Clinician Agreement, Self-Efficacy, and Adherence with the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The 2007 Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma provide evidence-based recommendations to improve asthma care. Limited national-level data are available about clinician agreement and adherence to these guidelines. OBJECTIVE:To assess clinician-reported adherence with specific guideline recommendations, as well as agreement with and self-efficacy to implement guidelines. METHODS:We analyzed 2012 National Asthma Survey of Physicians data for 1412 primary care clinicians and 233 asthma specialists about 4 cornerstone guideline domains: asthma control, patient education, environmental control, and pharmacologic treatment. Agreement and self-efficacy were measured using Likert scales; 2 overall indices of agreement and self-efficacy were compiled. Adherence was compared between primary care clinicians and asthma specialists. Logistic regression models assessed the association of agreement and self-efficacy indices with adherence. RESULTS:Asthma specialists expressed stronger agreement, higher self-efficacy, and greater adherence with guideline recommendations than did primary care clinicians. Adherence was low among both groups for specific core recommendations, including written asthma action plan (30.6% and 16.4%, respectively; P < .001); home peak flow monitoring, (12.8% and 11.2%; P = .34); spirometry testing (44.7% and 10.8%; P < .001); and repeated assessment of inhaler technique (39.7% and 16.8%; P < .001). Among primary care clinicians, greater self-efficacy was associated with greater adherence. For specialists, self-efficacy was associated only with increased odds of spirometry testing. Guideline agreement was generally not associated with adherence. CONCLUSIONS:Agreement with and adherence to asthma guidelines was higher for specialists than for primary care clinicians, but was low in both groups for several key recommendations. Self-efficacy was a good predictor of guideline adherence among primary care clinicians but not among specialists.
Project description:Background and objectives: Although primary care clinicians provide >60% of U.S. asthma care, no nationally representative study has examined variation in adherence among primary care groups to four cornerstone domains of the Expert Panel Report-3 asthma guidelines: assessment/monitoring, patient education, environmental assessment, and medications. We used the 2012 National Asthma Survey of Physicians: National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to compare adherence by family/general medicine practitioners (FM/GM), internists, pediatricians and Community Health Center mid-level clinicians (CHC). Methods: Adherence was self-reported (n?=?1355 clinicians). Adjusted odds of almost always adhering to each recommendation (?75% of the time) were estimated controlling for clinician/practice characteristics, and agreement and self-efficacy with guideline recommendations. Results: A higher percentage of pediatricians adhered to most assessment/monitoring recommendations compared to FM/GM and other groups (e.g. 71.6% [SE 4.0] almost always assessed daytime symptoms versus 50.6% [SE 5.1]-51.1% [SE 5.8], t-test p?<?0.05) but low percentages from all groups almost always performed spirometry (6.8% [SE 2.0]-16.8% [SE 4.7]). Pediatricians were more likely to provide asthma action/treatment plans than FM/GM and internists. Internists were more likely to assess school/work triggers than pediatricians and CHC (environmental assessment). All groups prescribed inhaled corticosteroids for daily control (84.0% [SE 3.7]-90.7% [SE 2.5]) (medications). In adjusted analyses, pediatric specialty, high self-efficacy and frequent specialist referral were associated with high adherence. Conclusions: Pediatricians were more likely to report high adherence than other clinicians. Self- efficacy and frequent referral were also associated with adherence. Adherence was higher for history-taking recommendations and lower for recommendations involving patient education, equipment and expertise.
Project description:Background:Non-pharmacological interventions including physical activity programmes, occupational therapy and caregiver education programmes have been shown to lead to better outcomes for people with dementia and their care partners. Yet, there are gaps between what is recommended in guidelines and what happens in practice. The aim of this study was to bring together clinicians working in dementia care and establish a quality improvement collaborative. The aim of the quality improvement collaborative was to increase self-reported guideline adherence to three guideline recommendations. Methods:Interrupted time series. We recruited health professionals from community, hospital and aged care settings across Australia to join the collaborative. Members of the collaborative participated in a start-up meeting, completed an online learning course with clinical and quality improvement content, formed a quality improvement plan which was reviewed by a team of experts, received feedback following an audit of their current practice and were able to share experiences with their peers. The primary outcome was self-reported adherence to their guideline recommendation of interest which was measured using checklists. Data were collected monthly over a period of 18?months, and the study used an interrupted time series design and multilevel Poisson regression analysis to evaluate changes in self-reported adherence. Results:A total of 45 health professionals (78% therapists) from different sites joined the collaborative and 28 completed all requirements. Data from 1717 checklists were included in the analyses. Over the duration of the project, there was a significant increase in clinician self-reported adherence to guideline recommendations with a 42.1% immediate increase in adherence (incidence rate ratio = 1.42; 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.87; p = 0.012). Conclusion:Health professionals working with people with dementia are interested in and willing to join a quality improvement collaborative with the goal of improving non-pharmacological aspects of care. Participation in the collaborative improved the quality of care for people with dementia as measured through self-reported adherence to guideline recommendations. Although there are challenges in implementation of guideline recommendations within dementia care, the quality improvement collaborative method was considered successful. A strength was that it equipped and empowered clinicians to lead improvement activities and allowed for heterogeneity in terms of service and setting. Trial registration:ACTRN12618000268246.
Project description:Introduction:Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for several adverse outcomes for mothers and their offspring. In Nova Scotia, Canada, approximately 60% of women experience excess GWG. Outside the pregnancy arena, a patient-centered approach has been shown to promote increased patient adherence to clinician recommendations, and increased intentions for, and attempts at, behavior change. The 5As of Healthy Pregnancy Weight Gain is a tool that assists clinicians to have patient-centered discussions about GWG. This feasibility trial examined the association between training in the use of this tool and women's self-efficacy to manage GWG, readiness to adhere to GWG guidelines, perception of their clinicians' patient-centeredness when discussing GWG, and guideline concordance of total GWG. Method:Participants were 11 family physicians who provide prenatal care and 24 of their patients who were pregnant. Physicians were randomly assigned to a single 60-minute training session in the use of the tool or usual care. Consenting patients completed measures of social support, stress, patient-perceived patient-centeredness, self-efficacy, and motivation. At the end of each woman's pregnancy, data pertaining to guideline concordance of GWG were collected. Results:Comparison of patient participants with prenatal care providers in the trained and untrained groups showed no significant difference in patient-perceived physician patient-centeredness when discussing GWG, self-efficacy to manage GWG, readiness to adhere to GWG guidelines, or GWG congruence with the guidelines. Conclusion:This feasibility study required very little time commitment and entailed minimal disruption to clinicians' practices. Nonetheless, it was very difficult to recruit clinicians for the study. Although recent theory-driven work showed that prenatal care providers have, overall, high perceived self-efficacy in discussing GWG with their patients, most studies have demonstrated that these providers do not often discuss GWG with their patients; so, there is clearly a mismatch in their perceived self-efficacy and what actually transpires.
Project description:Pharmaceutical care guidelines aim to provide recommendations for pharmaceutical care, reduce unwanted pharmacy practice variation and ultimately improve the quality of healthcare. This study evaluated community pharmacists' adherence to recommendations for the provision of care to asthma patients with first dispensing and follow-up refill encounters in The Netherlands. Data were pharmacists' self-assessment of adherence to guideline recommendations, independent observations of dispensing encounters and a nationwide questionnaire on pharmacists' views on the desirable (clinical) necessity of applying guideline recommendations to their patient population. The 21 pharmacists who performed self-assessment judged their adherence concerning inhalation instructions as high. The lowest scores were reported for recommendations to collect additional information on the type of lung disease and for asking patients' expectations, wishes and concerns. Sixty-eight dispensing encounters were observed. In 83% of the 35 first dispensing observations, inhalation instruction was provided. This percentage was lower (62%) at refill dispensings. During all encounters, pharmacy staff seldom explored patients' perceptions or responded to patients' expectations, wishes and concerns. One hundred and four pharmacists completed the feasibility questionnaire. Pharmacists judged that all patients should receive inhalation instruction at first dispensing. They regarded it necessary to check on patients' expectations, wishes and concerns regarding the treatment for only up to 70% of the patients. More efforts on guideline implementation are needed, especially on follow-up dispensings and on gaining relevant information from patients and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists still have opportunities to grow in applying a patient-tailored approach and exploring patients' individual needs, rather than providing practical information.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine 1) parent-provider communication about pediatric health/safety guidelines, 2) trust in child's provider, 3) comfort discussing guidelines, 4) agreement with guideline advice, 5) self-efficacy following guidelines, and their impact on guideline adherence. METHOD:256 parents of children ages 0-6 completed an online survey about sunscreen use, newborn Vitamin K injections, influenza vaccination, routine vaccination, car seats, infant safe sleep, furniture anchoring, large trampoline use, and firearm safety. Multivariable models regressed: 1) communication about each guideline on parents' corresponding guideline adherence; 2) trust, comfort discussing guidelines, agreement with guideline advice, self-efficacy, on parents' total guideline adherence. RESULTS:Communication about furniture anchoring (OR = 2.26), sunscreen (OR = 5.28), Vitamin K injections (OR = 3.20), influenza vaccination (OR = 13.71), routine vaccination (OR = 6.43), car seats (OR = 6.15), and infant safe sleep (OR = 3.40) related to corresponding guideline adherence (ps < 0.05). Firearm safety communication was not related to adherence (OR = 1.11, n.s.). Trampoline communication related to lower likelihood of trampoline guideline adherence (OR = 0.24, p = 0.001). Agreement with guideline advice (β = 0.35), trust (β = 0.34), self-efficacy (β = 0.45), comfort discussing guidelines (β = 0.35) positively related to total guideline adherence (ps < 0.001). CONCLUSION:Findings underscore the importance of provider communication about health/safety guidelines. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:Providers should respectfully engage and build relationships with parents to support health/safety guideline adherence.
Project description:This is the first guideline developed by the Saudi Thoracic Society for the diagnosis and management of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Local experts including pulmonologists, infectious disease specialists, thoracic surgeons, respiratory therapists, and others from adult and pediatric departments provided the best practice evidence recommendations based on the available international and local literature. The main objective of this guideline is to utilize the current published evidence to develop recommendations about management of bronchiectasis suitable to our local health-care system and available resources. We aim to provide clinicians with tools to standardize the diagnosis and management of bronchiectasis. This guideline targets primary care physicians, family medicine practitioners, practicing internists and respiratory physicians, and all other health-care providers involved in the care of the patients with bronchiectasis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Clinical care guidelines are typically developed by clinicians and researchers. Including patient and caregiver voices in guideline development may help create guidelines that are more useful for patients and consequently improve their guideline adherence. Although there is substantial research on the factors the affect providers' adherence to guidelines, there is less research on the factors that affect patients' compliance with guideline recommendations, especially among those with rare disorders. The purpose of this study is to explore factors that are likely to affect patient/caregiver adherence to endocrine and bone health recommendations for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). To do so, we used qualitative data collected as part of the study designed to develop, implement, and evaluate a new online, modified-Delphi approach to engaging patients with rare diseases and their caregivers in guideline development, using care guidelines for DMD as a case study.<h4>Methods</h4>We thematically analyzed qualitative data collected from 95 adults with DMD and their caregivers who participated in at least one round of our online Modified-Delphi panel process. Participants rated and commented on the patient-centeredness of 19 recommendations about vertical growth, weight management, bone health, and delayed puberty included in the 2018 DMD care considerations. Patient-centeredness was operationalized as the importance and acceptability of care recommendations.<h4>Results</h4>Thematic analyses revealed six factors that affect guideline adherence from the patient/caregiver perspective: content and format of recommendations, patient and provider characteristics, and social and financial factors.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study used a novel approach to exploring patient and caregiver perspectives on factors that may affect guideline adherence. The six factors identified by DMD patients and caregivers are similar to the factors affecting provider adherence and are not limited to DMD. Understanding consistency between provider- and patient/caregiver-identified barriers to following guideline recommendations can lead to developing more successful interventions for increasing guideline adherence.
Project description:Increasing dependence on advanced technologies in the 21st century has created a dilemma between the practice and business of medicine. From information technology to robotic surgery, new technologies have expanded treatment possibilities and have potentially improved patient outcomes and safety. Simultaneously, their escalating costs limit access for certain patients and health care facilities. Nevertheless, medical decisions should not simply be based on cost. Input from physicians and other health care specialists as well as adherence to best practice position statements, are vital to implementing truly cost-effective strategies in medicine. Bronchial thermoplasty (BT), a US Food and Drug Administration approved bronchoscopy procedure in difficult-to-control persistent asthma, is a prime example of a new technology facing cost and implementation challenges. We discuss the specific indications and contraindications for BT and review recent real-world experiences that can provide the foundation for building a comprehensive asthma program that provides BT for difficult-to-control asthma patients who fail national guideline treatment recommendations after an adequate clinical trial of one. We also offer insight into the barriers to implementing a successful BT program and strategies for overcoming them.
Project description:We wanted to assess newborn life support (NLS) knowledge and guideline adherence, and provide strategies to improve (neonatal) resuscitation guideline adherence. Pediatricians completed 17 multiple-choice questions (MCQ). They performed a simulated NLS scenario, using a high-fidelity manikin. The literature was systematically searched for publications regarding guideline adherence. Forty-six pediatricians participated: 45 completed the MCQ, 34 performed the scenario. Seventy-one percent (median, IQR 56-82) of the MCQ were answered correctly. Fifty-six percent performed inflation breaths ? 60 s, 24% delivered inflation breaths of 2-3 s, and 85% used adequate inspiratory pressures. Airway patency was ensured 83% (IQR 76-92) of the time. Median events/min, compression rate, and percentage of effective compressions were 138/min (IQR 130-145), 120/min (IQR 114-120), and 38% (IQR 24-48), respectively. Other adherence percentages were temperature management 50%, auscultation of initial heart rate 100%, pulse oximeter use 94%, oxygen increase 74%, and correct epinephrine dose 82%. Ten publications were identified and used for our framework. The framework may inspire clinicians, educators, researchers, and guideline developers in their attempt to improve resuscitation guideline adherence. It contains many feasible strategies to enhance professionals' knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, and team performance, as well as recommendations regarding equipment, environment, and guideline development/dissemination.Conclusion: NLS guideline adherence among pediatricians needs improvement. Our framework is meant to promote resuscitation guideline adherence. What is Known: • Inadequate newborn life support (NLS) may contribute to (long-term) pulmonary and cerebral damage. • Video-based assessment of neonatal resuscitations has shown that deviations from the NLS guideline occur frequently; this assessment method has its audiovisual shortcomings. What is New: • The resuscitation quality metrics provided by our high-fidelity manikin suggest that the adherence of Dutch general pediatricians to the NLS guideline is suboptimal. • We constructed a comprehensive framework, containing multiple strategies to improve (neonatal) resuscitation guideline adherence.
Project description:Background Oral anticoagulation therapy has proven beneficial impact on the prevention of thromboembolic events. However, the use of antocoagulatns also increases the risk of bleeds. To maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of the treatment, guidance on appropriate use of oral anticoagulants is essential. An international guideline describing relevant components and requirements for pharmaceutical care for patients receiving a therapy woth oral antocoagulants would increase the quality of care. However, recommendations on pharmaceutical care for patients on anticoagulation is lacking. Objective This study aims to develop an interprofessional guideline to support patients in their use of oral anticoagulation therapy. Method Two systematic literature searches were performed on existing guidelines on the management and interventions to improve-oral anticoagulant use, to generate possible recommendations. Subsequently, an international expert panel with 26 pharmacists with extensive experience in clinical and/or scientific work on anticoagulation from a total of 22 European and 4 non-European countries was constituted. With this (geographically well distributed) expert panel, a four-round internet-based Delphi technique was conducted to reach consensus on their relevance. Items were ranked on a 1-10 scale of agreement. A median agreement score of ??7.5 was considered the threshold for consensus. Levels of importance were rated on a 1-3 scale. Setting A global network of 26 pharmacists specialized in oral antocoagulation therapy. Main outcome measure Development of inter-professional guideline. Results After the four Delphi rounds 18 guideline recommendations were formulated. Consensus of opinion was achieved for all recommendations (median agreement: 8.5-10.0), whereas mean levels of importance were between 1.1 and 2.0 (SD: 0.2-0.7). The following domains were rated as most important targets for improving the care around oral anticoagulation: 'INR-monitoring', 'Transfer of care between health care settings', 'Adherence to medication', 'Patient communication and engagement', and 'Medication reconciliation and medication review'. Conclusion The 18 recommendations included in this guideline provide the base for optimization of anticoagulation care across different countries/healthcare systems. Future work involves translating the guideline recommendations into clinical practice. Once implemented, the recommendations of the guideline will support health care providers with the pharmaceutical care for patients on, oral anticoagulation which will improve the effective and safe use of these medicines.