Quantitative Imaging Flow Cytometry of Legionella-Infected Dictyostelium Amoebae Reveals the Impact of Retrograde Trafficking on Pathogen Vacuole Composition.
ABSTRACT: The ubiquitous environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila survives and replicates within amoebae and human macrophages by forming a Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). In an intricate process governed by the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and a plethora of effector proteins, the nascent LCV interferes with a number of intracellular trafficking pathways, including retrograde transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. Conserved retrograde trafficking components, such as the retromer coat complex or the phosphoinositide (PI) 5-phosphatase D. discoideum 5-phosphatase 4 (Dd5P4)/oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL), restrict intracellular replication of L. pneumophila by an unknown mechanism. Here, we established an imaging flow cytometry (IFC) approach to assess in a rapid, unbiased, and large-scale quantitative manner the role of retrograde-linked PI metabolism and actin dynamics in the LCV composition. Exploiting Dictyostelium discoideum genetics, we found that Dd5P4 modulates the acquisition of fluorescently labeled LCV markers, such as calnexin, the small GTPase Rab1 (but not Rab7 and Rab8), and retrograde trafficking components (Vps5, Vps26, Vps35). The actin-nucleating protein and retromer interactor WASH (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein [WASP] and suppressor of cAMP receptor [SCAR] homologue) promotes the accumulation of Rab1 and Rab8 on LCVs. Collectively, our findings validate IFC for the quantitative and unbiased analysis of the pathogen vacuole composition and reveal the impact of retrograde-linked PI metabolism and actin dynamics on the LCV composition. The IFC approach employed here can be adapted for a molecular analysis of the pathogen vacuole composition of other amoeba-resistant pathogens.IMPORTANCELegionella pneumophila is an amoeba-resistant environmental bacterium which can cause a life-threatening pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. In order to replicate intracellularly, the opportunistic pathogen forms a protective compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). An in-depth analysis of the LCV composition and the complex process of pathogen vacuole formation is crucial for understanding the virulence of L. pneumophila Here, we established an imaging flow cytometry (IFC) approach to assess in a rapid, unbiased, and quantitative manner the accumulation of fluorescently labeled markers and probes on LCVs. Using IFC and L. pneumophila-infected Dictyostelium discoideum or defined mutant amoebae, a role for phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism, retrograde trafficking, and the actin cytoskeleton in the LCV composition was revealed. In principle, the powerful IFC approach can be used to analyze the molecular composition of any cellular compartment harboring bacterial pathogens.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>The causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila, replicates in amoebae and macrophages in a distinct membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). LCV formation is governed by the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system that translocates ~300 different "effector" proteins into host cells. Some of the translocated effectors anchor to the LCV membrane via phosphoinositide (PI) lipids. Here, we use the soil amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, producing fluorescent PI probes, to analyze the LCV PI dynamics by live-cell imaging. Upon uptake of wild-type or Icm/Dot-deficient L. pneumophila, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 transiently accumulated for an average of 40 s on early phagosomes, which acquired PtdIns(3)P within 1 min after uptake. Whereas phagosomes containing ?icmT mutant bacteria remained decorated with PtdIns(3)P, more than 80% of wild-type LCVs gradually lost this PI within 2 h. The process was accompanied by a major rearrangement of PtdIns(3)P-positive membranes condensing to the cell center. PtdIns(4)P transiently localized to early phagosomes harboring wild-type or ?icmT L. pneumophila and was cleared within minutes after uptake. During the following 2 h, PtdIns(4)P steadily accumulated only on wild-type LCVs, which maintained a discrete PtdIns(4)P identity spatially separated from calnexin-positive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for at least 8 h. The separation of PtdIns(4)P-positive and ER membranes was even more pronounced for LCVs harboring ?sidC-sdcA mutant bacteria defective for ER recruitment, without affecting initial bacterial replication in the pathogen vacuole. These findings elucidate the temporal and spatial dynamics of PI lipids implicated in LCV formation and provide insight into host cell membrane and effector protein interactions.<h4>Importance</h4>The environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia. The bacteria form in free-living amoebae and mammalian immune cells a replication-permissive compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). To subvert host cell processes, the bacteria secrete the amazing number of ~300 different proteins into host cells. Some of these proteins bind phosphoinositide (PI) lipids to decorate the LCV. PI lipids are crucial factors involved in host cell membrane dynamics and LCV formation. Using Dictyostelium amoebae producing one or two distinct fluorescent probes, we elucidated the dynamic LCV PI pattern in high temporal and spatial resolution. Notably, the endocytic PI lipid PtdIns(3)P was slowly cleared from LCVs, thus incapacitating the host cell's digestive machinery, while PtdIns(4)P gradually accumulated on the LCV, enabling critical interactions with host organelles. The LCV PI pattern underlies the spatiotemporal configuration of bacterial effector proteins and therefore represents a crucial aspect of LCV formation.
Project description:Legionella pneumophila can cause Legionnaires' disease and replicates intracellularly in a distinct Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). LCV formation is a complex process that involves a plethora of type IV-secreted effector proteins. The effector RidL binds the Vps29 retromer subunit, blocks retrograde vesicle trafficking, and promotes intracellular bacterial replication. Here, we reveal that the 29-kDa N-terminal domain of RidL (RidL2-281) adopts a "foot-like" fold comprising a protruding ?-hairpin at its "heel". The deletion of the ?-hairpin, the exchange to Glu of Ile170 in the ?-hairpin, or Leu152 in Vps29 abolishes the interaction in eukaryotic cells and in vitro. RidL2-281 or RidL displace the Rab7 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) TBC1D5 from the retromer and LCVs, respectively, and TBC1D5 promotes the intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. Thus, the hydrophobic ?-hairpin of RidL is critical for binding of the L. pneumophila effector to the Vps29 retromer subunit and displacement of the regulator TBC1D5.
Project description:Legionella spp. cause the severe pneumonia Legionnaires' disease. The environmental bacteria replicate intracellularly in free-living amoebae and human alveolar macrophages within a distinct, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived compartment termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). LCV formation requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS) that translocates into host cells a plethora of different "effector" proteins, some of which anchor to the pathogen vacuole by binding to phosphoinositide (PI) lipids. Here, we identified by unbiased pulldown assays in Legionella longbeachae lysates a 111-kDa SidC homologue as the major phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PtdIns(4)P]-binding protein. The PI-binding domain was mapped to a 20-kDa P4C [PtdIns(4)P binding of SidC] fragment. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that SidC of L. longbeachae (SidC(Llo)) binds PtdIns(4)P with a K(d) (dissociation constant) of 71 nM, which is 3 to 4 times lower than that of the SidC orthologue of Legionella pneumophila (SidC(Lpn)). Upon infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages with L. longbeachae, endogenous SidC(Llo) or ectopically produced SidC(Lpn) localized in an Icm/Dot-dependent manner to the PtdIns(4)P-positive LCVs. An L. longbeachae ?sidC deletion mutant was impaired for calnexin recruitment to LCVs in Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae and outcompeted by wild-type bacteria in Acanthamoeba castellanii. Calnexin recruitment was restored by SidC(Llo) or its orthologues SidC(Lpn) and SdcA(Lpn). Conversely, calnexin recruitment was restored by SidC(Llo) in L. pneumophila lacking sidC and sdcA. Together, biochemical, genetic, and cell biological data indicate that SidC(Llo) is an L. longbeachae effector that binds through a P4C domain with high affinity to PtdIns(4)P on LCVs, promotes ER recruitment to the LCV, and thus plays a role in pathogen-host interactions.
Project description:Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes a severe lung infection termed "Legionnaires' disease." The pathogen replicates in environmental protozoa as well as in macrophages within a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing-vacuole (LCV). LCV formation requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which translocates ca. 300 "effector proteins" into host cells, where they target distinct host factors. The L. pneumophila "pentuple" mutant (?pentuple) lacks 5 gene clusters (31% of the effector proteins) and replicates in macrophages but not in Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba. To elucidate the host factors defining a replication-permissive compartment, we compare here the proteomes of intact LCVs isolated from D. discoideum or macrophages infected with ?pentuple or the parental strain Lp02. This analysis revealed that the majority of host proteins are shared in D. discoideum or macrophage LCVs containing the mutant or the parental strain, respectively, whereas some proteins preferentially localize to distinct LCVs. The small GTPase Rap1 was identified on D. discoideum LCVs containing strain Lp02 but not the ?pentuple mutant and on macrophage LCVs containing either strain. The localization pattern of active Rap1 on D. discoideum or macrophage LCVs was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and imaging flow cytometry, and the depletion of Rap1 by RNA interference significantly reduced the intracellular growth of L. pneumophila Thus, comparative proteomics identified Rap1 as a novel LCV host component implicated in intracellular replication of L. pneumophila.
Project description:Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia, resides in a distinct vacuole structure called Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). The LCV resists fusion with the lysosome and permits efficient bacterial replication in host macrophages, which requires a Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system. Dot/Icm-translocated effector SdhA is critical for L. pneumophila intracellular growth and functions to prevent host cell death. Here, we show that the absence of SdhA resulted in elevated caspase-1 activation and IL-1? secretion as well as macrophage pyroptosis during Legionella infection. These inflammasome activation phenotypes were independent of the established flagellin-NAIP5-NLRC4 axis, but relied on the DNA-sensing AIM2 inflammasome. We further demonstrate that Legionella DNA was released into macrophage cytosol, and this effect was significantly exaggerated by the absence of SdhA. SdhA bears a functional Golgi-targeting GRIP domain that is required for preventing AIM2 inflammasome activation. Ectopically expressed SdhA formed a unique ring-shape membrane structure, further indicating a role in membrane trafficking and maintaining LCV membrane integrity. Our data together suggest a possible link, mediated by the function of SdhA, between LCV trafficking/maturation and suppression of host innate immune detection.
Project description:The causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila, employs the intracellular multiplication (Icm)/defective organelle trafficking (Dot) type IV secretion system (T4SS) to upregulate phagocytosis and to establish a replicative vacuole in amoebae and macrophages. Legionella-containing vacuoles (LCVs) do not fuse with endosomes but recruit early secretory vesicles. Here we analyze the role of host cell phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism during uptake and intracellular replication of L. pneumophila. Genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that class I phosphatidylinositol(3) kinases (PI3Ks) are dispensable for phagocytosis of wild-type L. pneumophila but inhibit intracellular replication of the bacteria and participate in the modulation of the LCV. Uptake and degradation of an icmT mutant strain lacking a functional Icm/Dot transporter was promoted by PI3Ks. We identified Icm/Dot-secreted proteins which specifically bind to phosphatidylinositol(4) phosphate (PI(4)P) in vitro and preferentially localize to LCVs in the absence of functional PI3Ks. PI(4)P was found to be present on LCVs using as a probe either an antibody against PI(4)P or the PH domain of the PI(4)P-binding protein FAPP1 (phosphatidylinositol(4) phosphate adaptor protein-1). Moreover, the presence of PI(4)P on LCVs required a functional Icm/Dot T4SS. Our results indicate that L. pneumophila modulates host cell PI metabolism and exploits the Golgi lipid second messenger PI(4)P to anchor secreted effector proteins to the LCV.
Project description:Legionella spp. are amoebae-resistant environmental bacteria that replicate in free-living protozoa in a distinct compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Upon transmission of Legionella pneumophila to the lung, the pathogens employ an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to grow in LCVs within alveolar macrophages, thus triggering a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. LCV formation is a complex and robust process, which requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and involves the amazing number of 300 different translocated effector proteins. LCVs interact with the host cell's endosomal and secretory vesicle trafficking pathway. Accordingly, in a proteomics approach as many as 12 small Rab GTPases implicated in endosomal and secretory vesicle trafficking were identified and validated as LCV components. Moreover, the small GTPase Ran and its effector protein RanBP1 have been found to decorate the pathogen vacuole. Ran regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, spindle assembly, and cytokinesis, as well as the organization of non-centrosomal microtubules. In L. pneumophila-infected amoebae or macrophages, Ran and RanBP1 localize to LCVs, and the small GTPase is activated by the Icm/Dot substrate LegG1. Ran activation by LegG1 leads to microtubule stabilization and promotes intracellular pathogen vacuole motility and bacterial growth, as well as chemotaxis and migration of Legionella-infected cells.
Project description:During infection, Legionella pneumophila translocates over 300 effector proteins into the host cytosol, allowing the pathogen to establish an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) that supports bacterial replication. Here, we perform a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen and secondary targeted screens in U937 human monocyte/macrophage-like cells to systematically identify host factors that regulate killing by L. pneumophila. The screens reveal known host factors hijacked by L. pneumophila, as well as genes spanning diverse trafficking and signaling pathways previously not linked to L. pneumophila pathogenesis. We further characterize C1orf43 and KIAA1109 as regulators of phagocytosis and show that RAB10 and its chaperone RABIF are required for optimal L. pneumophila replication and ER recruitment to the LCV. Finally, we show that Rab10 protein is recruited to the LCV and ubiquitinated by the effectors SidC/SdcA. Collectively, our results provide a wealth of previously undescribed insights into L. pneumophila pathogenesis and mammalian cell function.
Project description:Within protozoa or human macrophages Legionella pneumophila evades the endosomal pathway and replicates within an ER-derived vacuole termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). The LCV membrane-localized AnkB effector of L. pneumophila is an F-box protein that mediates decoration of the LCV with lysine(48)-linked polyubiquitinated proteins, which is essential for intravacuolar replication. Using high-throughput LC-MS analysis, we have identified the total and ubiquitinated host-derived proteome of LCVs purified from human U937 macrophages. The LCVs harboring the AA100/130b WT strain contain 1193 proteins including 24 ubiquitinated proteins, while the ankB mutant LCVs contain 1546 proteins with 29 ubiquitinated proteins. Pathway analyses reveal the enrichment of proteins involved in signaling, protein transport, phosphatidylinositol, and carbohydrate metabolism on both WT and ankB mutant LCVs. The ankB mutant LCVs are preferentially enriched for proteins involved in transcription/translation and immune responses. Ubiquitinated proteins on the WT strain LCVs are enriched for immune response, signaling, regulation, intracellular trafficking, and amino acid transport pathways, while ubiquitinated proteins on the ankB mutant LCVs are enriched for vesicle trafficking, signaling, and ubiquitination pathways. The complete and ubiquitinated LCV proteome within human macrophages illustrates complex and dynamic biogenesis of the LCV and provides a rich resource for future studies.
Project description:Legionella pneumophila is a bacterial pathogen that thrives in alveolar macrophages, causing a severe pneumonia. The virulence of L. pneumophila depends on its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS), which delivers more than 300 effector proteins into the host, where they rewire cellular signaling to establish a replication-permissive niche, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Biogenesis of the LCV requires substantial redirection of vesicle trafficking and remodeling of intracellular membranes. In order to achieve this, several T4SS effectors target regulators of membrane trafficking, while others resemble lipases. Here, we characterized LpdA, a phospholipase D effector, which was previously proposed to modulate the lipid composition of the LCV. We found that ectopically expressed LpdA was targeted to the plasma membrane and Rab4- and Rab14-containing vesicles. Subcellular targeting of LpdA required a C-terminal motif, which is posttranslationally modified by S-palmitoylation. Substrate specificity assays showed that LpdA hydrolyzed phosphatidylinositol, -inositol-3- and -4-phosphate, and phosphatidylglycerol to phosphatidic acid (PA) in vitro. In HeLa cells, LpdA generated PA at vesicles and the plasma membrane. Imaging of different phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and organelle markers revealed that while LpdA did not impact on membrane association of various PIP probes, it triggered fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Importantly, although LpdA is translocated inefficiently into cultured cells, an L. pneumophila ?lpdA mutant displayed reduced replication in murine lungs, suggesting that it is a virulence factor contributing to L. pneumophila infection in vivo.