Aurora A-dependent CENP-A phosphorylation at inner centromeres protects bioriented chromosomes against cohesion fatigue.
ABSTRACT: Sustained spindle tension applied to sister centromeres during mitosis eventually leads to uncoordinated loss of sister chromatid cohesion, a phenomenon known as "cohesion fatigue." We report that Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of serine 7 of the centromere histone variant CENP-A (p-CENP-AS7) protects bioriented chromosomes against cohesion fatigue. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable version of CENP-A (CENP-AS7A) weakens sister chromatid cohesion only when sister centromeres are under tension, providing the first evidence of a regulated mechanism involved in protection against passive cohesion loss. Consistent with this observation, p-CENP-AS7 is detected at the inner centromere where it forms a discrete domain. The depletion or inhibition of Aurora A phenocopies the expression of CENP-AS7A and we show that Aurora A is recruited to centromeres in a Bub1-dependent manner. We propose that Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of CENP-A at the inner centromere protects chromosomes against tension-induced cohesion fatigue until the last kinetochore is attached to spindle microtubules.
Project description:The ring-shaped cohesin complex links sister chromatids until their timely segregation during mitosis. Cohesin is enriched at centromeres where it provides the cohesive counterforce to bipolar tension produced by the mitotic spindle. As a consequence of spindle tension, centromeric sequences transiently split in pre-anaphase cells, in some organisms up to several micrometers. This 'centromere breathing' presents a paradox, how sister sequences separate where cohesin is most enriched. We now show that in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cohesin binding diminishes over centromeric sequences that split during breathing. We see no evidence for cohesin translocation to surrounding sequences, suggesting that cohesin is removed from centromeres during breathing. Two pools of cohesin can be distinguished. Cohesin loaded before DNA replication, which has established sister chromatid cohesion, disappears during breathing. In contrast, cohesin loaded after DNA replication is partly retained. As sister centromeres re-associate after transient separation, cohesin is reloaded in a manner independent of the canonical cohesin loader Scc2/Scc4. Efficient centromere re-association requires the cohesion establishment factor Eco1, suggesting that re-establishment of sister chromatid cohesion contributes to the dynamic behaviour of centromeres in mitosis. These findings provide new insights into cohesin behaviour at centromeres.
Project description:The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) is a master regulator of mitosis. CPC consists of inner centromere protein (INCENP), Survivin, Borealin, and the kinase Aurora B and plays key roles in regulating kinetochore-microtubule attachments and spindle assembly checkpoint signaling. However, the role of CPC in sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by the cohesin complex, remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that Aurora B kinase activity contributes to centromeric cohesion protection partly through promoting kinetochore localization of the kinase Bub1. Interestingly, disrupting the interaction of INCENP with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) in HeLa cells selectively weakens cohesion at mitotic centromeres without detectably reducing the kinase activity of Aurora B. Thus, through this INCENP-HP1 interaction, the CPC also protects centromeric cohesion independently of Aurora B kinase activity. Moreover, the requirement for the INCENP-HP1 interaction in centromeric cohesion protection can be bypassed by tethering HP1 to centromeres or by depleting the cohesin release factor Wapl. We provide further evidence suggesting that the INCENP-HP1 interaction protects centromeric cohesion by promoting the centromere localization of Haspin, a protein kinase that antagonizes Wapl activity at centromeres. Taken together, this study identifies Aurora B kinase activity-dependent and -independent roles for the CPC in regulating centromeric cohesion during mitosis in human cells.
Project description:The histone H3 variant CENP-A epigenetically defines the centromere and is critical for chromosome segregation. Here we report an interaction between CENP-A and subunits of the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex in the germline of male Drosophila. Furthermore, we report that knockdown of CENP-A, as well as subunits ATPsyn-?, -?like (a testis-specific paralogue of ATPsyn-?) and -? disrupts sister centromere cohesion in meiotic prophase I. We find that this disruption is likely independent of reduced ATP levels. We identify that ATPsyn-? and -?like localise to meiotic centromeres and that this localisation is dependent on the presence of CENP-A. We show that ATPsyn-? directly interacts with the N-terminus of CENP-A in vitro and that truncation of its N terminus perturbs sister centromere cohesion in prophase I. We propose that the CENP-A N-terminus recruits ATPsyn-? and -?like to centromeres to promote sister centromere cohesion in a nuclear function that is independent of oxidative phosphorylation.
Project description:Cohesin is a multiprotein complex that establishes sister chromatid cohesion from S phase until mitosis or meiosis. In vertebrates, sister chromatid cohesion is dissolved in a stepwise manner: most cohesins are removed from the chromosome arms via a process that requires polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), aurora B and Wapl, whereas a minor amount of cohesin, found preferentially at the centromere, is cleaved by separase following its activation by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Here, we report that our budding yeast two-hybrid assay identified hsSsu72 phosphatase as a Rad21-binding protein. Additional experiments revealed that Ssu72 directly interacts with Rad21 and SA2 in vitro and in vivo, and associates with sister chromatids in human cells. Interestingly, depletion or mutational inactivation of Ssu72 phosphatase activity caused the premature resolution of sister chromatid arm cohesion, whereas the overexpression of Ssu72 yielded high resistance to this resolution. Interestingly, it appears that Ssu72 regulates the cohesion of chromosome arms but not centromeres, and acts by counteracting the phosphorylation of SA2. Thus, our study provides important new evidence, suggesting that Ssu72 is a novel cohesin-binding protein capable of regulating cohesion between sister chromatid arms.
Project description:Centromeres play a pivotal role in maintaining genome integrity by facilitating the recruitment of kinetochore and sister-chromatid cohesion proteins, both required for correct chromosome segregation. Centromeres are epigenetically specified by the presence of the histone H3 variant (CENH3). In this study, we investigate the role of the highly conserved ?-tubulin complex protein 3-interacting proteins (GIPs) in Arabidopsis centromere regulation. We show that GIPs form a complex with CENH3 in cycling cells. GIP depletion in the gip1gip2 knockdown mutant leads to a decreased CENH3 level at centromeres, despite a higher level of Mis18BP1/KNL2 present at both centromeric and ectopic sites. We thus postulate that GIPs are required to ensure CENH3 deposition and/or maintenance at centromeres. In addition, the recruitment at the centromere of other proteins such as the CENP-C kinetochore component and the cohesin subunit SMC3 is impaired in gip1gip2. These defects in centromere architecture result in aneuploidy due to severely altered centromeric cohesion. Altogether, we ascribe a central function to GIPs for the proper recruitment and/or stabilization of centromeric proteins essential in the specification of the centromere identity, as well as for centromeric cohesion in somatic cells.
Project description:Centromere function requires the coordination of many processes including kinetochore assembly, sister chromatid cohesion, spindle attachment and chromosome movement. Here we show that CID, the Drosophila homologue of the CENP-A centromere-specific H3-like proteins, colocalizes with molecular-genetically defined functional centromeres in minichromosomes. Injection of CID antibodies into early embryos, as well as RNA interference in tissue-culture cells, showed that CID is required for several mitotic processes. Deconvolution fluorescence microscopy showed that CID chromatin is physically separate from proteins involved in sister cohesion (MEI-S332), centric condensation (PROD), kinetochore function (ROD, ZW10 and BUB1) and heterochromatin structure (HP1). CID localization is unaffected by mutations in mei-S332, Su(var)2-5 (HP1), prod or polo. Furthermore, the localization of POLO, CENP-meta, ROD, BUB1 and MEI-S332, but not PROD or HP1, depends on the presence of functional CID. We conclude that the centromere and flanking heterochromatin are physically and functionally separable protein domains that are required for different inheritance functions, and that CID is required for normal kinetochore formation and function, as well as cell-cycle progression.
Project description:Multiple interdependent mechanisms ensure faithful segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Among these, the spindle assembly checkpoint monitors attachment of spindle microtubules to the centromere of each chromosome, whereas the tension-sensing checkpoint monitors the opposing forces between sister chromatid centromeres for proper biorientation. We report here a new function for the deeply conserved Gcn5 acetyltransferase in the centromeric localization of Rts1, a key player in the tension-sensing checkpoint. Rts1 is a regulatory component of protein phopshatase 2A, a near universal phosphatase complex, which is recruited to centromeres by the Shugoshin (Sgo) checkpoint component under low-tension conditions to maintain sister chromatid cohesion. We report that loss of Gcn5 disrupts centromeric localization of Rts1. Increased RTS1 dosage robustly suppresses gcn5? cell cycle and chromosome segregation defects, including restoration of Rts1 to centromeres. Sgo1's Rts1-binding function also plays a key role in RTS1 dosage suppression of gcn5? phenotypes. Notably, we have identified residues of the centromere histone H3 variant Cse4 that function in these chromosome segregation-related roles of RTS1. Together, these findings expand the understanding of the mechanistic roles of Gcn5 and Cse4 in chromosome segregation.
Project description:The centromere plays a critical role in the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. In mammals, sister centromeres are resolved from one another in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. During prophase, chromosomes condense with sister centromeres oriented in a back to back configuration enabling only one chromatid to be captured by each half spindle. To study this process, we identified a centromere protein (CENP)-C-like protein, holocentric protein (HCP)-4, in Caenorhabditis elegans based on sequence identity, loss of function phenotype, and centromeric localization. HCP-4 is found in the cytoplasm during interphase, but is nuclear localized in mitosis, where it localizes specifically to the centromere. The localization of HCP-4 to the centromere is dependent on the centromeric histone HCP-3; in addition, HCP-3 and HCP-4 are both required for localization of a CENP-F-like protein, HCP-1, indicating an ordered assembly pathway. Loss of HCP-4 expression by RNA-mediated interference resulted in a failure to generate resolution of sister centromeres on chromosomes, suggesting that HCP-4 is required for sister centromere resolution. These chromosomes also failed to form a functional kinetochore. Thus, the CENP-C-like protein HCP-4 is essential for both resolution sister centromeres and attachment to the mitotic spindle.
Project description:Sister chromatid cohesion is essential to maintain stable connections between homologues and sister chromatids during meiosis and to establish correct centromere orientation patterns on the meiosis I and II spindles. However, the meiotic cohesion apparatus in Drosophila melanogaster remains largely uncharacterized. We describe a novel protein, sisters on the loose (SOLO), which is essential for meiotic cohesion in Drosophila. In solo mutants, sister centromeres separate before prometaphase I, disrupting meiosis I centromere orientation and causing nondisjunction of both homologous and sister chromatids. Centromeric foci of the cohesin protein SMC1 are absent in solo mutants at all meiotic stages. SOLO and SMC1 colocalize to meiotic centromeres from early prophase I until anaphase II in wild-type males, but both proteins disappear prematurely at anaphase I in mutants for mei-S332, which encodes the Drosophila homologue of the cohesin protector protein shugoshin. The solo mutant phenotypes and the localization patterns of SOLO and SMC1 indicate that they function together to maintain sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila meiosis.
Project description:Cohesion between sister chromatids is mediated by cohesin and is essential for proper meiotic segregation of both sister chromatids and homologs. solo encodes a Drosophila meiosis-specific cohesion protein with no apparent sequence homology to cohesins that is required in male meiosis for centromere cohesion, proper orientation of sister centromeres and centromere enrichment of the cohesin subunit SMC1. In this study, we show that solo is involved in multiple aspects of meiosis in female Drosophila. Null mutations in solo caused the following phenotypes: 1) high frequencies of homolog and sister chromatid nondisjunction (NDJ) and sharply reduced frequencies of homolog exchange; 2) reduced transmission of a ring-X chromosome, an indicator of elevated frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE); 3) premature loss of centromere pairing and cohesion during prophase I, as indicated by elevated foci counts of the centromere protein CID; 4) instability of the lateral elements (LE)s and central regions of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), as indicated by fragmented and spotty staining of the chromosome core/LE component SMC1 and the transverse filament protein C(3)G, respectively, at all stages of pachytene. SOLO and SMC1 are both enriched on centromeres throughout prophase I, co-align along the lateral elements of SCs and reciprocally co-immunoprecipitate from ovarian protein extracts. Our studies demonstrate that SOLO is closely associated with meiotic cohesin and required both for enrichment of cohesin on centromeres and stable assembly of cohesin into chromosome cores. These events underlie and are required for stable cohesion of centromeres, synapsis of homologous chromosomes, and a recombination mechanism that suppresses SCE to preferentially generate homolog crossovers (homolog bias). We propose that SOLO is a subunit of a specialized meiotic cohesin complex that mediates both centromeric and axial arm cohesion and promotes homolog bias as a component of chromosome cores.