Semaphorin-3E Produced by Immature Dendritic Cells Regulates Activated Natural Killer Cells Migration.
ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) are two innate immune cells that are critical in regulating innate and adaptive immunity. Cellular functions and migratory responses of NK or DC can be further regulated in NK-DC crosstalk that involves multiple cytokine signals and/or direct cell-cell contacts. Semaphorin-3E (Sema-3E) is a member of a large family of Semaphorin proteins that play diverse regulatory functions in different biological systems upon its binding to the cognate receptors. However, possible role(s) of Sema-3E on the regulation of NK-cell functions has not been elucidated. Here, we first demonstrated that DC and NK cells expressed Sema-3E and its receptors, respectively. To formally address the importance of DC-derived Sema-3E in regulating NK-cell migration, we compared in vitro migratory responses of activated NK cells (aNKs) toward different conditioned media of DCs (immature, lipopolysaccharide- or Poly I:C-stimulated) derived from Sema-3E+/+ or Sema-3E-/- mice. We observed that aNKs exhibited enhanced migrations toward the conditioned medium of the immature Sema-3E-/- DC, when compared with that of the immature Sema-3E+/+ DC. Addition of exogenous recombinant Sema-3E to the conditioned medium of the Sema-3E-/- immature DC (iDC) abrogated such enhanced NK-cell migration. Our current work revealed a novel role of Sema-3E in limiting NK-cell migrations toward iDC in NK-DC crosstalk.
Project description:Early stages of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection are associated with local recruitment and activation of important effectors of innate immunity, i.e. natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DCs). Immature DCs (iDCs) capture HIV-1 through specific receptors and can disseminate the infection to lymphoid tissues following their migration, which is associated to a maturation process. This process is dependent on NK cells, whose role is to keep in check the quality and the quantity of DCs undergoing maturation. If DC maturation is inappropriate, NK cells will kill them ("editing process") at sites of tissue inflammation, thus optimizing the adaptive immunity. In the context of a viral infection, NK-dependent killing of infected-DCs is a crucial event required for early elimination of infected target cells. Here, we report that NK-mediated editing of iDCs is impaired if DCs are infected with HIV-1. We first addressed the question of the mechanisms involved in iDC editing, and we show that cognate NK-iDC interaction triggers apoptosis via the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-Death Receptor 4 (DR4) pathway and not via the perforin pathway. Nevertheless, once infected with HIV-1, DC(HIV) become resistant to NK-induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. This resistance occurs despite normal amounts of TRAIL released by NK cells and comparable DR4 expression on DC(HIV). The escape of DC(HIV) from NK killing is due to the upregulation of two anti-apoptotic molecules, the cellular-Flice like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (c-IAP2), induced by NK-DC(HIV) cognate interaction. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an alarmin and a key mediator of NK-DC cross-talk, was found to play a pivotal role in NK-dependent upregulation of c-FLIP and c-IAP2 in DC(HIV). Finally, we demonstrate that restoration of DC(HIV) susceptibility to NK-induced TRAIL killing can be obtained either by silencing c-FLIP and c-IAP2 by specific siRNA, or by inhibiting HMGB1 with blocking antibodies or glycyrrhizin, arguing for a key role of HMGB1 in TRAIL resistance and DC(HIV) survival. These findings provide evidence for a new strategy developed by HIV to escape immune attack, they challenge the question of the involvement of HMGB1 in the establishment of viral reservoirs in DCs, and they identify potential therapeutic targets to eliminate infected DCs.
Project description:Chemokine-driven interactions of immune cells are essential for effective antitumor immunity. Human natural killer (NK) cells can be primed by the interleukin (IL)-1-related proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 for unique helper activity, which promotes dendritic cell (DC) activation and DC-mediated induction of type-1 immune responses against cancer. Here, we show that such IL-18-primed "helper" NK cells produce high levels of the immature DC (iDC)-attracting chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 upon exposure to tumor cells or the additional inflammatory signals IFN-?, IL-15, IL-12, or IL-2. These "helper" NK cells potently attract iDCs in a CCR5-dependent mechanism and induce high DC production of CXCR3 and CCR5 ligands (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5), facilitating the subsequent recruitment of type-1 effector CD8(+) T (Teff) cells. Using cells isolated from the malignant ascites of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, we show that "helper" NK cell-inducing factors can be used to enhance local production of Teff cell-recruiting chemokines. Our findings reveal the unique chemokine expression profile of "helper" NK cells and highlight the potential for using two-signal-activated NK cells to promote homing of type-1 immune effectors to the human tumor environment.
Project description:Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is one of the most common forms of genetic cardiomyopathy characterized by excessive trabeculation and impaired myocardial compaction during fetal development. Patients with LVNC are at higher risk of developing left/right ventricular failure or both. Although the key regulators for cardiac chamber development are well studied, the role of semaphorin (Sema)/plexin signaling in this process remains poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that genetic deletion of Plxnd1, a class-3 Sema receptor in endothelial cells, leads to severe cardiac chamber defects. They were characterized by excessive trabeculation and noncompaction similar to patients with LVNC. Loss of Plxnd1 results in decreased expression of extracellular matrix proteolytic genes, leading to excessive deposition of cardiac jelly. We demonstrate that Plxnd1 deficiency is associated with an increase in Notch1 expression and its downstream target genes. In addition, inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway partially rescues the excessive trabeculation and noncompaction phenotype present in Plxnd1 mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), one of PlexinD1's known ligands, is expressed in the developing heart and is required for myocardial compaction. Collectively, our study uncovers what we believe to be a previously undescribed role of the Sema3E/PlexinD1 signaling pathway in myocardial trabeculation and the compaction process.
Project description:To explore a role for chemorepulsive axon guidance mechanisms in the regeneration of primary olfactory axons, we examined the expression of the chemorepellent semaphorin III (sema III), its receptor neuropilin-1, and collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) during regeneration of the olfactory system. In the intact olfactory system, neuropilin-1 and CRMP-2 mRNA expression define a distinct population of olfactory receptor neurons, corresponding to immature (B-50/GAP-43-positive) and a subset of mature (olfactory marker protein-positive) neurons located in the lower half of the olfactory epithelium. Sema III mRNA is expressed in pial sheet cells and in second-order olfactory neurons that are the target cells of neuropilin-1-positive primary olfactory axons. These data suggest that in the intact olfactory bulb sema III creates a molecular barrier, which helps restrict ingrowing olfactory axons to the nerve and glomerular layers of the bulb. Both axotomy of the primary olfactory nerve and bulbectomy induce the formation of new olfactory receptor neurons expressing neuropilin-1 and CRMP-2 mRNA. After axotomy, sema III mRNA is transiently induced in cells at the site of the lesion. These cells align regenerating bundles of olfactory axons. In contrast to the transient appearance of sema III-positive cells at the lesion site after axotomy, sema III-positive cells increase progressively after bulbectomy, apparently preventing regenerating neuropilin-1-positive nerve bundles from growing deeper into the lesion area. The presence of sema III in scar tissue and the concomitant expression of its receptor neuropilin-1 on regenerating olfactory axons suggests that semaphorin-mediated chemorepulsive signal transduction may contribute to the regenerative failure of these axons after bulbectomy.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DC) are professional Antigen-Presenting Cells scattered throughout antigen-exposed tissues and draining lymph nodes, and survey the body for pathogens. Their ability to migrate through tissues, a 3D environment, is essential for an effective immune response. Upon infection, recognition of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMP) by Toll-like receptors (TLR) triggers DC maturation. Mature DC (mDC) essentially use the protease-independent, ROCK-dependent amoeboid mode in vivo, or in collagen matrices in vitro. However, the mechanisms of 3D migration used by human immature DC (iDC) are still poorly characterized. Here, we reveal that human monocyte-derived DC are able to use two migration modes in 3D. In porous matrices of fibrillar collagen I, iDC adopted the amoeboid migration mode. In dense matrices of gelled collagen I or Matrigel, iDC used the protease-dependent, ROCK-independent mesenchymal migration mode. Upon TLR4 activation by LPS, mDC-LPS lose the capacity to form podosomes and degrade the matrix along with impaired mesenchymal migration. TLR2 activation by Pam3CSK4 resulted in DC maturation, podosome maintenance, and efficient mesenchymal migration. Under all these conditions, when DC used the mesenchymal mode in dense matrices, they formed 3D podosomes at the tip of cell protrusions. Using PGE2, known to disrupt podosomes in DC, we observed that the cells remained in an immature status and the mesenchymal migration mode was abolished. We also observed that, while CCL5 (attractant of iDC) enhanced both amoeboid and mesenchymal migration of iDC, CCL19 and CCL21 (attractants of mDC) only enhanced mDC-LPS amoeboid migration without triggering mesenchymal migration. Finally, we examined the migration of iDC in tumor cell spheroids, a tissue-like 3D environment. We observed that iDC infiltrated spheroids of tumor cells using both migration modes. Altogether, these results demonstrate that human DC adopt the mesenchymal mode to migrate in 3D dense environments, which relies on their capacity to form podosomes independent of their maturation status, paving the way of further investigations on in vivo DC migration in dense tissues and its regulation during infections.
Project description:The definitions of tolerogenic vs immunogenic dendritic cells (DC) remain controversial. Immature DC have been shown to induce T regulatory cells (Treg) specific for foreign and allogeneic Ags. However, we have previously reported that mature DC (mDC) prevented the onset of autoimmune diabetes, whereas immature DC (iDC) were therapeutically ineffective. In this study, islet-specific CD4(+) T cells from BDC2.5 TCR-transgenic mice were stimulated in the absence of exogenous cytokine with iDC or mDC pulsed with high- or low-affinity antigenic peptides and examined for Treg induction. Both iDC and mDC presenting low peptide doses induced weak TCR signaling via the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, resulting in significant expansion of Foxp3(+) Treg. Furthermore, unpulsed mDC, but not iDC, also induced Treg. High peptide doses induced strong Akt/mTOR signaling and favored the expansion of Foxp3(neg) Th cells. The inverse correlation of Foxp3 and Akt/mTOR signaling was also observed in DO11.10 and OT-II TCR-transgenic T cells and was recapitulated with anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation in the absence of DC. IL-6 production in these cultures correlated positively with Ag dose and inversely with Treg expansion. Studies with T cells or DC from IL-6(-/-) mice revealed that IL-6 production by T cells was more important in the inhibition of Treg induction at low Ag doses. These studies indicate that the strength of Akt/mTOR signaling, a critical T cell-intrinsic determinant for Treg vs Th induction, can be controlled by adjusting the dose of antigenic peptide. Furthermore, this operates in a dominant fashion over DC phenotype and cytokine production.
Project description:The second messengers cAMP and cGMP modulate attraction and repulsion mediated by neuronal guidance cues. We find that the Drosophila receptor guanylyl cyclase Gyc76C genetically interacts with Semaphorin 1a (Sema-1a) and physically associates with the Sema-1a receptor plexin A (PlexA). PlexA regulates Gyc76C catalytic activity in vitro, and each distinct Gyc76C protein domain is crucial for regulating Gyc76C activity in vitro and motor axon guidance in vivo. The cytosolic protein dGIPC interacts with Gyc76C and facilitates Sema-1a-PlexA/Gyc76C-mediated motor axon guidance. These findings provide an in vivo link between semaphorin-mediated repulsive axon guidance and alteration of intracellular neuronal cGMP levels.
Project description:Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) has a poor prognosis. One treatment approach, investigated here, is to reinforce antitumor immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the development and regulation of adaptive host immune responses against tumors. A major role for DCs may be as innate tumoricidal effector cells. We explored the efficacy of vaccination with immature (i)DCs, after selecting optimal conditions for generating immunostimulatory iDCs. We used two models, C57BL/6Jrj mice with ectopic tumors induced by the PAC cell line, Panc02, and genetically engineered (KIC) mice developing PAC. Therapeutic iDC-vaccination resulted in a significant reduction in tumor growth in C57BL/6Jrj mice and prolonged survival in KIC mice. Prophylactic iDC-vaccination prevented subcutaneous tumor development. These protective effects were long-lasting in Panc02-induced tumor development, but not in melanoma. iDC-vaccination impacted the immune status of the hosts by greatly increasing the percentage of CD8+ T-cells, and natural killer (NK)1.1+ cells, that express granzyme B associated with Lamp-1 and IFN-γ. Efficacy of iDC-vaccination was CD8+ T-cell-dependent but NK1.1+ cell-independent. We demonstrated the ability of DCs to produce peroxynitrites and to kill tumor cells; this killing activity involved peroxynitrites. Altogether, these findings make killer DCs the pivotal actors in the beneficial clinical outcome that accompanies antitumor immune responses. We asked whether efficacy can be improved by combining DC-vaccination with the FOLFIRINOX regimen. Combined treatment significantly increased the lifespan of KIC mice with PAC. Prolonged treatment with FOLFIRINOX clearly augmented this beneficial effect. Combining iDC-vaccination with FOLFIRINOX may therefore represent a promising therapeutic option for patients with PAC.
Project description:The transmembrane semaphorin Sema-1a acts as both a ligand and a receptor to regulate axon-axon repulsion during neural development. Pebble (Pbl), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, mediates Sema-1a reverse signaling through association with the N-terminal region of the Sema-1a intracellular domain (ICD), resulting in cytoskeletal reorganization. Here, we uncover two additional Sema-1a interacting proteins, varicose (Vari) and cheerio (Cher), each with neuronal functions required for motor axon pathfinding. Vari is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins, members of which can serve as scaffolds to organize signaling complexes. Cher is related to actin filament cross-linking proteins that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. The PDZ domain binding motif found in the most C-terminal region of the Sema-1a ICD is necessary for interaction with Vari, but not Cher, indicative of distinct binding modalities. Pbl/Sema-1a-mediated repulsive guidance is potentiated by both vari and cher Genetic analyses further suggest that scaffolding functions of Vari and Cher play an important role in Pbl-mediated Sema-1a reverse signaling. These results define intracellular components critical for signal transduction from the Sema-1a receptor to the cytoskeleton and provide insight into mechanisms underlying semaphorin-induced localized changes in cytoskeletal organization.
Project description:Viral semaphorins are semaphorin 7A (sema7A) mimics found in pox- and herpesviruses. Among herpesviruses, semaphorins are encoded by gammaherpesviruses of the Macavirus genus only. Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a macavirus that persistently infects wildebeest asymptomatically but induces malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) when transmitted to several species of susceptible ruminants and the rabbit model. MCF is caused by the activation/proliferation of latently infected T lymphocytes. Viral semaphorins have been suggested to mediate immune evasion mechanisms and/or directly alter host T cell function. We studied AlHV-sema, the viral semaphorin encoded by the A3 gene of AlHV-1. Phylogenetic analyses revealed independent acquisition of pox- and herpesvirus semaphorins, suggesting that these proteins might have distinct functions. AlHV-sema showed a predicted three-dimensional structure very similar to sema7A and conserved key residues in sema7A-plexinC1 interaction. Expression analyses revealed that AlHV-sema is a secreted 93-kDa glycoprotein expressed during the early phase of virus replication. Purified AlHV-sema was able to bind to fibroblasts and dendritic cells and induce F-actin condensation and cell retraction through a plexinC1 and Rho/cofilin-dependent mechanism. Cytoskeleton rearrangement was further associated with inhibition of phagocytosis by dendritic cells and migration to the draining lymph node. Next, we generated recombinant viruses and demonstrated that the lack of A3 did not significantly affect virus growth in vitro and did not impair MCF induction and associated lymphoproliferative lesions. In conclusion, AlHV-sema has immune evasion functions through mechanisms similar to poxvirus semaphorin but is not directly involved in host T cell activation during MCF.Whereas most poxviruses encode viral semaphorins, semaphorin-like genes have only been identified in few gammaherpesviruses belonging to the Macavirus genus. Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a macavirus carried asymptomatically by wildebeest but induces a latency-associated lymphoproliferative disease of T lymphocytes in various ruminant species, namely, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). Viral semaphorins have been hypothesized to have immune evasion functions and/or be involved in activating latently infected T cells. We present evidence that the viral semaphorin AlHV-sema inhibits dendritic cell phagocytosis and migration to the draining lymph node, both being indispensable mechanisms for protective antiviral responses. Next, we engineered recombinant viruses unable to express AlHV-sema and demonstrated that this protein is dispensable for the induction of MCF. In conclusion, this study suggests that herpesvirus and poxvirus semaphorins have independently evolved similar functions to thwart the immune system of the host while AlHV-sema is not directly involved in MCF-associated T-cell activation.