Host Interaction Analysis of PA-N155 and PA-N182 in Chicken Cells Reveals an Essential Role of UBA52 for Replication of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus.
ABSTRACT: PA-N155 and PA-N182 proteins were translated from the 11th and 13th start codon AUG of the RNA polymerase acidic protein (PA) mRNA of H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV), which plays an important role in viral replication. Little is known about the interactions between PA-N155 and PA-N182 and the host proteins. This study investigated the interaction landscape of PA-N155 and PA-N182 of H5N1 IAV in chicken cells while their interacting complexes were captured by immunoprecipitation and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 491 (PA-N155) and 302 (PA-N182) interacting proteins were identified. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses showed that proteins of the two interactomes were enriched in RNA processing, viral processing and protein transport, and proteins related to signaling pathways of proteasome, ribosome, and aminoacy1-tRNA biosynthesis were significantly enriched, suggesting their potential roles in H5N1 IAV infection. Comparative analysis of the interactome of PA, PA-N155, and PA-N182 identified UBA52 as a conserved host factor that interacted with all three viral proteins. UBA52 is a fusion protein consisting of ubiquitin at the N terminus and ribosomal protein L40 at the C terminus. Knockdown of UBA52 significantly decreased the titer of H5N1 IAV in chicken cells and was accompanied with attenuated production of proinflammatory cytokines. Our analyses of the influenza-host protein interactomes identified UBA52 as a PA interaction protein for virus replication.
Project description:Many replication events are involved in the influenza A virus life cycle, and they are accomplished by different virus proteins with specific functions. However, because the size of the influenza virus genome is limited, the virus uses different mechanisms to express multiple viral proteins from a single gene segment. The M2 and NS2 proteins are produced by splicing, and several novel influenza A virus proteins, such as PB1-F2, PB1-N40, and PA-X, have recently been identified. Here, we identified novel PA-related proteins in influenza A virus-infected cells. These newly identified proteins are translated from the 11th and 13th in-frame AUG codons in the PA mRNA and are, therefore, N-terminally truncated forms of PA, which we named PA-N155 and PA-N182, respectively. The 11th and 13th AUG codons are highly conserved among influenza A viruses, and the PA-N155 and PA-N182 proteins were detected in cells infected with various influenza A viruses isolated from different host species, suggesting the expression of these N-truncated PAs is universal in nature among influenza A viruses. These N-truncated PAs did not show polymerase activity when expressed together with PB1 and PB2; however, mutant viruses lacking the N-truncated PAs replicated more slowly in cell culture and had lower pathogenicity in mice than did wild-type virus. These results suggest that these novel PA-related proteins likely possess important functions in the replication cycle of influenza A virus.
Project description:Accumulating data have identified the important roles of PA protein in replication and pathogenicity of influenza A virus (IAV). Identification of host factors that interact with the PA protein may accelerate our understanding of IAV pathogenesis. In this study, using immunoprecipitation assay combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 278 human cellular proteins that might interact with PA of H5N1 IAV. Gene Ontology annotation revealed that the identified proteins are highly associated with viral translation and replication. Further KEGG pathway analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with translation, infectious disease, and signal transduction. In addition, Diseases and Functions analysis suggested that these cellular proteins are highly related with Organismal Injury and Abnormalities and Cell Death and Survival. Moreover, two cellular proteins (nucleolin and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1-alpha 1) identified both in this study and others were further validated to interact with PA using co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays. Therefore, this study presented the interactome data of H5N1 IAV PA protein in human cells which may provide novel cellular target proteins for elucidating the potential molecular functions of PA in regulating the lifecycle of IAV in human cells.
Project description:PA-X is a newly discovered protein that decreases the virulence of the 1918 H1N1 virus in a mouse model. However, the role of PA-X in the pathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of the H5N1 subtype in avian species is totally unknown. By generating two PA-X-deficient viruses and evaluating their virulence in different animal models, we show here that PA-X diminishes the virulence of the HPAIV H5N1 strain A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 (CK10) in mice, chickens, and ducks. Expression of PA-X dampens polymerase activity and virus replication both in vitro and in vivo. Using microarray analysis, we found that PA-X blunts the global host response in chicken lungs, markedly downregulating genes associated with the inflammatory and cell death responses. Correspondingly, a decreased cytokine response was recapitulated in multiple organs of chickens and ducks infected with the wild-type virus relative to those infected with the PA-X-deficient virus. In addition, the PA-X protein exhibits antiapoptotic activity in chicken and duck embryo fibroblasts. Thus, our results demonstrated that PA-X acts as a negative virulence regulator and decreases virulence by inhibiting viral replication and the host innate immune response. Therefore, we here define the role of PA-X in the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAIV, furthering our understanding of the intricate pathogenesis of influenza A virus.Influenza A virus (IAV) continues to pose a huge threat to global public health. Eight gene segments of the IAV genome encode as many as 17 proteins, including 8 main viral proteins and 9 accessory proteins. The presence of these accessory proteins may further complicate the pathogenesis of IAV. PA-X is a newly identified protein in segment 3 that acts to decrease the virulence of the 1918 H1N1 virus in mice by modulating host gene expression. Our study extends these functions of PA-X to H5N1 HPAIV. We demonstrated that loss of PA-X expression increases the virulence and replication of an H5N1 virus in mice and avian species and alters the host innate immune and cell death responses. Our report is the first to delineate the role of the novel PA-X protein in the pathogenesis of H5N1 viruses in avian species and promotes our understanding of H5N1 HPAIV.
Project description:The influenza A virus contains 8 segmented genomic RNAs and was considered to encode 10 viral proteins until investigators identified the 11th viral protein, PB1-F2, which uses an alternative reading frame of the PB1 gene. The recently identified PB1-N40, PA-N155 and PA-N182 influenza A proteins have shown the potential for using a leaking ribosomal scanning mechanism to generate novel open reading frames (ORFs). These novel ORFs provide examples of the manner in which the influenza A virus expands its coding capacity by using overlapping reading frames. In this study, we performed a computational search, based on a ribosome scanning mechanism, on all influenza A coding sequences to identify possible forward-reading ORFs that could be translated into novel viral proteins. We specified that the translated products had a prevalence ?5% to eliminate sporadic ORFs. A total of 1,982 ORFs were thus identified and presented in terms of their locations, lengths and Kozak sequence strengths. We further provided an abridged list of ORFs by requiring every candidate an upstream start codon (within the upstream third of the primary transcript), a strong Kozak consensus sequence and high prevalence (?95% and ?50% for in-frame and alternative-frame ORFs, respectively). The PB1-F2, PB1-N40, PA-N155 and PA-N182 proteins all fulfilled our filtering criteria. Subject to these three stringent settings, we additionally named 16 novel ORFs for all influenza A genomes except for HA and NA, for which 43 HA and 11 NA ORFs from their respective subtypes were also recognized.
Project description:Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (IAV) from avian hosts were first reported to directly infect humans 20 years ago. However, such infections are rare events, and our understanding of factors promoting or restricting zoonotic transmission is still limited. One accessory protein of IAV, PB1-F2, was associated with pathogenicity of pandemic and zoonotic IAV. This short (90-amino-acid) peptide does not harbor an enzymatic function. We thus identified host factors interacting with H5N1 PB1-F2, which could explain its importance for virulence. PB1-F2 binds to HCLS1-associated protein X1 (HAX-1), a recently identified host restriction factor of the PA subunit of IAV polymerase complexes. We demonstrate that the PA of a mammal-adapted H1N1 IAV is resistant to HAX-1 imposed restriction, while the PA of an avian-origin H5N1 IAV remains sensitive. We also showed HAX-1 sensitivity for PAs of A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 (H1N1) and A/Shanghai/1/2013 (H7N9), two avian-origin zoonotic IAV. Inhibition of H5N1 polymerase by HAX-1 can be alleviated by its PB1-F2 through direct competition. Accordingly, replication of PB1-F2-deficient H5N1 IAV is attenuated in the presence of large amounts of HAX-1. Mammal-adapted H1N1 and H3N2 viruses do not display this dependence on PB1-F2 for efficient replication in the presence of HAX-1. We propose that PB1-F2 plays a key role in zoonotic transmission of avian H5N1 IAV into humans.IMPORTANCE Aquatic and shore birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses from which the virus can jump into a variety of bird and mammal host species, including humans. H5N1 influenza viruses are a good model for this process. They pose an ongoing threat to human and animal health due to their high mortality rates. However, it is currently unclear what restricts these interspecies jumps on the host side or what promotes them on the virus side. Here we show that a short viral peptide, PB1-F2, helps H5N1 bird influenza viruses to overcome a human restriction factor of the viral polymerase complex HAX-1. Interestingly, we found that human influenza A virus polymerase complexes are already adapted to HAX-1 and do not require this function of PB1-F2. We thus propose that a functional full-length PB1-F2 supports direct transmission of bird viruses into humans.
Project description:The PA-X protein, arising from ribosomal frameshift during PA translation, was recently discovered in influenza A virus (IAV). The C-terminal domain 'X' of PA-X proteins in IAVs can be classified as full-length (61 aa) or truncated (41 aa). In the main, avian influenza viruses express full-length PA-X proteins, whilst 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza viruses harbour truncated PA proteins. The truncated form lacks aa 232-252 of the full-length PA-X protein. The significance of PA-X length in virus function remains unclear. To address this issue, we constructed a set of contemporary influenza viruses (pH1N1, avian H5N1 and H9N2) with full and truncated PA-X by reverse genetics to compare their replication and host pathogenicity. All full-length PA-X viruses in human A549 cells conferred 10- to 100-fold increase in viral replication and 5-8% increase in apoptosis relative to corresponding truncated PA-X viruses. Full-length PA-X viruses were more virulent and caused more severe inflammatory responses in mice. Furthermore, aa 233-252 at the C terminus of PA-X strongly suppressed co-transfected gene expression by ? 50%, suggesting that these terminal 20 aa could play a role in enhancing viral replication and contribute to virulence.
Project description:Influenza A viruses (IAV) can infect a broad range of animal hosts, including humans. In humans, IAV causes seasonal annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, representing a serious public health and economic problem, which is most effectively prevented through vaccination. The defense mechanisms that the host innate immune system provides restrict IAV replication and infection. Consequently, to successfully replicate in interferon (IFN)-competent systems, IAV has to counteract host antiviral activities, mainly the production of IFN and the activities of IFN-induced host proteins that inhibit virus replication. The IAV multifunctional proteins PA-X and NS1 are virulence factors that modulate the innate immune response and virus pathogenicity. Notably, these two viral proteins have synergistic effects in the inhibition of host protein synthesis in infected cells, although using different mechanisms of action. Moreover, the control of innate immune responses by the IAV NS1 and PA-X proteins is subject to a balance that can determine virus pathogenesis and fitness, and recent evidence shows co-evolution of these proteins in seasonal viruses, indicating that they should be monitored for enhanced virulence. Importantly, inhibition of host gene expression by the influenza NS1 and/or PA-X proteins could be explored to develop improved live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) by modulating the ability of the virus to counteract antiviral host responses. Likewise, both viral proteins represent a reasonable target for the development of new antivirals for the control of IAV infections. In this review, we summarize the role of IAV NS1 and PA-X in controlling the antiviral response during viral infection.
Project description:The PA protein of Influenza A virus (IAV) encoded by segment 3 acts as a specialized RNA endonuclease in the transcription of the viral genome. The same genomic segment encodes for a second shorter protein, termed PA-X, with the first 191 N-terminal aminoacids (aa) identical to PA, but with a completely different C-ter domain of 61 aa, due to a ribosomal frameshifting. In addition, it has been shown that several IAV isolates encode for a naturally truncated PA-X variant, PAX?C20, missing the last 20 aa. The biochemical properties of PA-X and PAX?C20 have been poorly investigated so far. Here, we have carried out an enzymatic characterization of PA-X and its naturally deleted form, in comparison with PA from the human IAV strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1). Our results showed, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that PA-X possesses an endonucleolytic activity. Both PA and PA-X preferentially cut single stranded RNA regions, but with some differences. In addition, we showed that PAX?C20 has severely reduced nuclease activity. These results point to a previously undetected role of the last C-ter 20 aa for the catalytic activity of PA-X and support distinct roles for these proteins in the viral life cycle.
Project description:The life cycle of influenza A virus (IAV) is modulated by various cellular host factors. Although previous studies indicated that IAV infection is controlled by HDAC6, the deacetylase involved in the regulation of PA remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that HDAC6 acts as a negative regulator of IAV infection by destabilizing PA. HDAC6 binds to and deacetylates PA, thereby promoting the proteasomal degradation of PA. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, Lys(664) of PA can be deacetylated by HDAC6, and the residue is crucial for PA protein stability. The deacetylase activity of HDAC6 is required for anti-IAV activity, because IAV infection was enhanced due to elevated IAV RNA polymerase activity upon HDAC6 depletion and an HDAC6 deacetylase dead mutant (HDAC6-DM; H216A, H611A). Finally, we also demonstrate that overexpression of HDAC6 suppresses IAV RNA polymerase activity, but HDAC6-DM does not. Taken together, our findings provide initial evidence that HDAC6 plays a negative role in IAV RNA polymerase activity by deacetylating PA and thus restricts IAV RNA transcription and replication.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) continues to threaten global public health due to drug resistance and the emergence of frequently mutated strains. Thus, it is critical to find new strategies to control IAV infection. Here, we discover one host protein, HDAC6, that can inhibit viral RNA polymerase activity by deacetylating PA and thus suppresses virus RNA replication and transcription. Previously, it was reported that IAV can utilize the HDAC6-dependent aggresome formation mechanism to promote virus uncoating, but HDAC6-mediated deacetylation of α-tubulin inhibits viral protein trafficking at late stages of the virus life cycle. These findings together will contribute to a better understanding of the role of HDAC6 in regulating IAV infection. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of HDAC6 at various periods of viral infection may illuminate novel strategies for developing antiviral drugs.
Project description:PA-X is a novel protein encoded by PA mRNA and is found to decrease the pathogenicity of pandemic 1918 H1N1 virus in mice. However, the importance of PA-X proteins in current epidemiologically important influenza A virus strains is not known. In this study, we report on the pathogenicity and pathological effects of PA-X deficient 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses. We found that loss of PA-X expression in pH1N1 and H5N1 viruses increased viral replication and apoptosis in A549 cells and increased virulence and host inflammatory response in mice. In addition, PA-X deficient pH1N1 and H5N1 viruses up-regulated PA mRNA and protein synthesis and increased viral polymerase activity. Loss of PA-X was also accompanied by accelerated nuclear accumulation of PA protein and reduced suppression of PA on non-viral protein expression. Our study highlights the effects of PA-X on the moderation of viral pathogenesis and pathogenicity.