Potent Pyrimidine and Pyrrolopyrimidine Inhibitors of Testis-Specific Serine/Threonine Kinase?2 (TSSK2).
ABSTRACT: Testis-specific serine/threonine kinase?2 (TSSK2) is an important target for reversible male contraception. A high-throughput screen of ?17?000 compounds using a mobility shift assay identified two potent series of inhibitors having a pyrrolopyrimidine or pyrimidine core. The pyrrolopyrimidine 10 (IC50 22?nm; GSK2163632A) and the pyrimidine 17 (IC50 31?nm; ALK inhibitor?1) are the most potent TSSK2 inhibitors in these series, which contain the first sub-100 nanomolar inhibitors of any TSSK isoform reported, except for the broad kinase inhibitor staurosporine. The novel, potent pyrimidine TSSK2 inhibitor compound 19 (IC50 66?nm; 2-[[5-chloro-2-[2-methoxy-4-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)anilino]pyrimidin-4-yl]amino]-N-methylbenzenesulfonamide) lacks the potential for metabolic activation. Compound 19 had a potency rank order of TSSK1>TSSK2>TSSK3>TSSK6, indicating that potent dual inhibitors of TSSK1/2 can be identified, which may be required for a complete contraceptive effect. The future availability of a TSSK2 crystal structure will facilitate structure-based discovery of selective TSSK inhibitors from these pyrrolopyrimidine and pyrimidine scaffolds.
Project description:Members of the testis-specific serine/threonine kinases (Tssk) family may have a role in sperm differentiation in the testis and/or fertilization. To gain insight into the functional relevance of these kinases, their expression was examined both at the mRNA and protein levels. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that all five Tssk mRNAs are almost exclusively expressed postmeiotically in the testis. Recombinant mouse and human Tssks were cloned and used for validation of an array of commercial and custom-made antibodies against Tssks. Immunolocalization in mouse testis, and in mouse and human sperm, showed that Tssk1, Tssk2, Tssk4 and Tssk6, but not Tssk3, were present in mouse sperm and in germ cells from mouse testis. TSSK1, TSSK2 and TSSK6 were also detected in human sperm, while TSSK3 was absent. In both mouse and human sperm, Tssk1 was partially soluble, while Tssk2, Tssk4 and Tssk6 were insoluble in non-ionic detergents. In vitro recombinant TSSK2 activity assays showed maximum enzymatic activity at 5 mM Mg(2+) and a Km for ATP of ∼10 µM. These, observations together with findings that the Tssk1/Tssk2 double knock-out as well as the Tssk6 null mice are sterile without presenting other detectable defects, suggest that these kinases could be used as targets for male contraception.
Project description:The testis-specific serine/threonine kinase 2 (TSSK2) has been proposed as a candidate male contraceptive target. Development of a selective inhibitor for this kinase first necessitates the production of highly purified, soluble human TSSK2 and its substrate, TSKS, with high yields and retention of biological activity for crystallography and compound screening. Strategies to produce full-length, soluble, biologically active hTSSK2 in baculovirus expression systems were tested and refined. Soluble preparations of TSSK2 were purified by immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by gel filtration chromatography. The biological activities of rec.hTSSK2 were verified by in vitro kinase and mobility shift assays using bacterially produced hTSKS (isoform 2), casein, glycogen synthase peptide (GS peptide) and various TSKS peptides as target substrates. Purified recombinant hTSSK2 showed robust kinase activity in the in vitro kinase assay by phosphorylating hTSKS isoform 2 and casein. The ATP Km values were similar for highly and partially purified fractions of hTSSK2 (2.2 and 2.7 ?M, respectively). The broad spectrum kinase inhibitor staurosporine was a potent inhibitor of rec.hTSSK2 (IC50 = 20 nM). In vitro phosphorylation experiments carried out with TSKS (isoform 1) fragments revealed particularly strong phosphorylation of a recombinant N-terminal region representing aa 1-150 of TSKS, indicating that the N-terminus of human TSKS is phosphorylated by human TSSK2. Production of full-length enzymatically active recombinant TSSK2 kinase represents the achievement of a key benchmark for future discovery of TSSK inhibitors as male contraceptive agents.
Project description:Targeted deletion of Tssk1 and 2 resulted in male chimeras which produced sperm/spermatogenic cells bearing the mutant allele, however this allele was never transmitted to offspring, indicating infertility due to haploinsufficiency. Morphological defects in chimeras included failure to form elongated spermatids, apoptosis of spermatocytes and spermatids, and the appearance of numerous round cells in the epididymal lumen. Characterization of TSSK2 and its interactions with the substrate, TSKS, were further investigated in human and mouse. The presence of both kinase and substrate in the testis was confirmed, while persistence of both proteins in spermatozoa was revealed for the first time. In vivo binding interactions between TSSK2 and TSKS were established through co-immunoprecipitation of TSSK2/TSKS complexes from both human sperm and mouse testis extracts. A role for the human TSKS N-terminus in enzyme binding was defined by deletion mapping. TSKS immunoprecipitated from both mouse testis and human sperm extracts was actively phosphorylated. Ser281 was identified as a phosphorylation site in mouse TSKS. These results confirm both TSSK 2 and TSKS persist in sperm, define the critical role of TSKS' N-terminus in enzyme interaction, identify Ser 281 as a TSKS phosphorylation site and indicate an indispensable role for TSSK 1 and 2 in spermiogenesis.
Project description:Male contraception is a very active area of research. Several hormonal agents have entered clinical trials, while potential non-hormonal targets have been brought to light more recently and are at earlier stages of development. The general strategy is to target genes along the molecular pathways of sperm production, maturation, or function, and it is predicted that these novel approaches will hopefully lead to more selective male contraceptive compounds with a decreased side effect burden. Protein kinases are known to play a major role in signaling events associated with sperm differentiation and function. In this review, we focus our analysis on the testis-specific serine kinase (TSSK) protein family. We have previously shown that members of the family of TSSKs are postmeiotically expressed in male germ cells and in mature mammalian sperm. The restricted postmeiotic expression of TSSKs as well as the importance of phosphorylation in signaling processes strongly suggests that TSSKs have an important role in germ cell differentiation and/or sperm function. This prediction has been supported by the reported sterile phenotype of the Tssk6 knockout (KO) mice and of the double Tssk1 and Tssk2 KO mice and by the male subfertile phenotype observed in a Tssk4 KO mouse model.
Project description:Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) have been shown to be potent inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1. Pyrazolopyrimidine and 5-aminopyrazole-4-carboxamide scaffold-based BKIs are effective in acute and chronic experimental models of toxoplasmosis. Through further exploration of these 2 scaffolds and a new pyrrolopyrimidine scaffold, additional compounds have been identified that are extremely effective against acute experimental toxoplasmosis. The in vivo efficacy of these BKIs demonstrates that the cyclopropyloxynaphthyl, cyclopropyloxyquinoline, and 2-ethoxyquinolin-6-yl substituents are associated with efficacy across scaffolds. In addition, a broad range of plasma concentrations after oral dosing resulted from small structural changes to the BKIs. These select BKIs include anti-Toxoplasma compounds that are effective against acute experimental toxoplasmosis and are not toxic in human cell assays, nor to mice when administered for therapy. The BKIs described here are promising late leads for improving anti-Toxoplasma therapy.
Project description:There is considerable interest in developing non-peptidic, small-molecule ?-helix mimetics to disrupt ?-helix-mediated protein?protein interactions. Herein, we report the design of a novel pyrrolopyrimidine-based scaffold for such ?-helix mimetics with increased conformational rigidity. We also developed a facile solid-phase synthetic route that is amenable to divergent synthesis of a large library. Using a fluorescence polarization-based assay, we identified cell-permeable, dual MDMX/MDM2 inhibitors, demonstrating that the designed molecules can act as ?-helix mimetics.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) plays a crucial role in cancer angiogenesis. In this study, a series of novel furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine and thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine based-derivatives were designed and synthesized as VEGFR-2 inhibitors, in accordance to the structure activity relationship (SAR) studies of known type II VEGFR-2 inhibitors. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their ability to in vitro inhibit VEGFR-2 kinase enzyme. Seven compounds (15b, 16c, 16e, 21a, 21b, 21c and 21e) demonstrated highly potent dose-related VEGFR-2 inhibition with IC50 values in nanomolar range, of which the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine based-derivatives (21b, 21c and 21e) exhibited IC50 values of 33.4, 47.0 and 21?nM respectively. Moreover, furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-based derivative (15b) showed the strongest inhibition of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation with 99.5% inhibition at 10??M concentration. Consistent with our in vitro findings, compounds (21b and 21e) orally administered at 5 and 10?mg/kg/day for 8 consecutive days demonstrated potent anticancer activity in Erhlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) solid tumor murine model. Such compounds blunted angiogenesis in EAC as evidenced by reduced percent microvessel via decreasing VEGFR-2 phosphorylation with subsequent induction of apoptotic machinery. Furthermore, Miles vascular permeability assay confirmed their antiangiogenic effects in vivo. Intriguingly, such compounds showed no obvious toxicity.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are pivotal kinases in cell cycle transition and gene transcription. A series of N2,N4-diphenylpyrimidine-2,4-diamines were previously identified as potent CDK2/CDK9 inhibitors. To explore the SAR of this structural prototype, twenty-four novel N2,N4-disubstituted pyrimidine-2,4-diamines were designed and synthesized. Among them, twenty-one compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activities against both CDK2/cyclin A and CDK9/cyclin T1 systems, and the most potent CDK2 and CDK9 inhibitors, 3g and 3c, showed IC50 values of 83 nM and 65 nM respectively. Most of these compounds displayed significant inhibition against the tested tumor cell lines in the SRB assay, and in particular, remained active against the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231. Flow cytometer analysis of compounds 2a, 2d and 3b in MDA-MB-231 cells indicated that these compounds induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Docking studies on compound 3g were performed, which provided conducive clues for further molecular optimization.
Project description:Based on the pyrimidine skeleton of EGFRT790M inhibitors, a series of N,9-diphenyl-9H-purin-2-amine derivatives were identified as effective BTK inhibitors. Among these compounds, inhibitors 10d, 10i, and 10j, possessing IC50 values of 0.5, 0.5, and 0.4 nM, displayed anti-BTK kinase activity that was as potent as the reference compounds. In particular, compound 10j suppressed the proliferation of two typical B-cell leukemia cell lines expressing high levels of BTK with concentrations of 7.75 and 12.6 ?M. The activity of the subject compound as determined by the CCK-8 method and apoptosis analysis validated that inhibitor 10j is slightly more potent than AVL-292 and ibrutinib. The results of these experimental explorations suggested that 10j could serve as a valuable molecule for control of leukemia pending further developments.
Project description:The inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) potentially represents a new treatment option for malaria, as P. falciparum relies entirely on a de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway for survival. Herein, we report a series of pyrimidone derivatives as novel inhibitors of PfDHODH. The most potent compound, 26, showed high inhibition activity against PfDHODH (IC50 = 23 nM), with >400-fold species selectivity over human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH). The brand-new inhibitor scaffold targeting PfDHODH reported in this work may lead to the discovery of new antimalarial agents.