COL4A5 and LAMA5 variants co-inherited in familial hematuria: digenic inheritance or genetic modifier effect?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:About 40-50% of patients with familial microscopic hematuria (FMH) caused by thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) inherit heterozygous mutations in collagen IV genes (COL4A3, COL4A4). On long follow-up, the full phenotypic spectrum of these patients varies a lot, ranging from isolated MH or MH plus low-grade proteinuria to chronic renal failure of variable degree, including end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS:Here, we performed Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) in patients of six families, presenting with autosomal dominant FMH, with or without progression to proteinuria and loss of renal function, all previously found negative for severe collagen IV mutations. Hierarchical filtering of the WES data was performed, followed by mutation prediction analysis, Sanger sequencing and genetic segregation analysis. RESULTS:In one family with four patients, we found evidence for the contribution of two co-inherited variants in two crucial genes expressed in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM); LAMA5-p.Pro1243Leu and COL4A5-p.Asp654Tyr. Mutations in COL4A5 cause classical X-linked Alport Syndrome, while rare mutations in the LAMA5 have been reported in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The phenotypic spectrum of the patients includes hematuria, proteinuria, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, loss of kidney function and renal cortical cysts. CONCLUSIONS:A modifier role of LAMA5 on the background of a hypomorphic Alport syndrome causing mutation is a possible explanation of our findings. Digenic inheritance is another scenario, following the concept that mutations at both loci more accurately explain the spectrum of symptoms, but further investigation is needed under this concept. This is the third report linking a LAMA5 variant with human renal disease and expanding the spectrum of genes involved in glomerular pathologies accompanied by familial hematurias. The cystic phenotype overlaps with that of a mouse model, which carried a Lama5 hypomorphic mutation that caused severely reduced Lama5 protein levels and produced kidney cysts.
Project description:A novel COL4A5 mutation causes rapid progression to end-stage renal disease in males, despite the absence of clinical and biopsy findings associated with Alport syndrome. Affected males have proteinuria, variable hematuria, and an early progression to end-stage renal disease. Renal biopsy findings include global and segmental glomerulosclerosis, mesangial hypercellularity and basement membrane immune complex deposition. Exon sequencing of the COL4A5 locus identified a thymine to guanine transversion at nucleotide 665, resulting in a phenylalanine to cysteine missense mutation at codon 222. The phenylalanine at position 222 is absolutely conserved among vertebrates. This mutation was confirmed in 4 affected males and 4 female obligate carriers, but was absent in 6 asymptomatic male family members and 198 unrelated individuals. Immunostaining for ?5(IV) collagen in renal biopsies from affected males was normal. This mutation, in a non-collagenous interruption associated with severe renal disease, provides evidence for the importance of this structural motif and suggests the range of phenotypes associated with COL4A5 mutations is more diverse than previously realized. Hence, COL4A5 mutation analysis should be considered when glomerulonephritis presents in an X-linked inheritance pattern, even with a presentation distinct from Alport syndrome.
Project description:Alport syndrome is an inherited renal disorder characterized by glomerular basement membrane lesions with hematuria, proteinuria and frequent hearing defects and ocular abnormalities. The disease is associated with mutations in genes encoding ?3, ?4, or ?5 chains of type IV collagen, namely COL4A3 and COL4A4 in chromosome 2 and COL4A5 in chromosome X. In contrast to the well-known X-linked and autosomal recessive phenotypes, there is very little information about the autosomal dominant. In view of the wide spectrum of phenotypes, an exact diagnosis is sometimes difficult to achieve.We investigated a Spanish family with variable phenotype of autosomal dominant Alport syndrome using clinical, histological, and genetic analysis.Mutational analysis of COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes showed a novel heterozygous mutation (c. 998G > A; p.G333E) in exon 18 of the COL4A3 gene. Among relatives carrying the novel mutation, the clinical phenotype was variable. Two additional COL4A3 mutations were found, a Pro-Leu substitution in exon 48 (p.P1461L) and a Ser-Cys substitution in exon 49 (p.S1492C), non-pathogenics alone.Carriers of p.G333E and p.P1461L or p.S1492C mutations in COL4A3 gene appear to be more severely affected than carriers of only p.G333E mutation, and the clinical findings has an earlier onset. In this way, we could speculate on a synergistic effect of compound heterozygosity that could explain the different phenotype observed in this family.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutations in podocyte and basement membrane genes are associated with a growing spectrum of glomerular disease affecting adults and children. Investigation of familial cases has helped to build understanding of both normal physiology and disease. METHODS:We investigated a consanguineous family with a wide clinical phenotype of glomerular disease using clinical, histological, and new genetic studies. RESULTS:We report striking variability in severity of nephropathy within an X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) family. Four siblings each carried a mutant COL4A5 allele, p.(Gly953Val) and p.(Gly1033Arg). Two boys had signs limited to hematuria and mild/moderate proteinuria. In striking contrast, a sister presented with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at 8 years of age and an infant brother presented with nephrotic syndrome, progressing to ESRD by 3 years of age. Both were subsequently found to have homozygous variants in MYO1E, p.(Lys118Glu) and p.(Thr876Arg). MYO1E is a gene implicated in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and it encodes a podocyte-expressed non-muscle myosin. Bioinformatic modeling demonstrated that the collagen IV-alpha3,4,5 extracellular network connected via known protein-protein interactions to intracellular myosin 1E. CONCLUSIONS:COL4A5 and MYO1E mutations may summate to perturb common signaling pathways, resulting in more severe disease than anticipated independently. We suggest screening for MYO1E and other non-COL4 'podocyte gene' mutations in XLAS when clinical nephropathy is more severe than expected for an individual's age and sex.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alport syndrome is an inherited renal disease caused by mutations in COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5 genes. Coexisting mutations in either two of the three genes in Alport patients have been reported recently. However, the effect of heterozygous mutations in COL4A3 or COL4A4 genes in X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) patients is unclear. METHODS:Using targeted next-generation sequencing, six unrelated Chinese children were identified to have a combination of a pathogenic variant in COL4A5 and a heterozygous mutation in COL4A3 or COL4A4. They were three males and three females. Another three XLAS males each with only one pathogenic variant in COL4A5 were included. The clinical data were analyzed and compared between the males in two groups (group 1, males with a pathogenic variant in COL4A5 and a heterozygous pathogenic variant in COL4A3 or COL4A4; group 2, males with only one pathogenic variant in COL4A5). RESULTS:Patients with XLAS who also had heterozygous pathogenic COL4A3 or COL4A4 variants accounted for 1% of Alport syndrome. In this study, three children showed coexisting pathogenic variants in COL4A5 and COL4A3. Two children showed pathogenic variants in COL4A5 and COL4A4. One child had pathogenic variants in the three COL4A3-5 genes, in which the pathogenic variant in COL4A5 was de novo and the pathogenic variants in COL4A4 and COL4A3 were inherited independently (in trans). The site and type of mutations in COL4A5 were similar between the two groups. It was revealed that males in group 1 presented more severe proteinuria than males in group 2 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:The present study provides further evidence for complicated genotype in Alport syndrome. For the first time, we reported a case with three pathogenic variants in COL4A5, COL4A3, and COL4A4 genes. Moreover, we found that heterozygous pathogenic COL4A3 or COL4A4 variants are likely to make XLAS disease more serious.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS AND OBJECTIVES:alport syndrome (AS) is a progressive hereditary condition that is characterized by haematuria, proteinuria, progressive renal impairment, and end stage kidney disease (ESRD). Approximately 85% of AS patients have X-linked mutations in the COL4A5 gene that encodes type IV collagen. The aim of our study was to identify the gene responsible for glomerulopathy in a 3-generation Chinese pedigree with familial haematuria. METHODS:We examined five members of a Chinese family clinically suspected of X-linked AS caused by COL4A5 gene mutations. All 51 exons of the COL4A5 gene were screened by direct DNA sequencing. RESULTS:We identified the novel deletion mutation c. 3990_4016delCCC…TCC in COL4A5 in three affected individuals with haematuria, but the mutation was absent in the other 2 healthy family members and 100 unrelated healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS:Our result demonstrates that the mutation is pathogenic and novel and has meaningful implications for the diagnosis and genetic counselling of cases with AS. The results in the study broaden the genotypic spectrum of known mutations for AS.
Project description:COL4A5 mutations are a known cause of Alport syndrome, which typically manifests with haematuria, hearing loss and ocular symptoms. Here we report on a 16-year-old male patient with a negative family history who presented with proteinuria, progressive renal failure and haemolysis, but without overt haematuria or hearing loss. A renal biopsy revealed features of atypical IgA nephropathy, while a second biopsy a year later showed features of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, but was finally diagnosed as chronic thrombotic microangiopathy. Targeted sequencing of candidate genes for steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and congenital thrombotic microangiopathy was negative. Despite all therapeutic efforts, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, immunosuppressive therapy, plasma exchanges and rituximab, the patient progressed to end-stage renal disease. When a male cousin presented with nephrotic syndrome years later, whole-exome sequencing identified a shared disruptive COL4A5 mutation (p.F222C) that showed X-linked segregation. Thus, mutations in COL4A5 give rise to a broader spectrum of clinical presentation than commonly suspected, highlighting the benefits of comprehensive rather than candidate genetic testing in young patients with otherwise unexplained glomerular disease. Our results are in line with an increasing number of atypical presentations of single-gene disorders identified through genome-wide sequencing.
Project description:X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) is a progressive, hereditary nephropathy. Although men with XLAS usually develop end-stage renal disease before 30 years of age, some men show a milder phenotype and develop end-stage renal disease later in life. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with this milder phenotype have not been fully identified. We genetically diagnosed 186 patients with suspected XLAS between January 2006 and August 2014. Genetic examination involved: (1) extraction and analysis of genomic DNA using PCR and direct sequencing using Sanger's method and (2) next-generation sequencing to detect variant allele frequencies. We identified somatic mosaic variants in the type VI collagen, ?5 gene (COL4A5) in four patients. Interestingly, two of these four patients with variant frequencies in kidney biopsies or urinary sediment cells of ?50% showed hematuria and moderate proteinuria, whereas the other two with variant frequencies of <50% were asymptomatic or only had hematuria. De novo variants can occur even in asymptomatic male cases of XLAS resulting in mosaicism, with important implications for genetic counseling. This is the first study to show a tendency between the variant allele frequency and disease severity in male XLAS patients with somatic mosaic variants in COL4A5. Although this is a very rare status of somatic mosaicism, further analysis is needed to show this correlation in a larger population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Alport syndrome (ATS) is a hereditary nephritis with hereditary and clinical heterogeneity; the early clinical symptoms are atypical, which can easily lead to misdiagnosis. The proband, a 6-year-old girl, was found to have microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, and visual impairment at about 5 years old; the results of renal pathological examination revealed mesangial hyperplasia and IgA deposition. The proband's father exhibited gross hematuria, eye swelling, and bilateral hearing loss after the age of 5, renal function progressively decreased, and he underwent right renal allograft at the age of 23 due to renal failure. The proband and her father were clinically diagnosed as IgA nephropathy and chronic glomerulonephritis, respectively.<h4>Methods</h4>For proband, targeted exome capture sequencing was performed using the Targeted Exome Capture Kit; this kit targets 162 genes known to cause renal diseases. The identified mutation was confirmed and analyzed for cosegregation by Sanger sequencing in other family members whose gDNA was available.<h4>Results</h4>Targeted exome capture sequencing revealed a novel heterozygous variant (NM_000495, c.697delG, p.G233fs) in the COL4A5 gene of the proband; the variant was inherited from her father. The variant was likely pathogenic according to the criteria of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this study, we first report a c.697delG mutation of COL4A5 in two patients presumed IgA nephropathy and chronic glomerulonephritis. This study emphasizes on the diagnostic value of next-generation sequencing for hereditary kidney diseases to help in their timely and cost-effective diagnosis, determine appropriate treatments, and promote genetic counseling.
Project description:Alport syndrome (AS) is an inherited type IV collagen nephropathies characterized by microscopic hematuria during early childhood, the development of proteinuria and progression to end-stage renal disease. Since choosing the right therapy, even before the onset of proteinuria, can delay the onset of end-stage renal failure and improve life expectancy, the earliest possible differential diagnosis is desired. Practically, this means the identification of mutation(s) in COL4A3-A4-A5 genes. We used an efficient, next generation sequencing based workflow for simultaneous analysis of all three COL4A genes in three individuals and fourteen families involved by AS or showing different level of Alport-related symptoms. We successfully identified mutations in all investigated cases, including 14 unpublished mutations in our Hungarian cohort. We present an easy to use unified clinical/diagnostic terminology and workflow not only for X-linked but for autosomal AS, but also for Alport-related diseases. In families where a diagnosis has been established by molecular genetic analysis, the renal biopsy may be rendered unnecessary.
Project description:Alport syndrome (AS) is a familial hereditary nephropathy which is characterized by molecular abnormalities in Collagen IV a345. As more gene mutations are discovered, it has been reported that autosomal recessive disease accounts for a smaller proportion (about 4%) of AS patients than previously recognized. We report here a novel mutation in COL4A4 in a Chinese family with autosomal recessive AS. Patient 1 was a 24-year-old Chinese man. He and his brother (patient 2) had a history of proteinuria and hematuria with renal dysfunction and sensorineural deafness. Pathologic findings were consistent with Alport syndrome, and genetic analysis revealed that both patients had two heterozygous mutations, c.1423 G>T (p.Gly475Cys) in EX21/CDS20 and c.735 G>A (p.Pro245Pro) in EX12/CDS11, and that each mutation originated from their mother or father who were carriers for one of these two mutations. Both patients showed similar results by laboratory examination and histopathologic assessment. Patient 1 received ACEI treatment and ran a stable clinical course, whereas patient 2 refused ACEI treatment and had progressive deterioration of renal function. This is the first report of a novel mutation in the collagen domain of COL4A4 gene. The results add to the spectrum of mutations in COL4A4 of Alport syndrome.