Associations of common variants at ALDH2 gene and the risk of stroke in patients with coronary artery diseases undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
ABSTRACT: Limited data are available about the role of common variants at the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2) on the clinical outcome in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In the present study, a total of 1089 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2012 and July 2013. Six common variants at ALDH2 gene, including rs2339840, rs4648328, rs4767939, rs11066028, rs16941669, and rs671, were selected to test the associations of those polymorphisms with the cardiovascular outcome in patients with CHD after PCI. The clinical endpoints included cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. The composite of clinical endpoints was defined as the primary endpoint, and every endpoint alone was considered as the secondary endpoints. The median follow-up time was 38.27 months. Our results showed that the common variant rs2339840 was independently associated with a lower risk of stroke in patients with CHD after PCI (codominant model, HR = 0.32, 95% CI, 0.11-0.91, P = .074 for heterozygotes; HR = 0.25, 95% CI, 0.06-1.14, P = .033 for homozygotes; dominant model, HR = 0.32, 95% CI, 0.14-0.74, P = .007). However, no significant associations were found between other 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the clinical endpoints. For the first time, the common variant rs2339840 was reported to be a protective factor against stroke in CHD patients with PCI.
Project description:Background:In patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), approximately 10% are concomitant with a chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-culprit vessel. However, the impact of staged CTO recanalization on prognosis in this cohort remains disputable. This study aimed to compare the long-term outcomes of staged CTO recanalization versus medical therapy in patients with STEMI after primary PCI. Methods:Between January 2005 and December 2016, a total of 287 patients were treated with staged CTO-PCI (n = 91) or medical therapy (n = 196) after primary PCI in our center. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or unplanned revascularization. After propensity-score matching, 77 pairs of well-balanced patients were identified. Results:The mean follow-up period was 6.06 years. Overall, the incidence of the primary endpoint of MACCE was significantly lower in staged CTO-PCI group than that in medical therapy group in both overall population (22.0% vs. 46.9%; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.77) and propensity-matched cohorts (22.1% vs. 42.9%; HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.27-0.86). In addition, staged CTO-PCI was also associated with reduced risk of the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal MI or stroke compared with medical therapy in both overall population (9.9% vs. 26.5%; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19-0.79) and propensity-matched cohorts (9.1% vs. 22.1%; HR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.16-0.96). After correction of the possible confounders, staged CTO-PCI was independently associated with reduced risks of MACCE (adjusted HR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.75), the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal MI or stroke (adjusted HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.94) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13-0.83). Moreover, the results of sensitivity analysis were almost concordant with the overall analysis. Conclusions:In patients with STEMI and a concurrent CTO who undergo primary PCI, successful staged recanalization of CTO in the non-culprit vessels is associated with better clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up.
Project description:Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between hypercholesterolemia (HC) and clinical events through a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) registry. HC is a well-known independent risk factor for long-term cardiovascular events after PCI. However, it has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of adverse events in patients with cancer or acute coronary syndrome. Methods We analyzed the relationship between HC and adverse events in patients treated with everolimus-eluting stents (EESs) through the Tokyo-MD PCI study (an all-comer, multicenter, observational registry). The propensity score method was applied to select two groups with similar baseline characteristics. Results The unadjusted population included 1,536 HC patients and 330 non-HC patients. Propensity score matching yielded 314 matched pairs. After baseline adjustment, the outcomes of HC patients were significantly better than those of the non-HC patients with respect to the primary endpoint, which was a combination of mortality from all causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal neurological events, and major bleeding [hazard ratio (HR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.81; p=0.002], and the secondary endpoints, which included a combination of mortality from all causes, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal neurological events (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.88; p=0.01), and major bleeding (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.88; p=0.02). A subgroup analysis showed age as an interaction factor for the primary endpoint (interaction p=0.035). Conclusion HC was associated with better outcomes in patients who underwent EES implantation, even after baseline adjustment.
Project description:Excess urinary albumin excretion is more common in black than white individuals and is more strongly associated with incident stroke risk in black vs white individuals. Whether similar associations extend to coronary heart disease (CHD) is unclear.To determine whether the association of urinary albumin excretion with CHD events differs by race.Prospective cohort study of black and white US adults aged 45 years and older who were enrolled within the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007 with follow-up through December 31, 2009. We examined race-stratified associations of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in 2 groups: (1) incident CHD among 23,273 participants free of CHD at baseline; and (2) first recurrent CHD event among 4934 participants with CHD at baseline.Expert-adjudicated incident and recurrent myocardial infarction and acute CHD death.A total of 616 incident CHD events (421 nonfatal MIs and 195 CHD deaths) and 468 recurrent CHD events (279 nonfatal MIs and 189 CHD deaths) were observed over a mean time of 4.4 years of follow-up. Among those free of CHD at baseline, age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates of CHD per 1000 person-years of follow-up increased with increasing categories of ACR in black and white participants, with rates being nearly 1.5-fold greater in the highest category of ACR (>300 mg/g) in black participants (20.59; 95% CI, 14.36-29.51) vs white participants (13.60; 95% CI, 7.60-24.25). In proportional hazards models adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and medications, higher baseline urinary ACR was associated with greater risk of incident CHD among black participants (hazard ratio [HR] comparing ACR >300 vs <10 mg/g, 3.21 [95% CI, 2.02-5.09]) but not white participants (HR comparing ACR >300 vs <10 mg/g, 1.49 [95% CI, 0.80-2.76]) (P value for interaction?=?.03). Among those with CHD at baseline, fully adjusted associations of baseline urinary ACR with first recurrent CHD event were similar between black participants (HR comparing ACR >300 vs <10 mg/g, 2.21 [95% CI, 1.22-4.00]) vs white participants (HR comparing ACR >300 vs <10 mg/g, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.61-3.78]) (P value for interaction?=?.53).Higher urinary ACR was associated with greater risk of incident but not recurrent CHD in black individuals when compared with white individuals. These data confirm that black individuals appear more susceptible to vascular injury.
Project description:Achieving blood pressure (BP) control is associated with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but less is known about CVD risk associated with sustained BP control over time. This observational analysis of the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) was restricted to participants with four to seven visits with systolic BP (SBP) measurements during a 22-month period (n = 24 309). The authors categorized participants as having sustained BP control (SBP < 140 mm Hg) at 100%, 75% to <100%, 50% to <75%, and <50% of visits during this period. Outcomes included fatal coronary heart disease (CHD)/nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, heart failure (HF), a composite CVD outcome (fatal CHD/nonfatal MI, stroke, or HF), and mortality. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the association of category of sustained BP control for each outcome were obtained using proportional hazards models. SBP control was present among 20.0% of participants at 100%, 16.4% at 75% to less than 100%, 27.0% at 50% to less than 75%, and 36.6% at less than 50% of visits. Compared to those with SBP control at 100% visits, adjusted HR (95% CI) among those with SBP control at <50% of visits was 1.16 (0.93-1.44) for fatal CHD/nonfatal MI, 1.71 (1.26-2.32) for stroke, 1.63 (1.30-2.06) for HF, 1.39 (1.20-1.62) for the composite CVD outcome, and 1.14 (0.99-1.30) for mortality. Sustained SBP control may be beneficial for preventing stroke, HF, and CVD outcomes in adults taking antihypertensive medication.
Project description:A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis showed no effect of atorvastatin on a composite cardiovascular endpoint, but analysis of the component cardiac endpoints suggested that atorvastatin may significantly reduce risk. Because the AURORA (A Study to Evaluate the Use of Rosuvastatin in Subjects on Regular Hemodialysis: An Assessment of Survival and Cardiovascular Events) trial included patients with and without diabetes, we conducted a post hoc analysis to determine whether rosuvastatin might reduce the risk of cardiac events in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis. Among the 731 participants with diabetes, traditional risk factors such as LDL-C, smoking, and BP did not associate with cardiac events (cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction). At baseline, only age and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were independent risk factors for cardiac events. Assignment to rosuvastatin associated with a nonsignificant 16.2% reduction in risk for the AURORA trial's composite primary endpoint of cardiac death, nonfatal MI, or fatal or nonfatal stroke (HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.65 to 1.07). There was no difference in overall stroke, but the rosuvastatin group had more hemorrhagic strokes than the placebo group (12 versus two strokes, respectively; HR, 5.21; 95% CI 1.17 to 23.27). Rosuvastatin treatment significantly reduced the rates of cardiac events by 32% among patients with diabetes (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90). In conclusion, among hemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus, rosuvastatin might reduce the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiac events.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The effect of combined insulin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i) therapy on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with diabetic foot is unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted this nationwide cohort study using longitudinal claims data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance program and included 19,791 patients with diabetic foot from 2007 to 2014. Patients receiving DPP4i-based therapy and/or insulin-based therapy after a diagnosis of diabetic foot were categorized into combined, DPP4i- or insulin-based groups, respectively. The risk of MACEs including nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, cardiac death, and heart failure was assessed using Cox proportional hazards analysis and propensity score matching.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 19,791 patients with diabetic foot (mean age, 58.8 years [SD, 12.5]; men, 51.2%), 6466 received DPP4i-based therapy, 1925 received insulin-based therapy, and 11,400 received combined DPP4i and insulin therapy. The DPP4i-based and insulin-based groups had a lower risk of MACEs (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.50-0.57 DPP4i only; HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97 insulin only) than the combined group. After propensity score matching, the incidence of all complications in the DPP4i-based group was still significantly lower than that in the combined group (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.51-0.59 for MACEs; HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.24-0.42 for nonfatal myocardial infarction; HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.63-0.78 for nonfatal stroke; HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.13-0.38 for cardiac death; HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.19-0.25 for any death; HR 0.16, 95% CI 0.13-0.20 for amputation). In the diabetic foot patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the benefit of a lower incidence of MACEs in the DPP4i-based group disappeared (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.58-1.08).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study demonstrated that the patients with diabetic foot receiving DPP4i-based therapy had a lower risk of MACEs than those receiving combined therapy with DPP4i and insulin, but that the effect disappeared in those with concurrent ESRD.
Project description:Although both angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are all suitable for the initiation of antihypertensive treatment, studies investigating efficacy and safety between ARBs and CCBs are limited, and there is no previous study comparing their clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up periods in real world setting. We compared cardiovascular (CV) events between ARBs and CCBs in 464,948 hypertensive adults using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database during a 3-year follow-up. The patients with hypertension without heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral artery disease were enrolled. The CV events between only single prescription of CCBs and ARBs were finally compared. The primary endpoint for this study was the first occurrence of a major adverse CV events, defined as the composite of all-cause death, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. ARB was significantly more administered in male and patients with higher income, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney diseases, and higher Charlson comorbidity index. The primary endpoints occurred in 10,526 patients (5.2%) in the ARB group and in 19,363 patients (7.3%) in the CCB group (p?<?0.001) during a 3-year follow-up (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). All the components of CV events including all-cause death, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke occurred more frequently in the CCB group. With multivariable models adjusting age, sex, income, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and Charlson comorbidity index, the primary endpoints less frequently developed in the ARB group than in the CCB group (HR 0.957, 95% CI 0.933-0.983, p?<?0.001). After the propensity-score matching, baseline characteristics were similar and still showed significantly better primary endpoints in ARB group than CCB group (5.3% vs. 5.8%, p?<?0.001). In this nationwide population-based simple hypertension study, administration of ARBs showed superior protection against CV events than CCBs during a 3-year follow-up. Our results suggest that ARBs could be preferred over CCBs as the initial choice of antihypertensive treatment regardless of age in real-world practice.
Project description:<i>Background</i>: Evidence concerning the efficacy of the embolic protection devices (EPDs) in saphenous vein graft (SVG) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is sparse. The study was designed to compare major cardiovascular events of all-comer population of SVG PCI with and without EPDs at one year of follow-up. <i>Methods and results</i>: A multi-center registry comparing PCI with and without EPDs in consecutive patients undergoing PCI of SVG. The group comprised 792 patients, among which 266 (33.6%) had myocardial infarction (MI). The primary composite endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) defined as death, MI, target vessel revascularization (TVR), and stroke assessed at one year. After propensity score analysis, there were no differences in MACCE (21.9% vs. 23.9%; HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.57-1.45, <i>p</i> = 0.681, respectively) nor in secondary endpoints of death, MI, TVR, target lesion revascularization (TLR) and stroke at one year in EPDs PCI group vs. no-EPDs PCI group. Similarly, there were no differences between groups in the study endpoints at 30 days follow-up. <i>Conclusions</i>: There were no clinical benefit for routine use of EPDs during SVG PCI in short and long-term follow-up. Further studies are warranted to explore the effect of individual types of EPDs on clinical outcomes.
Project description:Although attention has been paid to the relationship between malignant diseases and cardiovascular diseases, few data have been reported. Moreover, there have also been few reports in which the preventive factors were examined in patients with or without malignant disease histories requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).This was a retrospective, single-center, observational study. A total of 1003 post-PCI patients were divided into a malignant group, with current or past malignant disease, and a nonmalignant group. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, and admission due to heart failure within 5 years of PCI. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significantly higher probability of the primary endpoint in the malignant group (P?=?.002). Multivariable Cox hazard analyses showed that in patients without a history of malignant, body mass index (BMI) and the presence of dyslipidemia were independent and significant negative predictors of the primary endpoint (BMI: hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53-0.99, P?=?.041; prevalence of dyslipidemia: HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52-0.99, P?=?.048), and the presence of multi-vessel disease (MVD) and the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) were independent and significant positive predictors of the primary endpoint (prevalence of MVD: HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.18-2.40, P?=?.004; prevalence of PAD: HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.03-2.21, P?=?.034). In patients with histories of malignancy, no significant independent predictive factors were identified.Patients undergoing PCI with malignancy had significantly higher rates of adverse cardiovascular events but might not have the conventional prognostic factors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We studied the associations between personality traits and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke in women with diabetes. METHODS:From the Women's Health Initiative, 15,029 women aged 50 to 79 years at enrollment and with self-reported treated diabetes at baseline or follow-up, were followed for a mean of 10 years. Personality traits measured from validated scales included hostility, optimism, ambivalence over emotional expressiveness, and negative emotional expressiveness. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to examine associations between personality traits and the risk of adjudicated CHD (nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death) or stroke outcomes. Progressively adjusted regression approach was used in the multivariable models to adjust for demographics, depression, anthropometric variables, and lifestyle factors. RESULTS:A total of 1,118 incident CHD and 710 incident stroke cases were observed. Women in the highest quartile of hostility had 22% (hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.48) increased risk for CHD compared with women in the lowest quartile of hostility. P values for trend were greater than 0.05. Stratified analysis by prevalent or incident diabetes showed that the highest quartile of hostility had 34% increased risk for CHD (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03-1.74) among women with incident diabetes. Other personality traits were not significantly associated with stroke or CHD. CONCLUSIONS:Hostility was associated with incidence of CHD among postmenopausal women with diabetes, especially among incident diabetes. These results provide a basis for targeted prevention programs for women with a high level of hostility and diabetes.