MicroRNA-30a increases the chemosensitivity of U251 glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by directly targeting beclin 1 and inhibiting autophagy.
ABSTRACT: Temozolomide (TMZ) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the clinical treatment of glioblastomas. However, it has been reported that treatment with TMZ can induce autophagy, which leads to tumor resistance and increases the survival of tumor cells. MicroRNA-30a (miR-30a) has been found to have inhibitory effects on autophagy by directly targeting beclin 1. However, the exact role of miR-30a in TMZ-treated glioblastoma cells has not been studied previously. The present study aimed to investigate whether miR-30a increased the cytotoxicity of TMZ to glioblastoma U251 cells, as well as the underlying mechanism. MTT and flow cytometry assay results showed that treatment with TMZ inhibited the proliferation of U251 cells while inducing cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting data showed that the expression levels of LC3-II and beclin 1 as well as the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I were markedly increased in TMZ-treated U251 cells compared with the untreated control cells, indicating that treatment with TMZ induced autophagy. Moreover, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction data showed that treatment with TMZ led to a significant reduction in miR-30a levels in a dose-dependent manner in U251 cells. Elevation of the miR-30a level significantly inhibited TMZ-induced autophagy, demonstrated by the decreased LC3-II and beclin 1 levels and ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I, accompanied by the reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in TMZ-treated U251 cells. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay data indicated that beclin 1 was a direct target of miR-30a in U251 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that miR-30a increases the chemosensitivity of glioblastoma U251 cells to temozolomide by directly targeting beclin 1 and inhibiting autophagy. Therefore, autophagy may be a promising target for the treatment of TMZ-resistant tumors.
Project description:Autophagy is activated in cancer cells during chemotherapy and often contributes to tumor chemotherapy resistance. In this study, we characterized the role of microRNA-30a (miR-30a) in the coordination of cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy, which determines the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapy. First, the autophagy activity in cancer cells increased after cis-dichloro-diamine platinum (cis-DDP) or Taxol treatment, as indicated by the enhanced expression of beclin 1, a key regulator of autophagy, and increased number of LC3-positive autophagosomes. Second, miRNA screening using a TaqMan probe-based quantitative RT-PCR assay identified that miR-30a, a miRNA that targets beclin 1, was significantly reduced in tumor cells by cis-DDP treatment. Forced expression of miR-30a significantly reduced beclin 1 and the autophagy activity of tumor cells induced by cis-DDP. Third, the blockade of tumor cell autophagy activity by miR-30a expression or 3-methyladenine significantly increased tumor cell apoptosis induced by cis-DDP treatment. Finally, an in vivo tumor implantation mouse model clearly showed that elevation of miR-30a in implanted tumor cells by administration of the recombinant lentivirus expressing miR-30a strongly enhanced cis-DDP-induced apoptosis of tumor cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate for the first time that miR-30a can sensitize tumor cells to cis-DDP via reducing beclin 1-mediated autophagy and that increasing miR-30a level in tumor cells represents a novel approach to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy during cancer treatment.
Project description:This study aims to investigate the effect of Endothelial-Monocyte-Activating Polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) combined with temozolomide (TMZ) upon glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and its possible molecular mechanisms. In this study, combination of EMAP-II with TMZ inhibited cell viability, migration and invasion in GSCs, and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) partly reverse the anti-proliferative effect of the combination treatment. Autophagic vacuoles were formed in GSCs after the combination therapy, accompanied with the up-regulation of LC3-II and Beclin-1 as well as the down-regulation of p62/SQSTM1. Further, miR-590-3p was up-regulated and Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) was down-regulated by the combination treatment in GSCs; MiR-590-3p overexpression and MACC1 knockdown up-regulated LC3-II and Beclin-1 as well as down-regulated p62/SQSTM1 in GSCs; MACC1 was identified as a direct target of miR-590-3p, mediating the effects of miR-590-3p in the combination treatment. Furthermore, the combination treatment and MACC1 knockdown decreased p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-S6 and p-4EBP in GSCs; PI3K/Akt agonist insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) partly blocked the effect of the combination treatment. Moreover, in vivo xenograft models, the mice given stable overexpressed miR-590-3p cells and treated with EMAP-II and TMZ had the smallest tumor sizes, besides, miR-590-3p + EMAP-II + TMZ up-regulated the expression level of miR-590-3p, LC3-II and Beclin-1 as well as down-regulated p62/SQSTM1. In conclusion, these results elucidated anovel molecular mechanism of EMAP-II in combination with TMZ suppressed malignant biological behaviors of GSCs via miR-590-3p/MACC1 inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and might provide potential therapeutic approaches for human GSCs.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent malignant primary brain tumor with a very poor survival rate. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the common chemotherapeutic agent used for GBM treatment. We recently demonstrated that simvastatin (Simva) increases TMZ-induced apoptosis via the inhibition of autophagic flux in GBM cells. Considering the role of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway in the regulation of autophagy, we investigated the involvement of UPR in Simva-TMZ-induced cell death by utilizing highly selective IRE1 RNase activity inhibitor MKC8866, PERK inhibitor GSK-2606414 (PERKi), and eIF2? inhibitor salubrinal. Simva-TMZ treatment decreased the viability of GBM cells and significantly increased apoptotic cell death when compared to TMZ or Simva alone. Simva-TMZ induced both UPR, as determined by an increase in GRP78, XBP splicing, eukaryote initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) phosphorylation, and inhibited autophagic flux (accumulation of LC3?-II and inhibition of p62 degradation). IRE1 RNase inhibition did not affect Simva-TMZ-induced cell death, but it significantly induced p62 degradation and increased the microtubule-associated proteins light chain 3 (LC3)?-II/LC3?-I ratio in U87 cells, while salubrinal did not affect the Simva-TMZ induced cytotoxicity of GBM cells. In contrast, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) inhibition significantly increased Simva-TMZ-induced cell death in U87 cells. Interestingly, whereas PERK inhibition induced p62 accumulation in both GBM cell lines, it differentially affected the LC3?-II/LC3?-I ratio in U87 (decrease) and U251 (increase) cells. Simvastatin sensitizes GBM cells to TMZ-induced cell death via a mechanism that involves autophagy and UPR pathways. More specifically, our results imply that the IRE1 and PERK signaling arms of the UPR regulate Simva-TMZ-mediated autophagy flux inhibition in U251 and U87 GBM cells.
Project description:beclin 1, the mammalian homologue of the yeast Atg6, is a key autophagy-promoting gene that plays a critical role in the regulation of cell death and survival of various types of cells. However, recent studies have observed that the expression of beclin 1 is altered in certain diseases including cancers. The causes underlying the aberrant expression of beclin 1 remain largely unknown. We report here that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous, 22-24 nucleotide noncoding RNA molecules able to affect stability and translation of mRNA, may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism for regulating beclin 1 expression and autophagy. We demonstrated that beclin 1 is a potential target for miRNA miR-30a, and this miRNA could negatively regulate beclin 1 expression resulting in decreased autophagic activity. Treatment of tumor cells with the miR-30a mimic decreased, and with the antagomir increased, the expression of beclin 1 mRNA and protein. Dual luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the miR-30a binding sequences in the 3'-UTR of beclin 1 contribute to the modulation of beclin 1 expression by miR-30a. Furthermore, inhibition of beclin 1 expression by the miR-30a mimic blunted activation of autophagy induced by rapamycin. Our study of the role of miR-30a in regulating beclin 1 expression and autophagy reveals a novel function for miRNA in a critical cellular event with significant impacts in cancer development, progression and treatment, and in other diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is increasingly recognized as an important element in regulating virus-host interactions. Our previous results showed that cellular miR-30a-5p was significantly downregulated after duck enteritis virus (DEV) infection cell. However, whehter or not the miR-30a-5p is involved in DEV infection has not been known. METHODS:Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression levels of miRNAs(miR-30a-5p) and Beclin-1 mRNA. The miR-30a-5p - Beclin-1 target interactions were determined by Dual luciferase reporter assay (DLRA). Western blotting was utilized to analyze Beclin-1-mediated duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells autophagy activity. DEV titers were estimated by the median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). RESULTS:The miR-30a-5p was significantly downregulated and the Beclin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated in DEV-infected DEF cells. DLRA confirmed that miR-30a-5p directly targeted the 3'- UTR of the Beclin-1 gene. Overexpression of miR-30a-5p significantly reduced the expression level of Beclin-1protein (p?<?0.05), leading to the decrease of Beclin-1-mediated autophagy activity, which ultimately suppressed DEV replication (P?<?0.05). Whereas transfection of miR-30a-5p inhibitor increased Beclin-1-mediated autophagy and triggered DEV replication during the whole process of DEV infection (P?<?0.01). CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that miR-30a-5p can inhibit DEV replication through reducing autophagy by targeting Beclin-1. These findings suggest a new insight into virus-host interaction during DEV infection and provide a potential new antiviral therapeutic strategy against DEV infection.
Project description:Although methyltransferase has been recognized as a major element that governs the epigenetic regulation of the genome during temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients, its regulatory effect on glioblastoma chemoresistance has not been well defined. This study investigated whether DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) expression was associated with TMZ sensitivity in glioma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanism. DNMT expression was analyzed by western blotting. miR-20a promoter methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assays, respectively. The results showed that compared with parental U251 cells, DNMT1 expression was downregulated, miR-20a promoter methylation was attenuated and miR-20a levels were elevated in TMZ-resistant U251 cells. Methyltransferase inhibition by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment reduced TMZ sensitivity in U251 cells. In U251/TM cells, DNMT1 expression was negatively correlated with miR-20a expression and positively correlated with TMZ sensitivity and leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 expression; these effects were reversed by changes in miR-20a expression. DNMT1 overexpression induced an increase in U251/TM cell apoptosis that was inhibited by the miR-20a mimic, whereas DNMT1 silencing attenuated U251/TM cell apoptosis in a manner that was abrogated by miR-20a inhibitor treatment. Tumor growth of the U251/TM xenograft was inhibited by pcDNA-DNMT1 pretreatment and boosted by DNMT1-small hairpin RNA pretreatment. In summary, DNMT1 mediated chemosensitivity by reducing methylation of the microRNA-20a promoter in glioma cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chemoresistance to temozolomide (TMZ) is a major challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). We previously found that miR-519a functions as a tumor suppressor in glioma by targeting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-mediated autophagy oncogenic pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of miR-519a on TMZ chemosensitivity and autophagy in GBM cells. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways were explored. METHODS:In the present study, two stable TMZ-resistant GBM cell lines were successfully generated by exposure of parental cells to a gradually increasing TMZ concentration. After transfecting U87-MG/TMZ and U87-MG cells with miR-519a mimic or inhibitor, a series of biochemical assays such as MTT, apoptosis, and colony formation were performed to determine the chemosensitive response to TMZ. The autophagy levels in GBM cells were detected by transmission electron microscopy, LC3B protein immunofluorescence, and Western blotting analysis. Stable knockdown and overexpression of miR-519a in GBM cells were established using lentivirus. A xenograft nude mouse model and in situ brain model were used to examine the in vivo effects of miR-519a. Tumor tissue samples were collected from 48 patients with GBM and were used to assess the relationship between miR-519a and STAT3 expression. RESULTS:TMZ treatment significantly upregulated miR-519a in U87-MG cells but not in U87-MG/TMZ cells. Moreover, the expression of miR-519a and baseline autophagy levels was lower in U87-MG/TMZ cells as compared to U87-MG cells. miR-519a dramatically enhanced TMZ-induced autophagy and apoptotic cell death in U87-MG/TMZ cells, while inhibition of miR-519a promoted TMZ resistance and reduced TMZ-induced autophagy in U87-MG cells. Furthermore, miR-519a induced autophagy through modification of STAT3 expression. The in vivo results showed that miR-519a can enhance apoptosis and sensitized GBM to TMZ treatment by promoting autophagy and targeting the STAT3/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 pathway. In human GBM tissues, we found an inverse correlation between miR-519a and STAT3 expression. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggested that miR-519a increased the sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ therapy. The positive effects of miR-519a may be mediated through autophagy. In addition, miR-519a overexpression can induce autophagy by inhibiting STAT3/Bcl-2 pathway. Therefore, a combination of miR-519a and TMZ may represent an effective therapeutic strategy in GBM.
Project description:Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is an endocrine disruptor that was used to prevent adverse effects of pregnancy in women in late 1940s until early 1970s. Its use was banned following significant toxicity and negative effects not only in the mothers but also transgenerationally. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that DES induces thymic atrophy and immunosuppression in mice. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms through which DES triggers thymic atrophy, specifically autophagy. To that end, we treated C57BL/6 mice with DES, and determined expression of two autophagy-related proteins, microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 (Becn1). We observed that DES-induced thymic atrophy was associated with increased autophagy in thymocytes and significant upregulation in the expression of both Becn1 and LC3. DES also caused downregulation in the expression of miR-30a in thymocytes, and transfection studies revealed that miR-30a targeted Becn1. Upon examination of methylation status of Becn1, we noted hypomethylation of Becn1 in thymocytes of mice exposed to DES. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that DES induces autophagy in thymocytes potentially through epigenetic changes involving hypomethylation of Becn1 and down-regulation of miR-30a expression.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), the most widespread type of sarcoma, contain driver gene mutations predominantly of receptor tyrosine kinase and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha. However, the inevitable development of resistance to imatinib (IM) cannot be fully attributed to secondary driver gene mutations. In this study, we investigated the role of microRNA-30a in sensitization of GIST cells to IM in vivo and in vitro. Higher levels of miR-30a were detected in GIST-T1 cells, which were more sensitive to IM than GIST-882 cells. IM treatment also reduced miR-30a levels, indicating the possible role of miR-30a in GIST IM resistance. Subsequently, miR-30a was confirmed to be an IM sensitizer via a mechanism that was attributed to its involvement in the regulation of cell autophagy. The interaction of miR-30a and autophagy in IM treated GIST cells was found to be linked by beclin-1. Beclin-1 knockdown increased IM sensitivity in GIST cell lines. Finally, miR-30a was confirmed to enhance IM sensitivity of GIST cells in mouse tumor models. Our study provides evidence for the possible role of miR-30a in the emergence of secondary IM resistance in GIST patients, indicating a promising target for overcoming this chemoresistance.
Project description:Drug resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) contributes to the majority of tumor recurrence and treatment failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Autophagy has been reported to play a role in chemoresistance in various types of cancer, including GBM. The anticancer effect of statins is arousing great research interests and has been demonstrated to modulate autophagic function. In this study, we investigated the combinational effects of lovastatin and TMZ on treating U87 and U251 GBM cell lines. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and colony formation assays; apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry; the cellular autophagic function was detected by the EGFP-mRFP-LC3 reporter and western blot assay. The results showed that lovastatin might enhance the cytotoxicity of TMZ, increase the TMZ-induced cellular apoptosis, and impair the autophagic flux in GBM cells. Lovastatin triggered autophagy initiation possibly by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, lovastatin might impair the autophagosome-lysosome fusion machinery by suppressing LAMP2 and dynein. These results suggested that lovastatin could enhance the chemotherapy efficacy of TMZ in treating GBM cells. The mechanism may be associated with impaired autophagic flux and thereby the enhancement of cellular apoptosis. Combining TMZ with lovastatin could be a promising strategy for GBM treatment.