Long-read transcriptome data for improved gene prediction in Lentinula edodes.
ABSTRACT: Lentinula edodes is one of the most popular edible mushrooms in the world and contains useful medicinal components such as lentinan. The whole-genome sequence of L. edodes has been determined with the objective of discovering candidate genes associated with agronomic traits, but experimental verification of gene models with correction of gene prediction errors is lacking. To improve the accuracy of gene prediction, we produced 12.6 Gb of long-read transcriptome data of variable lengths using PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and generated 36,946 transcript clusters with an average length of 2.2 kb. Evidence-driven gene prediction on the basis of long- and short-read RNA sequencing data was performed; a total of 16,610 protein-coding genes were predicted with error correction. Of the predicted genes, 42.2% were verified to be covered by full-length transcript clusters. The raw reads have been deposited in the NCBI SRA database under accession number PRJNA396788.
Project description:Lentinula edodes is a popular, cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom. Lentinula edodes is susceptible to postharvest problems, such as gill browning, fruiting body softening, and lentinan degradation. We constructed a de novo assembly draft genome sequence and performed gene prediction for Lentinula edodesDe novo assembly was carried out using short reads from paired-end and mate-paired libraries and by using long reads by PacBio, resulting in a contig number of 1,951 and an N50 of 1 Mb. Furthermore, we predicted genes by Augustus using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data from the whole life cycle of Lentinula edodes, resulting in 12,959 predicted genes. This analysis revealed that Lentinula edodes lacks lignin peroxidase. To reveal genes involved in the loss of quality of Lentinula edodes postharvest fruiting bodies, transcriptome analysis was carried out using serial analysis of gene expression (SuperSAGE). This analysis revealed that many cell wall-related enzymes are upregulated after harvest, such as ?-1,3-1,6-glucan-degrading enzymes in glycoside hydrolase (GH) families GH5, GH16, GH30, GH55, and GH128, and thaumatin-like proteins. In addition, we found that several chitin-related genes are upregulated, such as putative chitinases in GH family 18, exochitinases in GH20, and a putative chitosanase in GH family 75. The results suggest that cell wall-degrading enzymes synergistically cooperate for rapid fruiting body autolysis. Many putative transcription factor genes were upregulated postharvest, such as genes containing high-mobility-group (HMG) domains and zinc finger domains. Several cell death-related proteins were also upregulated postharvest.IMPORTANCE Our data collectively suggest that there is a rapid fruiting body autolysis system in Lentinula edodes The genes for the loss of postharvest quality newly found in this research will be targets for the future breeding of strains that keep fresh longer than present strains. De novoLentinula edodes genome assembly data will be used for the construction of a complete Lentinula edodes chromosome map for future breeding.
Project description:Heavy metal pollution is a serious problem for Lentinula edodes; however, the treatment of contaminated L. edodes has seldom been studied. This study investigated the removal of cadmium (Cd) from contaminated L. edodes and its lentinan by complexation and coagulation. Some influencing factors, such as pH, medical dosage, and preoxidation were examined. Cd complexation from contaminated L. edodes was shown to be more efficient under acidic conditions (pH 5.0), with a clearance rate of 80.47% in 25 mmol/L EDTA and 78.45% in 25 mmol/L sodium citrate. The Cd content in the lentinan of the contaminated L. edodes was markedly lower than that in the powdered mushroom (2.77 mg/kg vs. 19.49 mg/kg) and was easier to remove. The maximum Cd clearance rate (96.3%) for lentinan was obtained using an optimized process that involved preoxidation with 0.5 mg/L KMnO4, complexing with 25 mmol/L EDTA and 25 mmol/L sodium citrate, and coagulation with 50 mg/L activated carbon (AC) at pH 10.0.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lentinula edodes is one of the most popular edible mushroom species in the world and contains useful medicinal components, such as lentinan. The light-induced formation of brown film on the vegetative mycelial tissues of L. edodes is an important process for ensuring the quantity and quality of this edible mushroom. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this critical developmental process in L. edodes, we characterized the morphological phenotypic changes in a strain, Chamaram, associated with abnormal brown film formation and compared its genome-wide transcriptional features. RESULTS:In the present study, we performed genome-wide transcriptome analyses of different vegetative mycelium growth phenotypes, namely, early white, normal brown, and defective dark yellow partial brown films phenotypes which were exposed to different light conditions. The analysis revealed the identification of clusters of genes specific to the light-induced brown film phenotypes. These genes were significantly associated with light sensing via photoreceptors such as FMN- and FAD-bindings, signal transduction by kinases and GPCRs, melanogenesis via activation of tyrosinases, and cell wall degradation by glucanases, chitinases, and laccases, which suggests these processes are involved in the formation of mycelial browning in L. edodes. Interestingly, hydrophobin genes such as SC1 and SC3 exhibited divergent expression levels in the normal and abnormal brown mycelial films, indicating the ability of these genes to act in fruiting body initiation and formation of dikaryotic mycelia. Furthermore, we identified the up-regulation of glycoside hydrolase domain-containing genes in the normal brown film but not in the abnormal film phenotype, suggesting that cell wall degradation in the normal brown film phenotype is crucial in the developmental processes related to the initiation and formation of fruiting bodies. CONCLUSIONS:This study systematically analysed the expression patterns of light-induced browning-related genes in L. edodes. Our findings provide information for further investigations of browning formation mechanisms in L. edodes and a foundation for future L. edodes breeding.
Project description:Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharides possess many therapeutic characteristics, including anti-tumor and immuno-modulation. The gut microbes play a critical role in modulation of immune function. However, the impact of Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharides on the gut microbes have not yet been explored. In this study, high-throughput pyrosequencing technique was employed to investigate the effects of a new heteropolysaccharide L2 from Lentinula edodes on microbiota diversity and composition of small intestine, cecum, colon and distal end of colon (feces) in mice. The results demonstrated that along mouse intestine the microbiota exhibit distinctly different space distribution. L2 treatment reduced the diversity and evenness of gut microbiota along the intestine, especially in the cecum and colon. In the fecal microbial communities, the decrease of Bacteroidetes by significantly increasing Proteobacteria were observed, which were characterized by the increased Helicobacteraceae and reduced S24-7 at family level. Some OTUs, corresponding to Bacteroides acidifaciens, Alistipes and Helicobacter suncus, were found to be significantly increased in L2 treated-mice. In particular, 4 phyla Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and Planctomycetes are exclusively present in L2-treated mice. This is helpful for further demonstrating healthy action mechanism of Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharide L2.
Project description:Gene expression profiles before and after spore formation of Lentinula edodes (L54)grown at sawdust. Keywords: time-course SAGE were used to generate tags from RNA of fruit bodies of L. edodes. RNA were extracted from the fruit bodies before and after spore observed. Gene expression profiles of both stages were compared to screen out genes may relate to spore formation.
Project description:Gene expression profiles before and after spore formation of Lentinula edodes (L54) grown at sawdust. Overall design: SAGE were used to generate tags from RNA of fruit bodies of L. edodes. RNA were extracted from the fruit bodies before and after spore observed. Gene expression profiles of both stages were compared to screen out genes may relate to spore formation. To facilitate comparison of LongSAGE and SAGE data in GEO, LongSAGE tags (15bp) were trimmed to become 10bp and uploaded in previous submission (GSM87320, GSM87321). The current submission are actual LongSAGE experimental data without any extrapolation from SAGE data.
Project description:Lentinula edodes is one of the most popular edible mushrooms worldwide and contains important medicinal components such as lentinan, ergosterol, and eritadenine. Mushroom metabolism is regulated by the mycelia and fruit body using light; however, in mushrooms, the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling this process as well as light-induced gene expression remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, we compared morphological changes and gene expression in the fruit bodies of L. edodes cultivated under blue light and continuous darkness. Our results showed that blue light primarily induced pileus growth (diameter and thickness) compared to dark cultivation. Alternatively, stipe length development was promoted by dark cultivation. We also performed RNAseq on L. edodes under the blue light/dark cultivation conditions. A total of 12,051 genes were used for aligning the Illumina raw reads and 762 genes that showed fold change cut-offs of >|2| and significance p-values of <0.05 were selected under blue light condition. Among the genes which showed two-fold changed genes, 221 were upregulated and 541 were downregulated. In order to identify blue light induced candidate genes, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected according to 4-fold changes and validated by RT-PCR. We identified 8 upregulated genes under blue light condition, such as DDR48-heat shock protein, Fasciclin-domain-containing protein and carbohydrate esterase family 4 protein, FAD NAD-binding domain-containing protein that are involved in morphological development of primordium and embryonic muscle development, cell adhesion and affect the structure of cellulosic and non-cellulosic cell walls of fruit body development, and photoreceptor of blue light signaling for fruit body and pigment development, respectively. This study provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of blue light in mushroom growth and development and can thus contribute to breeding programs to improve mushroom cultivation.
Project description:Mushroom Lentinula edodes has been widely studied therapeutically. However, there is no data regarding its daily intake level safety. Since L. edodes has many active compounds known to bind to metals, we evaluated macro and micronutrients in liver and kidney of healthy rats after subchronic exposure to L. edodes. Rats were divided into four groups, receiving water and L. edodes at 100, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The treatment lasted 30 days. Essential elements (Zn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Se, Co, Mo, and Li) were analyzed in an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Our results demonstrated a significant decrease in Cu, Fe, Mn and Co levels in liver of rats receiving L. edodes at the highest doses. In kidney, Mn, Mo and Li concentrations significantly dropped in the groups exposed to the highest doses. In this way, an important point is revealed concerning the food safety from L. edodes, once its chronic and high consumption could contribute to macro and micronutrients deficiency. Additionally, we speculate that the daily use of L. edodes could be unsuccessful for patients in mineral therapy besides being able to be unsafe for individuals with some propensity to mineral deficiency.
Project description:Endogenous formaldehyde is generated as a normal metabolite via bio-catalysis of ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and L-cysteine sulfoxide lyase (C-S lyase) during the growth and development of Lentinula edodes. In this study, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression levels, the activities of GGT and C-S lyase, and the endogenous formaldehyde content in L. edodes at different growth stages. With the growth of L. edodes, a decrease was found in the mRNA and protein expression levels of GGT, while an increase was observed in the mRNA and protein expression levels of C-S lyase as well as the activities of GGT and C-S lyase. Our results revealed for the first time a positive relationship of formaldehyde content with the expression levels of Csl (encoding Lecsl) and Lecsl (C-S lyase protein of Lentinula edodes) as well as the enzyme activities of C-S lyase and GGT during the growth of L. edodes. This research provided a molecular basis for understanding and controlling the endogenous formaldehyde formation in Lentinula edodes in the process of growth.