Circulating metabolites of strawberry mediate reductions in vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in db/db mice.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular disease is 2-4-fold more prevalent in patients with diabetes. Human studies support the cardiovascular benefits of strawberry consumption but the effects of strawberry on diabetic vasculature are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that dietary strawberry supplementation attenuates vascular inflammation and dysfunction in diabetic mice. METHODS:Seven-week-old diabetic db/db mice that consumed standard diet (db/db) or diet supplemented with 2.35% freeze-dried strawberry (db/db?+?SB) for ten weeks were compared to non-diabetic control mice (db/+). Indices of vascular inflammation and dysfunction were measured. Endothelial cells (ECs) were isolated from the vasculature to determine the influence of strawberry on them. The effect of metabolites of strawberry on endothelial inflammation was determined by incubating mouse aortic ECs (MAECs) with ±5% serum, obtained from strawberry fed mice (metabolites serum) or standard diet fed mice (control serum)?±?25?mM glucose and 100??M palmitate. RESULTS:db/db mice exhibited an increased monocyte binding to vessel, elevated blood pressure, and reduced endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation compared with db/+ mice but each defect was attenuated in db/db?+?SB mice. The elevation of inflammatory molecules, NOX2 and inhibitor-?B kinase observed in ECs from db/db vs. db/+ mice was suppressed in db/db?+?SB mice. Glucose and palmitate increased endothelial inflammation in MAECs but were normalized by co-incubation with metabolites serum. CONCLUSIONS:Dietary supplementation of strawberry attenuates indices of vascular inflammation and dysfunction in diabetic db/db mice. The effect of strawberry on vasculature is endothelial-dependent and possibly mediated through their circulating metabolites. Strawberry might complement conventional therapies to improve vascular complications in diabetics.
Project description:Hyperglycemia-induced vascular inflammation resulting in the adhesion of monocytes to endothelium is a key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes. We investigated whether epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin found in green tea, reduces vascular inflammation in diabetes.Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were pretreated with green tea catechins before the addition of high glucose (25 mM) for 72 h. EGCG at physiologically achievable concentration (1 ?M) significantly inhibited high glucose induced adhesion of monocytes to HAEC both in static and under flow conditions. EGCG also reduced nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) regulated transcriptional activity in ECs. Six-week-old diabetic db/db mice were fed a diet containing 0% or 0.1% EGCG for 8 weeks. ECs were isolated from aortic vessels of db/db, db/db-EGCG, and control db/+ mice. EGCG supplementation greatly suppressed diabetes-increased monocytes adhesion to ECs, which is associated with reduced circulating levels of chemokines, and reduced secretions of chemokines and adhesion molecules by aortic ECs from db/db-EGCG mice. EGCG treatment reduced nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 in aortic vessels, decreased blood pressure and serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in db/db-EGCG mice.EGCG may have a direct protective effect against vascular inflammation in diabetes.
Project description:The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the development and progression of diabetic vascular complications. In high-glucose (HG) conditions, endothelial cells (ECs) act as the first barrier to damaging stimuli and trigger a multi-response, including EC and VSMC crosstalk. However, the crosstalk pathways between ECs and VSMCs under HG conditions remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the roles and underlying mechanism of exosomes derived from ECs in the crosstalk between ECs and VSMCs. Our results showed that mouse aortic endothelial cell (MAEC)-secreted exosomes could promote the proliferation and inhibit the apoptosis of VSMCs induced by HG. Furthermore, we isolated the exosomes secreted by MAECs and found that exosomes derived from MAECs that were exposed to HG could transfer circHIPK3, which is enriched in MAEC-derived exosomes, to VSMCs. Exosomal circHIPK3 promoted the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of VSMCs. circHIPK3 sponged miR-106a-5p to relieve its repression of forkhead box O1 (Foxo1) expression. The increased expression of Foxo1 acted as a transcription factor to promote Vcam1 expression, thus facilitating the uptake of MAEC-derived exosomes by VSMCs. The results of this study suggested that exosomal circHIPK3 derived from MAECs promotes the proliferation of VSMCs induced by HG via the miR-106a-5p/Foxo1/Vcam1 pathway.
Project description:Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-secreting T helper 17 cells were recently identified as a CD4(+) T helper subset and implicated in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The issues of whether and by what mechanism hyperlipidemic stress induces IL-17A to activate aortic endothelial cells (ECs) and enhance monocyte adhesion remained largely unknown. Using biochemical, immunological, microarray, experimental data mining analysis, and pathological approaches focused on primary human and mouse aortic ECs (HAECs and MAECs) and our newly generated apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-/-)/IL-17A(-/-) mice, we report the following new findings. 1) The hyperlipidemia stimulus oxidized low density lipoprotein up-regulated IL-17 receptor(s) in HAECs and MAECs. 2) IL-17A activated HAECs and increased human monocyte adhesion in vitro. 3) A deficiency of IL-17A reduced leukocyte adhesion to endothelium in vivo. 3) IL-17A activated HAECs and MAECs via up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), chemokine CXC motif ligand 1 (CXCL1), and CXCL2. 4) IL-17A activated ECs specifically via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway; the inhibition of p38 MAPK in ECs attenuated IL-17A-mediated activation by ameliorating the expression of the aforementioned proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and EC adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that IL-17A activates aortic ECs specifically via p38 MAPK pathway.
Project description:Background: Improved glycemic control and cardiovascular function are major benefits of regular exercise training (ET) in type 2 diabetes. Recent work has demonstrated that ET improves cardiac and vascular functions independent of obesity, inflammation, and glucose control in the diabetic db/db mouse. In this study, we determined whether ET can overcome the effects of elevated inflammatory cytokines and hyperglycemia on markers of cardiac angiogenesis and inflammation in the diabetic mouse. Methods: Male diabetic db/db mice were assigned to a sedentary and exercise-trained group. Sedentary lean control littermates were used as controls. ET was performed at moderate intensity on a treadmill 5 days a week for a period of 8 weeks. After ET, blood was collected for assay of glucose, hemoglobin (HB and HB1AC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and IL-6. Markers of inflammation and insulin resistance (IL-6, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-?]) and angiogenesis (endothelial nitric oxide synthase [eNOS], vascular endothelial growth factor-A [VEGF-A], and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? [HIF-1?]) were measured in hearts. Results: Diabetic db/db mice remained obese and hyperglycemic after ET. Percent total HB and HB1AC were significantly higher in ET db/db mice compared to sedentary db/db mice, indicating further deterioration of glucose control with ET. Plasma levels of CRP and IL-6 were higher in sedentary db/db mice compared to control mice and were unaffected by ET. However, in the presence of hyperglycemia and elevated plasma cytokines, protein expression of eNOS, mRNA expression of VEGF-A, and HIF-1? was increased in db/db hearts after ET. On the other hand, protein expression of TNF-? and mRNA expression IL-6 and IL-1? was significantly decreased by ET in hearts of db/db mice. Conclusion: Our results indicate that ET improves cardiac markers of angiogenesis, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in the db/db mouse. This was observed independently of obesity, hyperglycemia, and the systemic inflammatory state.
Project description:Bariatric surgery is emerging as an effective method to alleviate a multitude of medical conditions associated with morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the effects and mechanisms of bariatric surgery on visceral fat inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. We hypothesize that bariatric surgery ameliorates interferon-?-mediated adipose tissue inflammation/oxidative stress and improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetic mice.Control mice (m Lepr(db)) and diabetic mice (Lepr(db)) were treated with either sham surgery or improved gastric bypass surgery and then were evaluated at 5, 10, 20, and 30 days to assess postsurgical effects. Surgery reduced body weight, abdominal adiposity, blood glucose level, and food intake in Lepr(db). The surgery-induced decrease in visceral adiposity was accompanied by amelioration of T-lymphocytes and macrophage infiltration, as well as reduction in the expression of interferon-? and other inflammatory cytokines in the mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) of Lepr(db) mice. Furthermore, surgery improved endothelium-dependent, but not endothelium-independent, vasorelaxation in small mesenteric arteries (SMA) of Lepr(db) mice. The improvement in endothelial function was largely attenuated by nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) incubation. Interferon-? treatment increased the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-? in the MAT of control mice and incubation of SMA of control mice with tumor necrosis factor-? caused impairment of endothelial function. Superoxide production in MAT/SMA and nitrotyrosine protein level in SMA were elevated in diabetic mice. Surgery reduced MAT/SMA oxidative stress in Lepr(db) mice.The amelioration of adipose tissue inflammation and the improvement of endothelial function may represent important mechanisms that result in cardiovascular benefits after bariatric surgery.
Project description:Wound healing is a physiological reparative response to injury and a well-orchestrated process that involves hemostasis, cellular migration, proliferation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition, and wound contraction and re-epithelialization. However, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are frequently afflicted with impaired wound healing that progresses into chronic wounds or diabetic ulcers, and may lead to complications including limb amputation. Herein, we investigate the potential role of microRNA-26a (miR-26a) in a diabetic model of wound healing. Expression of miR-26a is rapidly induced in response to high glucose in endothelial cells (ECs). Punch skin biopsy wounding of db/db mice revealed increased expression of miR-26a (~3.5-fold) four days post-wounding compared to that of WT mice. Local administration of a miR-26a inhibitor, LNA-anti-miR-26a, induced angiogenesis (up to ~80%), increased granulation tissue thickness (by 2.5-fold) and accelerated wound closure (53% after nine days) compared to scrambled anti-miR controls in db/db mice. These effects were independent of altered M1/M2 macrophage ratios. Mechanistically, inhibition of miR-26a increased its target gene SMAD1 in ECs nine days post-wounding of diabetic mice. In addition, high glucose reduced activity of the SMAD1-3'-UTR. Diabetic dermal wounds treated with LNA-anti-miR-26a had increased expression of ID1, a downstream modulator or SMAD1, and decreased expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p27. These findings establish miR-26a as an important regulator on the progression of skin wounds of diabetic mice by specifically regulating the angiogenic response after injury, and demonstrate that neutralization of miR-26a may serve as a novel approach for therapy.
Project description:A favorable effect of an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2i) on mortality of diabetic patients was recently reported, although mechanisms underlying that effect remained unclear. Here, we examine SGLT2i effects on survival of diabetic mice and assess factors underlying these outcomes. To examine SGLT2i treatment effects in a model of severe diabetes, we fed genetically diabetic <i>db/db</i> mice a high-fat diet and then assessed outcomes including diabetic complications between SGLT2i TA-1887-treated and control mice. We also compare effects of SGLT2i TA-1887 with those of lowering blood glucose levels via insulin treatment. Untreated <i>db/db</i> mice showed remarkable weight loss, or cachexia, while TA-1887-treated mice did not but rather continued to gain weight at later time points and decreased mortality. TA-1887 treatment prevented pancreatic beta cell death, enhanced preservation of beta cell mass and endogenous insulin secretion, and increased insulin sensitivity. Moreover, TA-1887 treatment attenuated inflammation, oxidative stress, and cellular senescence, especially in visceral white adipose tissue, and antagonized endothelial dysfunction. Insulin treatment of <i>db/db</i> mice also prevented weight loss and antagonized inflammation and oxidative stress. However, insulin treatment had less potent effects on survival and prevention of cellular senescence and endothelial dysfunction than did TA-1887 treatment. SGLT2i treatment prevents diabetic cachexia and death by preserving function of beta cells and insulin target organs and attenuating complications. SGLT2i treatment may be a promising therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes patients with morbid obesity and severe insulin resistance.
Project description:<h4>Abstract</h4> Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in diabetic patients due to the heightened oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory state in vascular tissues. Effective approaches targeting cardiovascular health for diabetic patients are urgently needed. Crocodile blood, an emerging dietary supplement, was suggested to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, which have yet to be proven in animal models. This study thereby aimed to evaluate whether crocodile blood can protect vascular function in diabetic mice against oxidation and inflammation. Diabetic db/db mice and their counterparts db/m+ mice were treated daily with crocodile blood soluble fraction (CBSF) or vehicle via oral gavage for 4 weeks before their aortae were harvested for endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) quantification using wire myograph, which is a well-established functional study for vascular function indication. Organ culture experiments culturing mouse aortae from C57BL/6 J mice with or without IL-1β and CBSF were done to evaluate the direct effect of CBSF on endothelial function. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in mouse aortae were assessed by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining with inflammatory markers in endothelial cells quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). CBSF significantly improved deteriorated EDR in db/db diabetic mice through both diet supplementation and direct culture, with suppression of ROS level in mouse aortae. CBSF also maintained EDR and reduced ROS levels in mouse aortae against the presence of pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Under the pro-inflammatory state induced by IL-1β, gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines were downregulated, while the protective transcripts UCP2 and SIRT6 were upregulated in endothelial cells. Our study suggests a novel beneficial effect of crocodile blood on vascular function in diabetic mice and that supplementation of diet with crocodile blood may act as a complementary approach to protect against vascular diseases through anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation in diabetic patients. <h4>Graphical abstract</h4> <h4>Supplementary Information</h4> The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s43014-021-00066-w.
Project description:Interferon-gamma (IFN?) has previously been associated with immuno-mediated inflammation in diet-induced obesity and type 1 diabetes. This study sought to define the role of IFN?-induced adipose tissue inflammation in endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. We examined mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) inflammation, and endothelial function of small mesenteric artery (SMA) in control mice (m Lepr(db)), diabetic mice (Lepr(db)), m Lepr(db) treated with IFN?, and Lepr(db) treated with anti-IFN? or anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (anti-MCP-1). mRNA and protein expression of IFN? and MCP-1 were increased in MAT of Lepr(db), accompanied by increased T-lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration. Anti-IFN? reduced MAT inflammatory cell infiltration and inflammatory cytokine expression in Lepr(db), while IFN? treatment showed the opposite effects in m Lepr(db). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation of SMA was impaired in Lepr(db) versus m Lepr(db), but sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced vasorelaxation was comparable. Both anti-IFN? and anti-MCP-1 improved endothelial function of Lepr(db), while IFN? treatment impaired endothelial function of m Lepr(db). Superoxide production was higher in both MAT and SMA of Lepr(db) mice, and anti-IFN? reduced MAT and SMA superoxide production. Macrophage accumulation in the adventitia of SMA, and mRNA expression of MCP-1 in SMA were increased in Lepr(db) and IFN?-treated m Lepr(db), but reduced in anti-IFN? treated Lepr(db). These findings suggest IFN? has a key role in the regulation of visceral adipose tissue inflammatory response and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.