Prognostic value of CD8CD45RO tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy arising from the biliary tract epithelial cells with poor prognosis. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s and programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have a prognostic impact in various solid tumors. We aimed to investigate TILs and PD-L1 expression and their clinical relevance in cholangiocarcinoma. Tumor samples from 44 patients with resected and histologically verified extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were evaluated for CD8, CD45RO and PD-L1 expression, and their correlations with clinicopathological data and survival data were analyzed. Total 44 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues were evaluated. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s were observed in 30 (68%) tumors. Among them, 14 had CD8+CD45RO+ TILs. PD-L1 was expressed on cancer cells in 10 (22.7%) tumors in 34 evaluable extrahepatic cholangiocarciniomas. The presence of CD8+ TILs or CD8+CD45RO+ TILs was not associated with clinical staging or tumor differentiation. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with CD8+CD45RO+ TILs had longer overall survival (OS) on univariate (P = 0.013) and multivariate (P = 0.012) analysis. Neither CD8+TIL nor PD-L1 expression on cancer cells correlated significantly with OS. These results add to the understanding of the clinical features associated with CD8 TILs and PD-L1 expression in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and they support the potential rationale of using PD-1 blockade immunotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma.
Project description:The immune microenvironment of the brain differs from that of other organs and the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in brain metastases (BM), one of the most common and devastating complication of cancer, is unclear. We investigated TIL subsets and their prognostic impact in 116 BM specimens using immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, CD45RO, FOXP3, PD1 and PD-L1. The Immunoscore was calculated as published previously. Overall, we found TIL infiltration in 115/116 (99.1%) BM specimens. PD-L1 expression was evident in 19/67 (28.4%) BM specimens and showed no correlation with TIL density (p > 0.05). TIL density was not associated with corticosteroid administration (p > 0.05). A significant difference in infiltration density according to TIL subtype was present (p < 0.001; Chi Square); high infiltration was most frequently observed for CD3+ TILs (95/116; 81.9%) and least frequently for PD1+ TILs (18/116; 15.5%; p < 0.001). Highest TIL density was observed in melanoma, followed by renal cell cancer and lung cancer BM (p < 0.001). The density of CD8(+) TILs correlated positively with the extent of peritumoral edema seen on pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (p = 0.031). The density of CD3+ (15 vs. 6 mo; p = 0.015), CD8(+) (15 vs. 11 mo; p = 0.030) and CD45RO+ TILs (18 vs. 8 mo; p = 0.006) showed a positive correlation with favorable median OS times. Immunoscore showed significant correlation with survival prognosis (27 vs. 10 mo; p < 0.001). The prognostic impact of Immunoscore was independent from established prognostic parameters at multivariable analysis (HR 0.612, p < 0.001). In conclusion, our data indicate that dense TILs infiltrates are common in BM and correlate with the amount of peritumoral brain edema and survival prognosis, thus identifying the immune system as potential biomarker for cancer patients with CNS affection. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings.
Project description:One histopathological characteristic of intracranial germinoma is abundant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) showing a two-cell pattern with large undifferentiated tumor cells. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L) axis has recently been recognized as an anti-tumor immune system. To evaluate intratumor immune status in intracranial germinoma, we examined expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 (clone 28-8) and subtypes of TILs. Expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were detected immunohistochemically in 25 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 24 patients with intracranial germinoma consisting of 22 primary and 3 recurrent tumors. To evaluate subtypes of TILs, quantification of lymphocytes with CD3, CD8, CD4, and Foxp3 was performed. Statistical analyses were performed among PD-1, PD-L1 and subtypes of TILs. In 25 tumor tissue, expressions of PD-1 in TILs and PD-L1 in tumor cells were identified in 96% (24/25) and 92% (23/25), respectively. Expression of PD-1 was associated with CD3+ TIL density. Expression of PD-1 correlated with Foxp3+ TIL density and CD8+ TIL density, but not with CD4+ TIL density. Furthermore, expression of PD-1 correlated strongly with Foxp3+/CD4+ ratio. Taken together, increase of PD-1+ expression is associated with accumulation of Foxp3+ and CD8+ TILs. These findings intimate that PD-1/PD-L1 axis might shape the immune infiltration suggesting a modulation of the immune response and subsequent tumor growth in intracranial germinoma. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 are potential immune therapeutic strategies in intracranial germinoma.
Project description:Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is suggested to be a predictive biomarker in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, the differential expression of PD-L1 in primary lung tumor vs. synchronous metastases, especially brain metastasis (BM), remains unclear. This study assessed the concordance of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and CD8+ TIL intensity between primary lung tumors and synchronous BMs from 24 NSCLC patients. PD-L1, CD3, and CD8 positivity was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PD-L1 scoring was based on the proportion of tumor cells with membranous expression of PD-L1 and the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%. CD3 and CD8 positivity in TILs was evaluated semi-quantitatively and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs was determined. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and TILs was evaluated in relation to CD3+/CD8+ TIL proportions and the intensity of CD8+ TILs between the paired primary lung and BM tissues. In the primary lung tumors, PD-L1 positivity was observed in 25%, 37.5%, and 37.5% cases for the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%, respectively. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was strongly correlated between the paired primary lung and BM tissues, in all cutoff groups. However, PD-L1 expression on TILs and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs were not strongly correlated in all three groups between the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. The intensity of CD8+ TILs was concordant in only 54.16% of the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. This study showed a high concordance of PD-L1 expression in neoplastic cells between primary NSCLC and synchronous BMs.
Project description:Data describing relationships between the tumor immune microenvironment and patient outcome are limited for esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The present study investigated the prognostic values of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and CD8+ or forkhead box protein 3+ (FOXP3+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 133 pathological T3N0M0 stage ESCC patients who underwent radical resection without neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. CD8+ and FOXP3+ TIL densities as well as PD-L1 levels in tumor cells and lymphocytes, were assessed through immunohistochemical staining. Patient survival was not associated with CD8+ or FOXP3+ TILs alone, but PD-L1 expression and the CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio were independent predictors of both disease-free and overall survival. PD-L1 expression correlated with age (p = 0.029), tumor length (p < 0.001), tumor differentiation status (p = 0.002) and reduced intratumoral CD8+ TIL density (p < 0.001). Our results suggest pT3N0M0 ESCC clinical outcomes correlate with CD8+ and FOXP3+ TIL densities and PD-L1 levels. Moreover, an intrinsic mechanism for induction of PD-L1 overexpression may be occurring during early tumor oncogenesis. This information may be useful for stratifying patients and guide the application of checkpoint blockade therapy in ESCC.
Project description:Purpose: To determine whether distinct tissue immune microenvironments differentially impact on clinical outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), an extended analysis of PD-1/PD-L1 and Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) was performed. Materials and Methods: 1016 NSCLC mRNA-sequence samples from The Genome Data Analysis Center (TCGA) and 275 NSCLC mRNA-microarray samples from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were included as testing cohort and validation cohort respectively. Enrichment scores of CD8+ T cells' metagene were used for quantifying its infiltrating density. Based on the median values of CD8+ T cell density and PD-1/PD-L1 mRNA expression, the samples were classified into four Tumor Immune Microenvironment types (TIMTs). Overall survival, as well as clinicopathological features, mutational profiles, mismatch repair score etc. were compared across the four types. Results: Neither PD-1 expression nor PD-L1 expression was associated with outcome in the overall NSCLC. Classification of TIMT based on PD-1/PD-L1 and CD8+ TIL could efficiently classify patients of different survival in ADC but not SCC, with the best overall survival achieved in TIMT3 (high CD8+ TIL and low PD-1/PD-L1), whereas TIMT2 (low CD8+ TIL and high PD-1/PD-L1) manifested the worst outcome. TIMT classification based on PD-1/ CD8+ TIL could better stratify patient of different prognosis than PD-L1/ CD8+ TIL based classification. EGFR wide type and IFN? overexpression were associated with TIMT4 (high PD-1/PD-L1 and high CD8+ TIL), whereas tumor mutational burden (TMB) manifested no significant difference across four TIMTs. Conclusion: The classification of tumors into four microenvironment subtypes based on PD-1/PD-L1 status and CD8+ TIL is an appropriate approach to stratify patients of different clinical outcome and better guide the practical use of immunotherapy.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis inhibitors have been proven effective, especially in patients with tumors expressing PD-L1. Their clinical efficacy in patients with EGFR-activating mutations is still unclear, whereas KRAS mutations seem to be associated with good response. METHODS:We used multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence to investigate PD-L1 expression and to characterize tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) populations and their activation status in more than 150 NSCLC patients with known mutation status. RESULTS:PD-L1 expression was significantly lower in EGFR-mutant compared to KRAS-mutant, and EGFR/KRAS wild-type (WT) tumors. KRAS mutant tumors were more inflamed with higher CD4+, CD8+ and CD20+ TILs. Subgroup analysis by TIL activation status revealed that EGFR mutants had a high frequency of inactive TILs even though lymphocytes were present in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in KRAS mutants, when TILs were present they were almost always active. Additionally, we found differences between EGFR mutation sites in CD8+ expression and the TIL activation profile. Finally, activated EGFR correlated with increased PD-L1 expression in EGFR mutants but not in EGFR WT, whereas TIL activation was associated with higher PD-L1 only in EGFR/KRAS WT. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings show the unique immune profile of EGFR-mutant tumors. The high frequency of inactive TILs could explain the low immunotherapy response rates in these patients, whereas PD-L1 as a predictive biomarker may reflect the constitutive oncogenic signaling rather than immune signaling, which would be associated with high PD-L1 levels and TILs activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a highly mortal malignancy with limited therapeutic options. Immunotherapies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 pathway represent a promising treatment for ICC. However, PD-L1 expression and microsatellite instability are not common in ICC. This study aimed to investigate whether HHLA2, a newly identified B7 family immune checkpoint for T cells, could be a therapeutic target next to PD-L1 in ICC. METHODS:Expression levels of PD-L1 and HHLA2 as well as infiltrations of CD3+, CD8+, CD4 + Foxp3+, CD68+, CD163+ and CD20+ cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 153 resected ICC samples. Comprehensive comparisons were made between PD-L1 and HHLA2 in terms of the expression rates, clinicopathological features and infiltrations of different immune cells. The expression level and prognostic significance of HHLA2 were further validated in an independent cohort. RESULTS:Expression of HHLA2 is more frequent than PD-L1 in ICC (49.0% vs 28.1%). Co-expression of both immune checkpoints was infrequent (13.1%) and 50% PD-L1 negative cases were with elevated HHLA2. HHLA2 overexpression was associated with sparser CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), CD8+ TILs and a higher CD4 + Foxp3+/CD8+ TIL ratio, whereas PD-L1 expression was associated with prominent T cells and CD163+ tumor associated macrophages infiltrations. PD-L1 failed to stratify overall survival (OS) but HHLA2 was identified as an independent prognostic indicator for OS in two independent cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with PD-L1, HHLA2 is more prevalent and possesses more explicit prognostic significance, which confer the rationale for HHLA2 as a potential immunotherapeutic target next to PD-L1 for ICC patients.
Project description:Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (eCCA) has a poor prognosis. Although the possibility of immunotherapy has been studied, immune checkpoint molecules such as programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in eCCA are not well understood. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has recently been shown to regulate PD-L1 expression. Our aims were to assess the clinicopathological significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor PD-L1 expression in eCCA and to compare these immune responses with EMT marker expression. In this retrospective study, we conducted immunohistochemical analyses for 117 patients with eCCA. We stained for CD4, CD8, Foxp3, and PD-L1 as markers reflecting local immune responses, and for E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, ZEB1, ZEB2, SNAIL, and TWIST as markers associated with EMT. High numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ TILs correlated with node-negative (P = 0.009 and P = 0.046, respectively) and low SNAIL expression (P = 0.016 and P = 0.022, respectively). High PD-L1 expression was associated with poor histopathological classification (P = 0.034), and low E-cadherin (P = 0.001), high N-cadherin (P = 0.044), high vimentin (P < 0.001) and high ZEB1 (P = 0.036) expression. Multivariate analysis showed that CD4+ TILs, PD-L1 expression and N-cadherin expression were independent prognostic factors (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.38-1.00; HR=4.27; 95% CI = 1.82-9.39; HR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.18-3.92, respectively). These findings could help to identify potential biomarkers for predicting not only the prognosis, but also the therapeutic response to immunotherapy for eCCA.