The conserved p.Arg108 residue in S1PR2 (DFNB68) is fundamental for proper hearing: evidence from a consanguineous Iranian family.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Genetic heterogeneity and consanguineous marriages make recessive inherited hearing loss in Iran the second most common genetic disorder. Only two reported pathogenic variants (c.323G>C, p.Arg108Pro and c.419A>G, p.Tyr140Cys) in the S1PR2 gene have previously been linked to autosomal recessive hearing loss (DFNB68) in two Pakistani families. We describe a segregating novel homozygous c.323G>A, p.Arg108Gln pathogenic variant in S1PR2 that was identified in four affected individuals from a consanguineous five generation Iranian family. METHODS:Whole exome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of 116 hearing loss-associated genes was performed in an affected individual from a five generation Iranian family. Segregation analysis and 3D protein modeling of the p.Arg108 exchange was performed. RESULTS:The two Pakistani families previously identified with S1PR2 pathogenic variants presented profound hearing loss that is also observed in the affected Iranian individuals described in the current study. Interestingly, we confirmed mixed hearing loss in one affected individual. 3D protein modeling suggests that the p.Arg108 position plays a key role in ligand receptor interaction, which is disturbed by the p.Arg108Gln change. CONCLUSION:In summary, we report the third overall mutation in S1PR2 and the first report outside the Pakistani population. Furthermore, we describe a novel variant that causes an amino acid exchange (p.Arg108Gln) in the same amino acid residue as one of the previously reported Pakistani families (p.Arg108Pro). This finding emphasizes the importance of the p.Arg108 amino acid in normal hearing and confirms and consolidates the role of S1PR2 in autosomal recessive hearing loss.
Project description:The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ?120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2(-/-) mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2(-/-) mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2.
Project description:Myosin VIIA mutations have been associated with non-syndromic hearing loss (DFNB2; DFNA11) and Usher syndrome type 1B (USH1B). We report clinical and genetic analyses of a consanguineous Iranian family segregating autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL). The hearing impairment was mapped to the DFNB2 locus using Affymetrix 50K GeneChips; direct sequencing of the MYO7A gene was completed. The Iranian family (L-1419) was shown to segregate a novel homozygous missense mutation (c.1184G>A) that results in a p.R395H amino acid substitution in the motor domain of the myosin VIIA protein. As one affected family member had significantly less severe hearing loss, we used a candidate approach to search for a genetic modifier. This novel MYO7A mutation is the first reported to cause DFNB2 in the Iranian population and this DFNB2 family is the first to be associated with a potential modifier. The absence of vestibular and retinal defects, and less severe low frequency hearing loss, is consistent with the phenotype of a recently reported Pakistani DFNB2 family. Thus, we conclude this family has non-syndromic hearing loss (DFNB2) rather than USH1B, providing further evidence that these two diseases represent discrete disorders.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We investigated the cause of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) that segregated in 2 consanguineous Iranian families. METHODS:Otologic and audiometric examinations were performed on affected members of each family. Genome-wide parametric multipoint linkage mapping using a recessive model was performed with Affymetrix 50K GeneChips or short tandem repeat polymorphisms. Direct sequencing was used to confirm the causative mutation in each family. RESULTS:In 2 Iranian families, L-1651 and L-8600606, with ARNSHL that mapped to the DFNB7/11 locus, homozygosity for a reported splice site mutation (c.776+1G>A), and a novel deletion (c.1589_1590delCT; p.S530*) were identified in the TMC1 gene, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Consistent with the previously reported phenotype in DFNB7/11 families, the 2 Iranian families had segregated congenital, profound hearing impairment. However, in family L-1651, one affected family member (IV:3) has milder hearing impairment than expected, suggesting a potential genetic modifier effect. These results indicate that DFNB7/11 is a common form of genetic hearing loss in Iran, because this population is the source of 6 of the 29 TMC1 mutations reported worldwide.
Project description:Consanguineous Pakistani pedigrees segregating deafness have contributed decisively to the discovery of 31 of the 68 genes associated with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss (HL) worldwide. In this study, we utilized genome-wide genotyping, Sanger and exome sequencing to identify 163 DNA variants in 41 previously reported HL genes segregating in 321 Pakistani families. Of these, 70 (42.9%) variants identified in 29 genes are novel. As expected from genetic studies of disorders segregating in consanguineous families, the majority of affected individuals (94.4%) are homozygous for HL-associated variants, with the other variants being compound heterozygotes. The five most common HL genes in the Pakistani population are SLC26A4, MYO7A, GJB2, CIB2 and HGF, respectively. Our study provides a profile of the genetic etiology of HL in Pakistani families, which will allow for the development of more efficient genetic diagnostic tools, aid in accurate genetic counseling, and guide application of future gene-based therapies. These findings are also valuable in interpreting pathogenicity of variants that are potentially associated with HL in individuals of all ancestries. The Pakistani population, and its infrastructure for studying human genetics, will continue to be valuable to gene discovery for HL and other inherited disorders.
Project description:Mutations in PJVK, encoding Pejvakin, cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss in humans at the DFNB59 locus on chromosome 2q31.2. Pejvakin is involved in generating auditory and neural signals in the inner ear. We have identified a consanguineous Pakistani family segregating sensorineural progressive hearing loss as a recessive trait, consistent with linkage to DFNB59. We sequenced PJVK and identified a novel missense mutation, c.1028G>C in exon 7 (p.C343S) co-segregating with the phenotype in the family. The p.C343 residue is fully conserved among orthologs from different vertebrate species. We have also determined that mutations in PJVK are not a common cause of hearing loss in families with moderate to severe hearing loss in Pakistan. This is the first report of PJVK mutation in a Pakistani family and pinpoints an important residue for PJVK function.
Project description:Mutations in OTOF, encoding otoferlin, cause non-syndromic recessive hearing loss. The goal of our study was to define the identities and frequencies of OTOF mutations in a model population. We screened a cohort of 557 large consanguineous Pakistani families segregating recessive, severe-to-profound, prelingual-onset deafness for linkage to DFNB9. There were 13 families segregating deafness consistent with linkage to markers for DFNB9. We analyzed the genomic nucleotide sequence of OTOF and detected probable pathogenic sequence variants among all 13 families. These include the previously reported nonsense mutation p.R708X and 10 novel variants: 3 nonsense mutations (p.R425X, p.W536X, and p.Y1603X), 1 frameshift (c.1103_1104delinsC), 1 single amino acid deletion (p.E766del) and 5 missense substitutions of conserved residues (p.L573R, p.A1090E, p.E1733K, p.R1856Q and p.R1939W). OTOF mutations thus account for deafness in 13 (2.3%) of 557 Pakistani families. This overall prevalence is similar, but the mutation spectrum is different from those for Western populations. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of an alternative splice isoform of OTOF expressed in the human cochlea. This isoform must be required for human hearing because it encodes a unique alternative C-terminus affected by some DFNB9 mutations.
Project description:We identified overlapping homozygous regions within the DFNB25 locus in two Dutch and ten Pakistani families with sensorineural autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (arNSHI). Only one of the families, W98-053, was not consanguineous, and its sibship pointed toward a reduced critical region of 0.9 Mb. This region contained the GRXCR1 gene, and the orthologous mouse gene was described to be mutated in the pirouette (pi) mutant with resulting hearing loss and circling behavior. Sequence analysis of the GRXCR1 gene in hearing-impaired family members revealed splice-site mutations in two Dutch families and a missense and nonsense mutation, respectively, in two Pakistani families. The splice-site mutations are predicted to cause frameshifts and premature stop codons. In family W98-053, this could be confirmed by cDNA analysis. GRXCR1 is predicted to contain a GRX-like domain. GRX domains are involved in reversible S-glutathionylation of proteins and thereby in the modulation of activity and/or localization of these proteins. The missense mutation is located in this domain, whereas the nonsense and splice-site mutations may result in complete or partial absence of the GRX-like domain or of the complete protein. Hearing loss in patients with GRXCR1 mutations is congenital and is moderate to profound. Progression of the hearing loss was observed in family W98-053. Vestibular dysfunction was observed in some but not all affected individuals. Quantitative analysis of GRXCR1 transcripts in fetal and adult human tissues revealed a preferential expression of the gene in fetal cochlea, which may explain the nonsyndromic nature of the hearing impairment.
Project description:To investigate the causative genetic mutations in 12 Pakistani families with nonsyndromic or syndromic hearing loss.Mutations in the most common causative gene for hearing loss, GJB2, were evaluated by Sanger sequencing. Targeted next-generation sequencing or whole-exome sequencing was used to analyze the genomic DNA samples from 11 probands with hearing loss. Sanger sequencing was performed to verify all identified variants.We found pathogenic, or likely to be pathogenic, mutations in all 12 families, including six known mutations in GJB2, SLC26A4, LHFPL5, and USH2A and eight novel mutations in ESPN, MYO7A, LRTOMT, PCDH15, USH2A, or EPS8L2. Notably, four compound heterozygous mutations in the MYO7A and USH2A genes were detected in two consanguineous families. In addition, the novel frameshift mutation in EPS8L2 was first documented in Pakistan.Our study increases the spectrum of mutations associated with hearing loss in the Pakistani population. In addition, our study highlights the fact that compound heterozygous mutations, although rare, can occur in consanguineous families.
Project description:Mutations in the TBC1D24 gene are responsible for four neurological presentations: infantile epileptic encephalopathy, infantile myoclonic epilepsy, DOORS (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation and seizures) and NSHL (non-syndromic hearing loss). For the latter, two recessive (DFNB86) and one dominant (DFNA65) mutations have so far been identified in consanguineous Pakistani and European/Chinese families, respectively. Here we report the results of a genetic study performed on a large Moroccan cohort of deaf patients that identified three families with compound heterozygote mutations in TBC1D24. Four novel mutations were identified, among which, one c.641G>A (p.Arg214His) was present in the three families, and has a frequency of 2% in control Moroccan population with normal hearing, suggesting that it acts as an hypomorphic variant leading to restricted deafness when combined with another recessive severe mutation. Altogether, our results show that mutations in TBC1D24 gene are a frequent cause (>2%) of NSHL in Morocco, and that due to its possible compound heterozygote recessive transmission, this gene should be further considered and screened in other deaf cohorts.
Project description:<b><i>Background:</i></b> Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common and genetically heterogeneous sensory disorders in humans. Genetic causes underlie 50-60% of all HL and the majority of these cases exhibit an autosomal recessive model of inheritance. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> In our study, we used our targeted custom MiamiOtoGenes panel of 180 HL-associated genes to screen 23 unrelated consanguineous Iranian families with at least two affected children to identify potential causal variants for HL. <b><i>Results:</i></b> We identified pathogenic variants in seven genes (<i>MYO7A, CDH23, GIPC3, USH1C</i>, <i>CAPB2, LOXHD1,</i> and <i>STRC</i>) in nine unrelated families with varying HL profiles. These include five reported and four novel mutations. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> For small consanguineous families that were unsuitable for conventional linkage analysis the employment of the MiamiOtoGenes panel helped identify the genetic cause of HL in a cost-effective and timely manner. This rapid methodology provides for diagnoses of a significant fraction of HL patients, and identifies those who will need more extensive genetic analyses such as whole exome/genome sequencing.