ABSTRACT: By designing a novel chiral ion-pair organocatalyst composed of chiral phosphate and DABCO-derived quaternary ammonium, highly enantioselective 3-exo iodo-cycloetherification of allyl alcohols was achieved using NIS as a halogen source. Based on this reaction, one-pot asymmetric 3-exo iodo-cycloetherification/Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement of allyl alcohols en route to enantioenriched 2-iodomethyl-2-aryl cycloalkanones was subsequently developed. Due to the participation of adjacent iodine, the Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement of 2-iodomethyl-2-aryl epoxide proceeds with unusual retention of stereoconfiguration.
Project description:A series of carbocyclization cascades of allyl ketenimines initiated through a thermal aza-Claisen rearrangement of N-phosphoryl-N-allyl ynamides is described. Interceptions of the cationic intermediate via Meerwein-Wagner rearrangements and polyene-type cyclizations en route to fused bi- and tricyclic frameworks are featured.
Project description:We report a strategy for effecting catalytic, enantioselective carbocationic rearrangements through the intermediacy of alkyl iodanes as stereodefined carbocation equivalents. Asymmetric Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements of β-substituted styrenes are catalyzed by the <i>C</i><sub>2</sub>-symmetric aryl iodide <b>1</b> to provide access to enantioenriched 1,3-difluorinated molecules possessing interesting and well-defined conformational properties. Hammett and kinetic isotope effect studies, in combination with computational investigations, reveal that two different mechanisms are operative in these rearrangement reactions, with the pathway depending on the identity of the migrating group. In reactions involving alkyl-group migration, intermolecular fluoride attack is product- and enantio-determining. In contrast, reactions in which aryl rearrangement occurs proceed through an enantiodetermining intramolecular 1,2-migration prior to fluorination. The fact that both pathways are promoted by the same chiral aryl iodide catalyst with high enantioselectivity provides a compelling illustration of generality across reaction mechanisms in asymmetric catalysis.
Project description:The synthesis of several 2,2-dialkyladamantyl-1-amines through the combination of a Ritter reaction with a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement from noradamantane alcohols is reported. Several of the novel amines displayed low micromolar activities against several H1N1 influenza virus strains, including the amantadine-resistant A/PuertoRico/8/34 strain. Most of the compounds did not show cytotoxicity for MDCK cells.
Project description:Herein we report a nickel-catalyzed asymmetric reductive aryl-allylation of aryl iodide-tethered unactivated alkenes, wherein both acyclic allyl carbonates and cyclic vinyl ethylene carbonates can serve as the coupling partners. Furthermore, the direct use of allylic alcohols as the electrophilic allyl source in this reaction is also viable in the presence of BOC anhydride. Remarkably, this reaction proceeds with high linear/branched-, <i>E</i>/<i>Z</i>- and enantio-selectivity, allowing the synthesis of various chiral indanes and dihydrobenzofurans (50 examples) containing a homoallyl-substituted quaternary stereocenter with high optical purity (90-98% <i>ee</i>). In this reductive reaction, the use of pregenerated organometallics can be circumvented, giving this process good functionality tolerance and high step-economy.
Project description:A highly enantioselective and widely applicable method for the synthesis of various chiral 2-alkyl-1-alkanols, especially those of feeble chirality, has been developed. It consists of zirconium-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes (ZACA), lipase-catalyzed acetylation, and palladium- or copper-catalyzed cross-coupling. By virtue of the high selectivity factor (E) associated with iodine, either (S)- or (R)-enantiomer of 3-iodo-2-alkyl-1-alkanols (1), prepared by ZACA reaction of allyl alcohol, can be readily purified to the level of ?99% ee by lipase-catalyzed acetylation. A variety of chiral tertiary alkyl-containing alcohols, including those that have been otherwise difficult to prepare, can now be synthesized in high enantiomeric purity by Pd- or Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling of (S)-1 or (R)-2 for introduction of various primary, secondary, and tertiary carbon groups with retention of all carbon skeletal features. These chiral tertiary alkyl-containing alcohols can be further converted into the corresponding acids with full retention of the stereochemistry. The synthetic utility of this method has been demonstrated in the highly enantioselective (?99% ee) and efficient syntheses of (R)-2-methyl-1-butanol and (R)- and (S)-arundic acids.
Project description:In this study, we developed a palladium-catalyzed atom economic asymmetric Wagner-Meerwein shift of allenylcyclobutanol substrates. It is an excellent method for creating functionalized cyclopentanones with an alpha-chiral O-tertiary center by ring expansion of allenylcyclobutanols. This reaction was initiated by hydropalladation and afforded excellent enantioselectivity as well as atom economy. This method provides an efficient route toward the synthesis of natural products such as trans-kumausyne's family, spiro ring systems. In addition, we obtained excellent diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity at the same time by using 3-monosubstituted allenylcyclobutanol.
Project description:A general reaction sequence is described that involves Nazarov cyclization followed by two sequential Wagner-Meerwein migrations, to afford spirocyclic compounds from divinyl ketones in the presence of 1 equiv of copper(II) complexes. A detailed investigation of this sequence is described including a study of substrate scope and limitations. It was found that after 4? electrocyclization, two different pathways are available to the oxyallyl cation intermediate: elimination of a proton can give the usual Nazarov cycloadduct, or ring contraction can give an alternative tertiary carbocation. After ring contraction, either [1,2]-hydride or carbon migration can occur, depending upon the substitution pattern of the substrate, to furnish spirocyclic products. The rearrangement pathway is favored over the elimination pathway when catalyst loading is high and the copper(II) counterion is noncoordinating. Several ligands were found to be effective for the reaction. Thus, the reaction sequence can be controlled by judicious choice of reaction conditions to allow selective generation of richly functionalized spirocycles. The three steps of the sequence are stereospecific: electrocyclization followed by two [1,2]-suprafacial Wagner-Meerwein shifts, the ring contraction and then a hydride, alkenyl, or aryl shift. The method allows stereospecific installation of adjacent stereocenters or adjacent quaternary centers arrayed around a cyclopentenone ring.
Project description:Under the conditions of transfer hydrogenation employing an iridium catalyst generated in situ from [Ir(cod)Cl]2, chiral phosphine ligand (R)-BINAP or (R)-Cl,MeO-BIPHEP, and m-nitrobenzoic acid, allyl acetate couples to allylic alcohols 1a-c, aliphatic alcohols 1d-l, and benzylic alcohols 1m-u to furnish products of carbonyl allylation 3a-u with exceptional levels of asymmetric induction. The very same set of optically enriched carbonyl allylation products 3a-u are accessible from enals 2a-c, aliphatic aldehydes 2d-l, and aryl aldehydes 2m-u, using iridium catalysts ligated by (-)-TMBTP or (R)-Cl,MeO-BIPHEP under identical conditions, but employing isopropanol as a hydrogen donor. A catalytically active cyclometallated complex V, which arises upon ortho-C-H insertion of iridium onto m-nitrobenzoic acid, was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The results of isotopic labeling are consistent with intervention of symmetric iridium pi-allyl intermediates or rapid interconversion of sigma-allyl haptomers through the agency of a symmetric pi-allyl. Competition experiments demonstrate rapid and reversible hydrogenation-dehydrogenation of the carbonyl partner in advance of C-C coupling. However, the coupling products, which are homoallylic alcohols, experience very little erosion of optical purity by way of redox equilibration under the coupling conditions, although isopropanol, a secondary alcohol, may serve as terminal reductant. A plausible catalytic mechanism accounting for these observations is proposed, along with a stereochemical model that accounts for the observed sense of absolute stereoinduction. This protocol for asymmetric carbonyl allylation transcends the barriers imposed by oxidation level and the use of preformed allyl metal reagents.
Project description:Under the influence of a chiral palladium catalyst, 1,1-bis(pinacolboronate) esters undergo asymmetric cross-coupling with bromoalkenes to generate nonracemic allyl boronates with high levels of enantioselectivity. The so-formed allyl boronates may be oxidized with hydrogen peroxide to provide secondary allylic alcohols or with nitrosobenzene to furnish nonracemic tertiary allylic alcohols. Mechanistic experiments suggest the operation of a pathway involving outer-sphere stereoinvertive transmetalation.
Project description:We report an asymmetric homocoupling of <i>ortho-</i>(iodo)arylphosphine oxides and <i>ortho</i>-(iodo)arylphosphonates resulting in highly enantioenriched axially chiral bisphosphine oxides and bisphosphonates. These products are readily converted to enantioenriched biaryl bisphosphines without need for chiral auxiliaries or optical resolution. This provides a practical route for the development of previously uninvestigated atroposelective biaryl bisphosphine ligands. The conditions have also proven effective for asymmetric dimerization of other, non-phosphorus-containing aryl halides.