A ratiometric two-photon probe for quantitative imaging of mitochondrial pH values.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial pH (pHmito) is known to be alkaline (near 8.0) and has emerged as a potential factor for mitochondrial function and disorder. We have developed a ratiometric two-photon probe (CMP1) for quantitative analysis of pHmito in live cells and tissues. This probe is designed to function by controlling the intramolecular charge transfer from 2-naphthol, having an ideal pKa value (7.86 ± 0.05) in the cells to monitor pHmito. This transition results in a marked yellow to red emission color change in response to pH alterations from 6.0 to 9.0. CMP1 exhibits easy loading, selective and robust staining ability of mitochondria, low cytotoxicity, and bright two-photon excited fluorescence in situ, thereby allowing quantitative imaging of the pHmito in live cells and tissues. The ratiometric TPM imaging clearly reveals that subcellular distribution of the pHmito values is heterogeneous, with the pHmito values in the perinuclear region being higher than those at the periphery of the cells. The changes of pHmito values on carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) treatment and autophagic processes were also investigated along with their morphological alterations at specific subcellular positions. We also used CMP1 to visualize the pHmito values of Parkinson's disease model astrocytes as well as living hippocampal tissues. Our results demonstrate that CMP1 will be useful as a quantitative imaging probe to study pHmito in biomedical research.
Project description:Carboxylesterases (CEs) are widely distributed enzymes in the human body that catalyze hydrolysis of various endogenous and exogenous substrates. They are directly linked to hepatic drug metabolisms and steatosis, and their regulations are important issues in pharmacological and clinical applications. In this work, we have developed an emission ratiometric two-photon probe (SE1) for quantitatively detecting CE in situ. This probe is based on a translation of intramolecular charge transfer character upon reaction with CE. It shows a sensitive blue-to-yellow emission change in response to human CE activity, easy loading into cells, insensitivity to pH and other metabolites including ROS and RNS, high photostability, and low cytotoxicity. Using live hepatocytes and liver tissues, we found that ratiometric two-photon microscopic imaging with SE1 is an effective tool for monitoring CE activities at the subcellular level in live tissues. This probe will find useful applications in biomedical research, including studies of hepatic steatosis and drug developments.
Project description:Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is important in the regulation of a variety of biological processes and is involved in various diseases. Quantitative measurement of H2O2 levels at the subcellular level is important for understanding its positive and negative effects on biological processes. Herein, a two-photon ratiometric fluorescent probe (SHP-Cyto) with a boronate-based carbamate leaving group as the H2O2 reactive trigger and 6-(benzo[d]thiazol-2'-yl)-2-(N,N-dimethylamino) naphthalene (BTDAN) as the fluorophore was synthesized and examined for its ability to detect cytosolic H2O2 in?situ. This probe, based on the specific reaction between boronate and H2O2, displayed a fluorescent color change (455 to 528?nm) in response to H2O2 in the presence of diverse reactive oxygen species in a physiological medium. In addition, ratiometric two-photon microscopy (TPM) images with SHP-Cyto revealed that H2O2 levels gradually increased from brain to kidney, skin, heart, lung, and then liver tissues. SHP-Cyto was successfully applied to the imaging of endogenously produced cytosolic H2O2 levels in live cells and various rat organs by using TPM.
Project description:Two-photon excitation (TPE) probe-based fluorescence imaging has become one of the most attractive diagnostic techniques to investigate biomolecules and biological events in live cells and tissues. At the current stage most of the TPE-based sensing is reflected by fluorescence intensity changes. Nevertheless the mere altering of intensity could be facilely affected by ambient conditions. On the other hand, TPE probes based on an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) strategy could solve this problem to some extent with a morphology change-induced emission shift. However their applications are yet constrained due to the inherent limitation of ICT, e.g. the high degree of overlap of two emissions bands and shifts of the TPE maxima. To achieve the desired TPE-based sensing and to circumvent the problems stated above, we adapted a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) strategy to develop small molecule ratiometric TPE fluorescent probes. Our FRET-based ratiometric TPE fluorescent probe displays a remarkable emission shift (up to 125 nm) with two well-resolved emission bands. Hence the ratio of these two emission bands could enable the measurement of fluorescence changes more accurately, thus further improving imaging in live cells and deep tissues. To the best of our knowledge, the current reported probe has the largest emission shift among all the small molecule ratiometric TPE fluorescent probes while the maximum TPE wavelength remains unchanged. This work has provided a FRET approach to fabricate novel small molecule ratiometric TPE fluorescent probes that improve imaging in deep tissues.
Project description:In this study, a highly specific ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe GP-BAN was developed and well-characterized to monitor dipeptidyl peptidase IV in plasma and living systems. GP-BAN was designed on the basis of the catalytic properties and substrate preference of DPP-IV, and it could be readily hydrolyzed upon addition of DPP-IV under physiological conditions. Both reaction phenotyping and inhibition assays demonstrated that GP-BAN displayed good reactivity and high selectivity towards DPP-IV over other human serine hydrolases including FAP, DPP-VIII, and DPP-IX. The probe was successfully used to monitor the real activities of DPP-IV in complex biological systems including diluted plasma, while it could be used for high throughput screening of DPP-IV inhibitors by using human plasma or tissue preparations as enzyme sources. As a two-photon fluorescent probe, GP-BAN was also successfully used for two-photon imaging of endogenous DPP-IV in living cells and tissues, and showed high ratiometric imaging resolution and deep-tissue penetration ability. Taken together, a ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe GP-BAN was developed and well-characterized for highly selective and sensitive detection of DPP-IV in complex biological systems, which could serve as a promising imaging tool to explore the biological functions and physiological roles of this key enzyme in living systems.
Project description:A ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe TNQ was developed based on quinoline platform to detect hydrazine (N2H4) with high selectivity. TNQ exhibited large two-photon absorption cross sections at 710 nm (250 GM) and excellent ratiometric two-photon fluorescent detection signal for hydrazine. TNQ was also successfully applied to selectively detect hydrazine vapor even at a concentration down to 0.05%. Cell cytotoxicity and bio-imaging studies revealed that probe TNQ was cell-permeable and could be used to detect hydrazine in living cells with low cytotoxicity under two-photon excitation.
Project description:HClO plays crucial roles in a wide range of biological and pathological processes. Recent studies have revealed that the generation of HClO has close links with the wound healing process. It's thus meaningful to develop a reliable method for monitoring HClO in wounded tissues. Toward this purpose, we herein report a rationally designed quinolone-based ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe, <b>QClO</b>, for HClO. The probe <b>QClO</b> rapidly displays a drop in blue emission and an increase of green emission in response to HClO due to the oxidation of oxathiolane. The fluorescence intensity ratio (green/blue) can serve as the ratiometric detection signal for HClO with high sensitivity. After confirming its excellent sensing performance <i>in vitro</i>, the probe was validated by detecting exogenous and endogenous HClO in living cells. The probe was capable of monitoring HClO <i>in situ</i> in the wounded tissues of mice by two-photon microscopy, which demonstrated the production profile of HClO during the wound-healing process. This work affords a simple and reliable tool for the detection and imaging of HClO, which promises to find more applications in HClO-related biological and pathological studies.
Project description:Despite the significant advantages of two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) over traditional confocal fluorescence microscopy in live-cell imaging applications, including reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching, increased depth penetration, and minimized autofluorescence, only a few metal ion-selective fluorescent probes have been designed and optimized specifically for this technique. Building upon a donor-acceptor fluorophore architecture, we developed a membrane-permeant, Zn(II)-selective fluorescent probe, chromis-1, that exhibits a balanced two-photon cross section between its free and Zn(II)-bound form and responds with a large spectral shift suitable for emission-ratiometric imaging. With a Kd of 1.5 nM and wide dynamic range, the probe is well suited for visualizing temporal changes in buffered Zn(II) levels in live cells as demonstrated with mouse fibroblast cell cultures. Moreover, given the importance of zinc in the physiology and pathophysiology of the brain, we employed chromis-1 to monitor cytoplasmic concentrations of labile Zn(II) in oligodendrocytes, an important cellular constituent of the brain, at different stages of development in cell culture. These studies revealed a decrease in probe saturation upon differentiation to mature oligodendrocytes, implying significant changes to cellular zinc homeostasis during maturation with an overall reduction in cellular zinc availability. Optimized for TPEM, chromis-1 is especially well-suited for exploring the role of labile zinc pools in live cells under a broad range of physiological and pathological conditions.
Project description:Development of sensitive and selective probes for cupric ions (Cu(2+)) at cell and tissue level is a challenging work for progress in understanding the biological effects of Cu(2+). Here, we report a ratiometric two-photon probe for Cu(2+) based on the organic-inorganic hybrids of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and Nile Blue dye. Meanwhile, Cu-free derivative of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) - E2Zn2SOD is designed as the unique receptor for Cu(2+) and conjugated on the surface of GQDs. This probe shows a blue-to-yellow color change in repose to Cu(2+), good selectivity, low cytotoxicity, long-term photostability, and insensitivity to pH over the biologically relevant pH range. The developed probe allows the direct visualization of Cu(2+) levels in live cells as well as in deep-tissues at 90-180 ?m depth through the use of two-photon microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of ascorbic acid is also evaluated on intracellular Cu(2+) binding to E2Zn2SOD by this probe.
Project description:AIMS:Quantitative imaging of glutathione (GSH) with high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for studying the roles of GSH in redox biology. To study the long-standing question of compartmentalization of GSH, especially its distribution between the nucleus and cytosol, an organelle-targeted quantitative probe is needed. RESULTS:We developed a reversible reaction-based ratiometric fluorescent probe-HaloRT-that can quantitatively measure GSH dynamics with subcellular resolution in real time. Using HaloRT, we quantitatively measured the GSH concentrations in the nucleus and cytosol of HeLa cells and primary hepatocytes under different treatment conditions and found no appreciable concentration gradients between these two organelles. Innovation and Conclusion: We developed the first reversible ratiometric GSH probe that can be universally targeted to any organelle of interest. Taking advantage of this new tool, we provided definitive evidence showing that GSH concentrations are not significantly different between the nucleus and cytosol, challenging the view of nuclear compartmentalization of GSH.
Project description:Spatiotemporal regulation of molecular activities dictates cellular function and fate. Investigation of dynamic molecular activities in live cells often requires the visualization and quantitation of fluorescent ratio image sequences with subcellular resolution and in high throughput. Hence, there is a great need for convenient software tools specifically designed with these capabilities. Here we describe a well-characterized open-source software package, Fluocell, customized to visualize pixelwise ratiometric images and calculate ratio time courses with subcellular resolution and in high throughput. Fluocell also provides group statistics and kinetic analysis functions for the quantified time courses, as well as 3D structure and function visualization for ratio images. The application of Fluocell is demonstrated by the ratiometric analysis of intensity images for several single-chain Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, allowing efficient quantification of dynamic molecular activities in a heterogeneous population of single live cells. Our analysis revealed distinct activation kinetics of Fyn kinase in the cytosolic and membrane compartments, and visualized a 4D spatiotemporal distribution of epigenetic signals in mitotic cells. Therefore, Fluocell provides an integrated environment for ratiometric live-cell image visualization and analysis, which generates high-quality single-cell dynamic data and allows the quantitative machine-learning of biophysical and biochemical computational models for molecular regulations in cells and tissues.