ABSTRACT: We report unusual photophysical properties observed on two newly designed 3-hydroxychromone derivatives exhibiting the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction. The efficiency of ESIPT reaction is greatly enhanced upon excitation with high energy quanta to S n (n > 1) levels in low-polarity solvents. Based on detailed analyses of excitation and emission spectra as well as time-resolved emission kinetics we derive that conditions, in which this phenomenon contradicting Kasha's rule is observed, are quite different from that for observation of anti-Kasha emission.
Project description:Fluorophores that can undergo excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) represent promising scaffolds for the design of compounds that show red-shifted fluorescence. Herein, we disclose new near infrared-emissive materials based on a dialkylamine-strapped 2,5-dithienylpyrrole as an ESIPT scaffold. The introduction of electron-accepting units to the terminal positions of this scaffold generates acceptor-?-donor-?-acceptor (A-?-D-?-A) type ?-conjugated compounds. Following the ESIPT, the electron-donating ability of the core scaffold increases, which results in a substantially red-shifted emission in the NIR region, while increasing the oscillator strength. The electron-accepting units play a vital role to achieve intense and red-shifted emission from the ESIPT state. The strapped dialkylamine chain that forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond is also essential to induce the ESIPT. Moreover, an extended A-?-D-?-A skeleton enables two-photon excitation with the NIR light. One of the derivatives that satisfy these features, i.e., borylethenyl-substituted 5, exhibited an intense NIR emission in polar solvents such as acetone (?em = 708 nm, ?F = 0.55) with a strong two-photon-absorption band in the NIR region.
Project description:Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer involves a photochemical isomerization and creates the opportunity for the emission of two distinct wavelengths of light from a single fluorophore. The selectivity between these two wavelengths of emission is dependent on the environment around the fluorophore and suggests the possibility for ratiometric monitoring of protein microenvironments. Unfortunately, nonspecific binding of ESIPT fluorophores does not often lead to dramatic changes in the ratio between the two wavelengths of emission. A protein binding pocket was designed to selectively discriminate between the two channels of emission available to an ESIPT fluorophore. This work is significant because it demonstrates that specific interactions between the protein and the fluorophore are essential to realize strong ratiometric differences between the two possible wavelengths of emission. The design strategies proposed here lead to an ESIPT fluorophore that can discern subtle differences in the interface between two proteins.
Project description:Two molecules, 1-hydroxypyrene-2-carbaldehyde (HP) and 1-methoxypyrene-2-carbaldehyde (MP) were explored. We investigated their photophysical properties, using experimental transient absorption and theoretical density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TDDFT). HP and MP have similar geometric conformations but exhibit entirely different photophysical properties upon excitation into the S1 state. In contrast to traditional excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in molecules that exhibit either single or dual fluorescence, HP has an unusual non-fluorescent property. Specifically, the ultrafast ESIPT process occurs in 158 fs and is followed by an intersystem crossing (ISC) component of 11.38 ps. In contrast to HP, MP undergoes only an 8 ps timescale process, which was attributed to interactions between solute and solvent. We concluded that this difference arises from intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IMHBs), which induce drastic structural alterntion upon excitation.
Project description:We describe the photophysical processes that give rise to thermally activated delayed fluorescence in the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) molecule, triquinolonobenzene (TQB). Using transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, we fully characterize prompt and delayed emission, phosphorescence, and oxygen quenching to reveal the reverse intersystem crossing mechanism (rISC). After photoexcitation and rapid ESIPT to the TQB-TB tautomer, emission from S1 is found to compete with thermally activated ISC to an upper triplet state, T2, very close in energy to S1 and limiting photoluminescence quantum yield. T2 slowly decays to the lowest triplet state, T1, via internal conversion. In the presence of oxygen, T2 is quenched to the ground state of the double proton transferred TQB-TC tautomer. Our measurements demonstrate that rISC in TQB occurs from T2 to S1 driven by thermally activated reverse internal conversion from T1 to T2 and support recent calculations by Cao et al. (Cao, Y.; Eng, J.; Penfold, T. J. Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer Dynamics for Triplet Harvesting in Organic Molecules. J. Phys. Chem. A 2019, 123, 2640-2649).
Project description:Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials have shown great potential for highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). While the current molecular design of TADF materials primarily focuses on combining donor and acceptor units, we present a novel system based on the use of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) to achieve efficient TADF without relying on the well-established donor-acceptor scheme. In an appropriately designed acridone-based compound with intramolecular hydrogen bonding, ESIPT leads to separation of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, resulting in TADF emission with a photoluminescence quantum yield of nearly 60%. High external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies of up to 14% in OLEDs using this emitter prove that efficient triplet harvesting is possible with ESIPT-based TADF materials. This work will expand and accelerate the development of a wide variety of TADF materials for high performance OLEDs.
Project description:Excited state dynamics of common yellow dye quinophthalone (QPH) was probed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Multi-exponential decay of the excited state and significant change of rate constants upon deuterium substitution indicate that uncommon nitrogen-to-oxygen excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) occurs. By performing density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations, we found that adiabatic surface crossing between the S1 and S2 states takes place in the photoreaction. Unlike most cases of ESIPT, QPH does not exhibit tautomer emission, possibly due to internal conversion or back-proton transfer. The ESIPT of QPH presents a highly interesting case also because the moieties participating in ESIPT, quinoline and aromatic carbonyl, are both traditionally considered as photobases.
Project description:Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and atoms in molecules (AIM) theory are combined to study the photoinduced excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) dynamics for eight anthraquinones (AQs) derivatives in solution. The calculated absorption and emission spectra are consistent with the available experimental data, verifying the suitability of the theory selected. The systems with the excited-state exothermic proton transfer, such as 1-HAQ, 1,5-DHAQ and TFAQ, emit completely from transfer structure (T), while the reactions for those without ESIPT including 1,4-DHAQ and AAAQ appear to be endothermic. Three reaction properties of three systems (1,8-DHAQ, DCAQ and CAAQ) are between the exothermic and endothermic, sensitive to the solvent. Energy scanning shows that 1,4-DHAQ and AAAQ exhibit the higher ESIPT energy barriers compared to 1-HAQ, 1,5-DHAQ and TFAQ with the "barrierless" ESIPT process. The ESIPT process is facilitated by the strengthening of hydrogen bonds in excited state. With AIM theory, it is observed that the change in electrons density ?(r) and potential energy density V(r) at BCP position between ground state and excited state are crucial factors to quantitatively elucidate the ESIPT.
Project description:The formation of a bis(HBO) anion is known to turn on the fluorescence to give red emission, via controlling the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). The poor stability of the formed anion, however, hampered its application. The anion stability is found to be greatly improved by attaching the anion to Zn(2+) cation (i.e., forming zinc complex), whose emission is at ?em ? 550 and 760 nm. Interestingly, addition of methanol to the zinc complex induces a remarkable red fluorescence (?em ? 630 nm, ?fl ? 0.8). With the aid of spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, UV-vis, fluorescence, and mass spectra), the structures of the zinc complexes are characterized. The emission species is identified as a dimer-like structure. The study thus reveals an effective fluorescence switching mechanism that could further advance the application of ESIPT-based sensors.
Project description:The formation of two-component molecular cocrystals can lead to the tunable excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process and emission, as first confirmed by both experimental and computational studies.
Project description:A series of five excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) emitters based on a 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole (HBO) scaffold, functionalized with a mono-or bis-(trialkylsilyl) acetylene extended spacer are presented. Investigation of their photophysical properties in solution and in the solid-state in different matrix, along with ab initio calculations gave useful insights into their optical behavior. Random lasing studies were conducted on a series of PMMA doped thin films, showing the presence of stimulated emission above the threshold of pumping energy density (ρth ≈ 0.5-2.6 mJ cm-2). In this work, the similarity of four level laser systems is discussed in light of the ESIPT photocycle.