Hepatitis B and C: Seroprevalence, knowledge, practice and associated factors among medicine and health science students in Northeast Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT: Health care professionals, especially medical students, are at greater risk of contracting hepatitis B and C virus infections due to their occupational exposure to percutaneous injuries and other body fluids. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections among medicine and health science students in Northeast Ethiopia and to assess their knowledge and practice towards the occupational risk of viral hepatitis.A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 408 medicine and health science students during the period from March to September 2017. A pre-coded self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on students' socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge and practice of hepatitis B and C infections. Blood samples were collected and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. SPSS version 20 statistical software was used for data analysis.The seroprevalence of HBV infection was 4.2% (95% CI 2.5 to 6.1%) and 0.7% (95% CI 0.0 to 1.7%) for HCV. Older age (AOR = 15.72, 95% CI 1.57-157.3) and exposure to needlestick injury (AOR = 3.43, 95% CI 1.10-10.73) were associated with a higher risk of HBV infection. Majority of the students (80.1%) had an adequate knowledge about hepatitis B and C infection, mode of transmission and preventive measures. Only 50.0% of students had safe practice towards occupational risk of viral hepatitis infection. Almost half (49.8%) of students experienced a needlestick injury; of which, 53.2% reported the incidence, and only 39.4% had screening test result for viral hepatitis.A high seroprevalence but poor practice of hepatitis B and C virus infection was found in the study area despite their good knowledge towards occupational risk of viral hepatitis infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a world health problem with an estimated 257 million chronically infected people. Indonesia, with 7.1% prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), is classified as a moderately endemic country. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high occupational risk for HBV infection and potentially becoming transmitters for further infections. In Indonesia, the extent of hepatitis B among HCWs and specific control strategy are not available. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in HCWs from four areas in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. METHODS:A total of 467 HCWs (median age 28 years, male/female 89/378) were recruited. All HCWs were classified into three age groups (<?20-29, 30-39, and???40 years old), three work types (administration, non-intervention, and intervention), and three service periods (<?5, 5-9, and???10 years). Data on socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors were obtained by questionnaire and serum samples were tested for HBV markers (HBsAg, its antibody [anti-HBs], and antibody to core antigen [anti-HBc]. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used to determine differences in categorical variables, while risk factors were reported as odds ratios (OR). RESULTS:The prevalence of current HBV infection (HBsAg+), exposure to HBV (anti-HBc+), and immunity to HBV (anti-HBs+) was 6.2, 19.2, and 26.1%, respectively. Two thirds (66.17%) of all HCWs did not express any of HBV markers. In relation to the age groups, intervention work-type, and service period of HCWs, increasing trends were observed in the exposure to HBV (p?<?0.001, p?<?0.001, and p?<?0.010, respectively) and the immunity to HBV by natural infection (HBsAg-, anti-HBc+, anti-HBs+) (p?=?0.004, p?<?0.001, and p?<?0.010, respectively). Needlestick injury contributed the highest risk factor (OR?=?1.71; 95% CI: 1.05-2.77; p?=?0.029) for infection acquisition, which mostly occurred in the intervention group (p?=?0.046). CONCLUSION:Exposure to HBV showed significant association with HCWs' age, work type, and service period. Needlestick injury was the highest risk factor for the acquisition of HBV, with highest events in the intervention work-type. Two thirds of HCWs were still susceptible to HBV infection. Intervention strategies at the national level are required to mount prevention, control, and management of HBV infection in HCWs.
Project description:Background:Hepatitis B virus is a global problem, with 66% of all the world population living in areas where there are high levels of infection. HBV is the leading risk factor for HCC globally and accounts for at least 50% of cases of HCC. Medical and health science students, being part of the health-care system, are exposed to the infection as a risk as other health-care workers when they come in contact with patients and contaminated instruments. Objective:The main aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of hepatitis B virus infection prevention and its associated factors among health science students in Woldia University. Methods:Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 30 to May 30, 2019, among health science students of Woldia University who had previous clinical attachments. Two hundred students were selected by the systematic random sampling method. Association of dependent and independent variables was computed using a bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model. P<0.05 was considered as significantly associated. Result:The study revealed that, out of 200 participants, 96 (48%) have poor knowledge, whereas 104 (52%) showed good knowledge about HBV. Regarding the practice of participants, 79 (39.5%) of the students have good practice to prevent HBV, whereas 121 (59.5%) had poor practice towards HBV infection prevention. Conclusion:Based on the current study, greater than half of the students who participated in the study have good knowledge of hepatitis B infection prevention and most of the students have poor practice about infection prevention of hepatitis B virus.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control procedures among undergraduate dental students. METHODS: This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on students' vaccination status as well as knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control was sent to 600 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at P<0.05. RESULTS: The response rate was 85% (512 out of 600). While the vast majority of students (90%) had been vaccinated against hepatitis, only 37.4% have been assessed for anti-HBs. A total of 98.8% and 90.8% reported always wearing gloves and masks, respectively, during dental procedures. The use of protective eyewear was reported by only 29.2%. A significantly higher proportion of sixth-year students showed a positive attitude toward the treatment of patients with infectious diseases than other students of lower academic years. Approximately one-third of students reported having one or more occupational injuries while treating their patients. CONCLUSION: Although the students had good knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control, the compliance and practice levels regarding the same were low. Such findings highlight the necessity of continued infection-control education of Saudi dental students.
Project description:The discovery of autochthonous hepatitis E in industrialized countries has changed the understanding of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in these regions, now known to be mainly due to zoonotic transmission of genotype 3. The foodborne route of transmission via consumption of contaminated meat from HEV infected pigs is well documented as well as the direct occupational exposure to animal reservoirs. Accumulating evidence also points to an emerging potential threat to blood safety after the identification of viremic blood donors and the documentation of HEV-contaminated blood or blood products. Moreover, the origin of several iatrogenic cases remains unclear and porcine-derived pharmaceutic products have been suspected as a cause. Severe morbidity following HEV infection in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy and in those with severe immunodeficiency from other causes has been recently recognized as a serious consequence of this infection in industrialized countries. In Portugal no large-scale HEV seroprevalence study has been undertaken, no professional risk groups have been identified, and the risk of blood donation from HEV silent infected donors is unknown. The present paper describes seroepidemiological and molecular approaches to answer these questions.To address these issues a study protocol was designed that will approach: i) the seroprevalence of HEV among the Portuguese general population; ii) HEV infection among butchers and slaughterhouse workers (occupational risk); iii) the silent HEV infection in Portuguese blood donors (HEV transfusion-associated risk); iv) the potential HEV contamination of porcine-derived pharmaceutical products. Commercial enzyme immunoassays and real-time/conventional RT-PCR assays will be used.This study is the first evaluation of the seroepidemiological status to HEV infection of the Portuguese population, the first to potentially identify professional risk groups, and to evaluate the safety of blood and blood products and porcine-derived pharmaceutics in Portugal. It will generate valuable data applicable for preventive and control measures against HEV infection (e.g., introduction of systematic screening of blood donors, control of blood products or porcine derived pharmaceutical products), thus helping to manage the burden of this viral disease.
Project description:People with some occupational or recreational activities, such as hunters and veterinarians, may have increased risk to be infected by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). The aim of the present study was to establish whether forestry workers could be considered at a higher risk of HEV infection than a control group. One hundred and fifty sera from forestry workers and a control group of 85 sera were analysed by anti-HEV IgG antibodies detection using a commercial ELISA kit. The anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence was 14% for forestry workers and 9.4% for the control group. Comparing the risk of HEV infection in the two groups, there was no difference in the odds ratio. However, the seroprevalence in older subjects was higher in the forestry workers than in the control group. Two sera from forestry workers were also positive for anti-HEV IgM, and, in one of them, HEV-RNA was detected. Our findings showed an increase of seroprevalence with age, which is likely to reflect cumulative exposure to HEV over time. The occupation of forestry workers did not seem to be associated with a higher risk of HEV infection. The study provided new insights into the risk of acquiring HEV in occupational exposure workers with open-air activities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While treatment for HIV has greatly improved patient outcomes, health care workers, including nurses, remain at high risk of occupational exposure. The risk of exposure is a continuous concern in the South African health system that is overburdened by multiple stressors, including the highest HIV caseload in the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of occupational exposure to HIV, reporting and utilization of post-exposure prophylaxis, knowledge, attitudes towards HIV post-exposure prophylaxis and infection control practices amongst nurses at a tertiary hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted at Tygerberg hospital from the 4th to the 16th February 2019. Participants were front line nurses working in randomly selected wards. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from participants. RESULTS:Of the 160 participants who took part in the survey, 17 reported occupational exposure to HIV (prevalence 10.6%, 95% CI 6.7-16.6), and of the 17 exposed, 10(58.8%) reported needlestick injuries. From those who were exposed, only 10 (58.8%) reported the incidents and went on post-exposure prophylaxis. However, only 6 out of the 10 completed their treatment. Half (50%) of the participants had inadequate knowledge on HIV post-exposure prophylaxis, 83.3% had adequate attitudes towards HIV post-exposure prophylaxis and 75% had adequate infection control practices. CONCLUSION:One out of every nine nurses had occupational exposure to HIV at a major tertiary hospital with poor reporting and utilization of post-exposure prophylaxis. The high proportion of needle stick injuries highlights the need for better infection control training. Similarly, the low levels of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis knowledge show the need for structured intervention and in-service training for health care workers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hepatitis B (HB) is a viral infection that affects the liver and can lead to life-threatening conditions including cirrhosis and liver cancer. Over a billion people are estimated to be infected globally with the hepatitis B virus, with over 240 million chronically infected. Sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana is an HBV endemic area and an estimated 5%- 10% of the population in the region is infected. Research on the knowledge and vaccination status of hepatitis B in rural communities in Ghana is lacking. OBJECTIVES:The objectives of this study proposed were to assess the HBV knowledge, risk of HBV infection, and vaccination status of high school students in two rural districts of the Northern region on Ghana. METHODS:A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 426 students from two senior high schools in the Nanumba North and South districts of the Northern region of Ghana on hepatitis B knowledge and vaccination status was conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and present data on demographic and knowledge variables. A Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the differences in HBV knowledge between male and female students and between students of the two high schools that were involved in the study. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to compute the association between HBV knowledge and age of students. Logistic regression was used to develop a model to predict variables that influenced vaccination against HB. RESULTS:The results of the study showed basic but not a good knowledge of HBV among the rural high school students, with a mean score of 11.8 (SD = 1.98) out of a maximum score of 16. Descriptive statistics also revealed that only 20% of 426 students ever tested for HBV and 96 (22.5%) were vaccinated against HBV. A Mann-Whitney U test results revealed no statistically significant difference in HBV knowledge between male and female students (p = 0.688, two-tailed) and between the two high schools (p = 0.24, two-tailed). A Pearson correlation showed no relationship between age and HBV knowledge (p = 0.486). Regression analysis showed that only taking the HBV test (p <0.05) and attending Bimbilla Senior High (p = 0.032) significantly predicted vaccination against HBV infection. CONCLUSION:The results of this study has re-echoed the high prevalence of HBV in Ghana. The poor state of knowledge and a high risk of HBV infection among young adults in rural communities have also been highlighted in the findings of this study. Vaccination against the HBV infection was found to be low and consistent with other findings. Finally, HBV screening is shown to be significantly associated with vaccination against the virus, hence the need for national screening and vaccination programs.
Project description:Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. In France, hyperendemic areas including Corsica have an anti-HEV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) prevalence higher than 50%. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in three adult populations in Corsica and the risk factors associated with antibody detection. Between 2017 and 2019, a total of 930 individuals, including 467 blood donors, 393 students or university staff members and 70 patients from general practice, were tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG using the Wantai HEV IgG enzyme immunoassay kit and filled a questionnaire. The association between seropositivity and potential risk factors was tested with univariate and multivariate analyses. Out of the 930 samples, 52.3% (486/930) were seropositive-54.4% (254/467) among blood donors, 47.6% (187/393) among university students and 64.3% (45/70) among patients of general practice. Three main risk factors were identified: (i) skinning and butchering (Adjusted Odds Ratio aOR = 2.76, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] [1.51-5.37]; p-value < 10-3), (ii) consumption of a local pork live raw sausage (fittonu) (aOR = 1.95 95% CI [1.45-2.64]; p-value = 10-5), and (iii) increasing age (p-value = 0.003). Seropositivity rates between the different populations were homogeneous after age stratification. This cross-sectional study indicates a high anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in the Corsican adult population, not significantly different between women and men and increasing with age. This serosurvey also showed homogeneity regarding the exposure to HEV among three different types of populations. Finally, we confirmed the endemicity of Corsica with respect to HEV and identified a strong association between consumption of figatellu/fittonu and the practice of skinning and butchering with the detection of anti-HEV IgG.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Chronic hepatitis C (HCV), considered by the World Health Organization as one of the greatest epidemiological health hazards, often with asymptomatic clinical course and one which, due to scanty knowledge, remains a crucial risk factor of serious chronic HCV infection complications. The purpose of this study is to validate the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the validated Brief Hepatitis C Knowledge Scale (BHCKS_PL), developed by Balfour in 2009. METHODS:The study, conducted from May to July 2018, included 246 persons (68,69% females), divided into four subgroups: patients (n = 86), nursing students (n = 74), medical students (n = 28), healthcare workers (nurses and doctors; n = 58). The 19-items questionnaire contained questions designed to assess general knowledge regarding hepatitis C and the transmission risk factors. RESULTS:An evaluation by means of multiple comparisons in pairs showed that there were significant differences in the knowledge level between the group of patients and the group of nursing students (Mdn: 14.0 vs 11.0, z = 7.713, P<0.001), and between students of medicine (Mdn: 16.0 vs 11.0, z = 0.339, P<0.001) and healthcare workers (17.0 vs 11.0, z = 11.447, P<0.001). Moreover, significant differences were observed between the groups of students of nursing and medicine (Mdn: 14.0 vs 16.0, z = 3.646, P = 0.002) and healthcare workers (Mdn: 14.0 vs 17.0, z = 4.117, P<0.001). No significant differences in the knowledge level between the students of medicine and healthcare workers were observed (z = 0.377, P = 1.000). CONCLUSIONS:The completed validation suggests good BHCKS_P psychometric characteristics with the internal consistency convergent and known-groups validity. The questionnaire can be used in educational practice. The obtained results of the measurement provide information about the studied person based on the total score.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Infections caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are considered to be important health problems worldwide. The purpose of this study was to measure the general practitioners (GPs)' basic knowledge on HBV and HCV risk factors in determining their practice about this subject. METHODS: A cross-sectional type questionnaire survey was carried out at all of 32 primary healthcare centers (PHCCs) in Samsun, Turkey, between March 1 and April 31, 2002. The questionnaires were sent to 160 GPs and 129 (80.6%) of them answered the questionnaires. Knowledge, role responsibility, self-efficacy and attitudes and beliefs regarding to viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C were asked. RESULTS: Most of the GPs had adequate knowledge about transmission of HBV and HCV and also about risk factors for transmission of viruses. Most of the GPs (83.7%) were aware of recommendations for approach to a baby, born from HBsAg positive mother. They have limited facilities in diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Of the participants, 108 (83.7%) expressed that they could not diagnose HBV infections and 126 (97.7%) of them stated that they could not make the diagnoses of HCV infection in their local healthcare centers. The knowledge about treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B (21.8%) and C patients (17.8%) with elevated ALT is not sufficient. CONCLUSION: GPs' knowledge about risks of viral hepatitis was adequate in this study. They were not able to diagnose and follow up of these infections at PHCCs because of limited knowledge about chronic viral hepatitis and diagnostic facilities. GPs should be informed about current advice in diagnosis and treatment of chronic of HBV and HCV infections.