Glycosylceramide modifies the flavor and metabolic characteristics of sake yeast.
ABSTRACT: In the manufacture of sake, Japanese traditional rice wine, sake yeast is fermented with koji, which is steamed rice fermented with the non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae. During fermentation, sake yeast requires lipids, such as unsaturated fatty acids and sterols, in addition to substances provided by koji enzymes for fermentation. However, the role of sphingolipids on the brewing characteristics of sake yeast has not been studied. In this study, we revealed that glycosylceramide, one of the sphingolipids abundant in koji, affects yeast fermentation. The addition of soy, A. oryzae, and Grifola frondosa glycosylceramide conferred a similar effect on the flavor profiles of sake yeast. In particular, the addition of A. oryzae and G. frondosa glycosylceramide were very similar in terms of the decreases in ethyl caprylate and ethyl 9-decenoate. The addition of soy glycosylceramide induced metabolic changes to sake yeast such as a decrease in glucose, increases in ethanol and glycerol and changes in several amino acids and organic acids concentrations. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, pyruvate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism were overrepresented in the cultures incubated with sake yeast and soy glycosylceramide. This is the first study of the effect of glycosylceramide on the flavor and metabolic profile of sake yeast.
Project description:Background:'Rice koji' is a solid culture of Aspergillus oryzae on steamed rice grains. Multiple parallel fermentation, wherein saccharification of rice by A. oryzae and alcohol fermentation by the budding yeast occur simultaneously, leads to the formation of a variety of ingredients of Japanese sake. In sake brewing, the degree of mycelial invasive growth into the steamed rice, called 'haze-komi', highly correlates with the digestibility and quality of rice koji, since the hyphae growing into the rice secrete amylases and digest starch. Results:In this study, we investigated mycelial distribution of GFP-tagged A. oryzae in rice koji made with different types of rice, such as sake rice and eating rice, with 50 or 90% polishing rate to remove abundant proteins and lipids near the surface. In addition, we compared transcriptomes of A. oryzae in the different types of rice koji. Finally, we found that A. oryzae increases the nuclear number and hyphal width in the course of 1-3 days cultivation. Conclusions:Our imaging analyses indicate that A. oryzae hyphae grew more deeply into 50% polished rice than 90% polished rice. The increases of nuclear number may be a selectively acquired characteristic for the high secretory capacity during the long history of cultivation of this species.
Project description:The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae is used in soy sauce koji making due to its high productivity of hydrolytic enzymes. In this study, we compared the genomes and transcriptomes of an industrial strain RD2 and a strain with decreased fermentation performance TS2, aiming to explain their phenotypic differences at the molecular level. Under the regulation of conidiation and fermentation conditions, the enhanced hydrolytic enzyme production and flavor precursor formation in RD2 described a complete expression profile necessary to maintain desirable fermentation performance. By contrast, central carbon metabolism was up-regulated in TS2 for fast growth, suggesting a conflicting relationship between mycelium growth and fermentation performance. Accumulation of mutations also lowered the fermentation performance of TS2. Our study has deepened the understanding of the metabolism and related regulatory mechanisms in desirable koji fermentation. A list of potential molecular markers identified here could facilitate targeted strain maintenance and improvement for better koji fermentation.
Project description:Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.
Project description:Aspergillus oryzae has been commonly used to make koji, meju, and soy sauce in traditional food fermentation industries. However, the metabolic behaviors of A. oryzae during fermentation in various culture environments are largely uncharacterized. Thus, we performed time resolved (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 day) secondary metabolite profiling for A. oryzae KCCM 12698 cultivated on malt extract agar and broth (MEA and MEB) under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) conditions using the ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) followed by multivariate analyses. We observed the relatively higher proportions of coumarins and oxylipins in SSF, whereas the terpenoids were abundant in SmF. Moreover, we investigated the antimicrobial efficacy of metabolites that were extracted from SSF and SmF. The SSF extracts showed higher antimicrobial activities as compared to SmF, with higher production rates of bioactive secondary metabolites viz., ketone-citreoisocoumarin, pentahydroxy-anthraquinone, hexylitaconic acid, oxylipins, and saturated fatty acids. The current study provides the underpinnings of a metabolomic framework regarding the growth and bioactive compound production for A. oryzae under the primarily employed industrial cultivation states. Furthermore, the study holds the potentials for rapid screening and MS-characterization of metabolites helpful in determining the consumer safety implications of fermented foods involving Koji mold.
Project description:The koji mold Aspergillus oryzae is widely adopted for producing rice wine, wherein koji mold saccharifies rice starch and sake yeast ferments glucose to ethanol. During rice wine brewing, the accumulating ethanol becomes a major source of stress for A. oryzae, and there is a decline in hydrolysis efficiency. However, the protective mechanisms of A. oryzae against ethanol stress are poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that ethanol adversity caused a significant inhibition of mycelium growth and conidia formation in A. oryzae, and this suppressive effect increased with ethanol concentration. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that ethanol uptake triggered internal cellular perturbations, such as irregular nuclei and the aggregation of scattered vacuoles in A. oryzae cells. Metabolic analysis uncovered an increase in fatty acid unsaturation under high ethanol conditions, in which a large proportion of stearic acid was converted into linoleic acid, and the expression of related fatty acid desaturases was activated. Our results therefore improve the understanding of ethanol adaptation mechanisms in A. oryzae and offer target genes for ethanol tolerance enhancement via genetic engineering.
Project description:Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase) were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double) in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce.
Project description:Distribution of lipids morphology and evolution of lipids during soy sauce production were studied. It was found that oil bodies fused and migrated to the outside of soybean cells after steamed, and further fused to cystidiums. And the model of soybean lipids distribution in soy sauce production was presented. Acid value increased to 34.4 mg KOH/g after koji fermentation, and it gradually decreased in the following fermentation. Linoleic acid (C18:2) decreased from 59.35% to 47.75% after 30 days of moromi fermentation. The contents of fatty acids from neutral lipids and free fatty acids increased to 20.98 and 13.47 mg/g, respectively, after moromi fermentation. Fatty acid of phospholipids increased to 8.34 mg/g during koji fermentation and reduced in the prior phase of moromi fermentation. The lipids model and analysis provide new insights into improving aroma of soy sauce and extraction lipids from soy sauce residue.
Project description:Rice koji, used early in the manufacturing process for many fermented foods, produces diverse metabolites and enzymes during fermentation. Using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography linear trap quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS), and multivariate analysis we generated the metabolite profiles of rice koji produced by fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae (RK_AO) or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (RK_BA) for different durations. Two principal components of the metabolomic data distinguished the rice koji samples according to their fermenter species and fermentation time. Several enzymes secreted by the fermenter species, including ?-amylase, protease, and ?-glucosidase, were assayed to identify differences in expression levels. This approach revealed that carbohydrate metabolism, serine-derived amino acids, and fatty acids were associated with rice koji fermentation by A. oryzae, whereas aromatic and branched chain amino acids, flavonoids, and lysophospholipids were more typical in rice koji fermentation by B. amyloliquefaciens. Antioxidant activity was significantly higher for RK_BA than for RK_AO, as were the abundances of flavonoids, including tricin, tricin glycosides, apigenin glycosides, and chrysoeriol glycosides. In summary, we have used MS-based metabolomics and enzyme activity assays to evaluate the effects of using different microbial species and fermentation times on the nutritional profile of rice koji.
Project description:At a time when the notion of microorganisms did not exist, our ancestors empirically established methods for the production of various fermentation foods: miso (bean curd seasoning) and shoyu (soy sauce), both of which have been widely used and are essential for Japanese cooking, and sake, a magical alcoholic drink consumed at a variety of ritual occasions, are typical examples. A filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, is the key organism in the production of all these traditional foods, and its solid-state cultivation (SSC) has been confirmed to be the secret for the high productivity of secretory hydrolases vital for the fermentation process. Indeed, our genome comparison and transcriptome analysis uncovered mechanisms for effective degradation of raw materials in SSC: the extracellular hydrolase genes that have been found only in the A. oryzae genome but not in A. fumigatus are highly induced during SSC but not in liquid cultivation. Also, the temperature reduction process empirically adopted in the traditional soy-sauce fermentation processes has been found to be important to keep strong expression of the A. oryzae-specific extracellular hydrolases. One of the prominent potentials of A. oryzae is that it has been successfully applied to effective degradation of biodegradable plastic. Both cutinase, responsible for the degradation of plastic, and hydrophobin, which recruits cutinase on the hydrophobic surface to enhance degradation, have been discovered in A. oryzae. Genomic analysis in concert with traditional knowledge and technology will continue to be powerful tools in the future exploration of A. oryzae.
Project description:Awamori is a traditional distilled beverage made from steamed Thai-Indica rice in Okinawa, Japan. For brewing the liquor, two microbes, local kuro (black) koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved. In contrast, that yeasts are used for ethanol fermentation throughout the world, a characteristic of Japanese fermentation industries is the use of Aspergillus molds as a source of enzymes for the maceration and saccharification of raw materials. Here we report the draft genome of a kuro (black) koji mold, A. luchuensis NBRC 4314 (RIB 2604). The total length of nonredundant sequences was nearly 34.7 Mb, comprising approximately 2,300 contigs with 16 telomere-like sequences. In total, 11,691 genes were predicted to encode proteins. Most of the housekeeping genes, such as transcription factors and N-and O-glycosylation system, were conserved with respect to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae An alternative oxidase and acid-stable ?-amylase regarding citric acid production and fermentation at a low pH as well as a unique glutamic peptidase were also found in the genome. Furthermore, key biosynthetic gene clusters of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B were absent when compared with A. niger genome, showing the safety of A. luchuensis for food and beverage production. This genome information will facilitate not only comparative genomics with industrial kuro-koji molds, but also molecular breeding of the molds in improvements of awamori fermentation.