplasm, blocking histone delivery. We propose that Codanin-1 acts as a negative regulator of Asf1 function in chromatin assembly. This function is compromised by two CDAI mutations that impair complex formation with Asf1, providing insight into the molecular basis for CDAI disease.