Crowd-figure-pictograms improve women's knowledge about mammography screening: results from a randomised controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of crowd-figure-pictograms on women's numeric knowledge about mammography screening in a three-armed parallel randomised controlled trial.552 women were randomised to receive (1) non-numeric information (n = 192), (2) non-numeric and numeric information (n = 186), or (3) non-numeric and numeric information complemented by crowd-figure-pictograms (n = 174). Baseline numeric knowledge was low (control 0.61, numeric 0.66, and pictogram 0.51 on a scale ranging from 0 to 5). Women in the crowd-figure-pictogram group had a larger knowledge increase than women in the numeric group (2.42 vs 2.06, p = .03). Both groups had significant increases in knowledge compared to the control (0.20, p < .001). Providing numeric information in absolute numbers improves knowledge; even more so when crowd-figure-pictograms are added. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00014736, retrospectively registered 11 May 2018.
Project description:Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903).
Project description:Objective To assess the Uniformed Services Constipation Action Plan (USCAP) as an evidence-based, personalized, clinical action tool with pictograms to aid clinicians and families in the management of functional constipation. Study design The USCAP facilitates the management FC by using a health literacy-informed approach to provide instructions for pharmacotherapies and lifestyle modifications. This study included Part 1 (Pictogram Validation) and Part 2 (Assessment). For Part 1, Pictogram transparency, translucency, and recall were assessed by parent survey (transparency ?85%, mean translucency score ?5, recall ?85% required for validation). For Part 2, the USCAP was assessed by parents, clinical librarians, and clinicians. Parental perceptions (n=65) were assessed using the the Consumer Information Rating Form (17 questions) to gauge comprehensibility, design quality and usefulness. Readability was assessed by 5 formulas and a Readability Composite Score was calculated. Clinical Librarians (n=3) used the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool to measure understandability (19 questions) and Actionability (7 questions) (>80% rating was acceptable). Suitability was assessed by clinicians (n=34) using Doak’s Suitability Assessment of Materials (superior?70% rating). Results All 12 pictograms demonstrated appropriate transparency, translucency and recall. Parental perceptions reflected appropriate comprehensibility, design quality, and usefulness. The Readability Composite Score was consistent with a fifth grade level. Clinical librarians reported acceptable understandability and actionability. Clinicians reported superior suitability. Conclusion The USCAP met all criteria for clinical implementation and future study of USCAP implementation for treating children with chronic FC
Project description:Objective: Giving information and providing advice on diagnostic tests is one of the tasks physicians must carry out personally. To do so, they must evaluate the evidence and integrate their findings into everyday practice. Clinical decisions should be based on evidence. How well current medical education prepares for such evidence-based clinical decision-making is largely unclear. Therefore, it was examined how confident medical students are in clinical decision-making based on evidence using epidemiological data. It was examined whether the decision-making confidence increases the higher the semester. Further questions were whether scientifically active medical students show higher decision-making confidence and whether the representation of figures as pictograms rather than tables positively influences the decision-making confidence.Methods: An online survey of the medical students of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg was carried out. Respondents were presented with three clinical decision-making situations in random order for evaluation in the form of screening scenarios. In each case, the decision-making confidence also had to be specified. The scenarios contained only epidemiological data on existing screening tests. For each scenario, the numbers were presented as a table or a pictogram in a random fashion. In order to avoid false confidence resulting from preconceived opinions neither the illnesses nor the screening tests were mentioned by name.Results: Answers from 171 students were evaluated. Decision-making confidence in dealing with the numbers does not increase in higher semesters (rPearson=0.018, p=0.41). Scientific work is not associated with a higher decision-making confidence (t(169)=-1.26, p=0.11, d=-0.19). Presentation as a pictogram leads to a higher decision-making confidence compared to tables (Pictogram: M=2.33, SD=1.07, Table with numbers: M=2.64, SD=1.11, t(511)=3.21, p<0.01, d=0.28).Conclusions: Medical students from higher semesters show no higher decision-making confidence compared to medical students from lower semesters. Curricular events and scientific work, such as a doctoral thesis, do not seem to strengthen the required skills sufficiently. If evidence is presented in the form of pictograms, this seems to improve student confidence in decision-making.
Project description:Discontinuities in feature maps serve as important cues for the location of object boundaries. Here we used multi-input nonlinear analysis methods and EEG source imaging to assess the role of several different boundary cues in visual scene segmentation. Synthetic figure/ground displays portraying a circular figure region were defined solely by differences in the temporal frequency of the figure and background regions in the limiting case and by the addition of orientation or relative alignment cues in other cases. The use of distinct temporal frequencies made it possible to separately record responses arising from each region and to characterize the nature of nonlinear interactions between the two regions as measured in a set of retinotopically and functionally defined cortical areas. Figure/background interactions were prominent in retinotopic areas, and in an extra-striate region lying dorsal and anterior to area MT+. Figure/background interaction was greatly diminished by the elimination of orientation cues, the introduction of small gaps between the two regions, or by the presence of a constant second-order border between regions. Nonlinear figure/background interactions therefore carry spatially precise, time-locked information about the continuity/discontinuity of oriented texture fields. This information is widely distributed throughout occipital areas, including areas that do not display strong retinotopy.
Project description:Whether the visual system uses a buffer to store image information and the duration of that storage have been debated intensely in recent psychophysical studies. The long phases of stable perception of reversible figures suggest a memory that persists for seconds. But persistence of similar duration has not been found in signals of the visual cortex. Here, we show that figure-ground signals in the visual cortex can persist for a second or more after the removal of the figure-ground cues. When new figure-ground information is presented, the signals adjust rapidly, but when a figure display is changed to an ambiguous edge display, the signals decay slowly--a behavior that is characteristic of memory devices. Figure-ground signals represent the layout of objects in a scene, and we propose that a short-term memory for object layout is important in providing continuity of perception in the rapid stream of images flooding our eyes.
Project description:As US obesity rates increase, more patients, particularly females, are seeking out bariatric surgery. As bariatric surgery patients' social supports have been vastly understudied, clinicians and researchers have limited information about how to include support figures, including romantic partners, in the surgery process. To address this gap in knowledge, we are conducting a four-arm randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy for the inclusion of romantic partners and support figures throughout the bariatric surgery process for a group of 110 women age 18 years or older. Patients will be randomized based upon their cohabitating romantic relationships at baseline. Female patients who have a cohabitating romantic partner will be randomized to one of two arms: partner attended (PA), and partner attended treatment as usual (PA-TU). To provide greater detail about social support during the bariatric process, interested patients (female or male) not in cohabitating romantic relationships will be randomized into support figure attended (SFA) and SFA-TU arms. Four data collection points are planned, including 4-months pre-surgery, 2 weeks pre-surgery, 2 weeks and 2-months post-surgery. Feasibility and acceptability of support figure/partner attendance collected at the final data point. Patients and support figures/partners will complete weight status, health behaviors, support for behavior change and relationship quality assessments at each time point. The rationale, design, theoretical framework, and methodology for the study are described. The results of this study will identify how support figures/partners influence patients' health behavior change and weight loss, and how relationships change over the surgery process.
Project description:Determining whether a region belongs to the interior or exterior of a shape (figure-ground segregation) is a core competency of the primate brain, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Many models assume that figure-ground segregation occurs by assembling progressively more complex representations through feedforward connections, with feedback playing only a modulatory role. We present a dynamical model of figure-ground segregation in the primate ventral stream wherein feedback plays a crucial role in disambiguating a figure's interior and exterior. We introduce a processing strategy whereby jitter in RF center locations and variation in RF sizes is exploited to enhance and suppress neural activity inside and outside of figures, respectively. Feedforward projections emanate from units that model cells in V4 known to respond to the curvature of boundary contours (curved contour cells), and feedback projections from units predicted to exist in IT that strategically group neurons with different RF sizes and RF center locations (teardrop cells). Neurons (convex cells) that preferentially respond when centered on a figure dynamically balance feedforward (bottom-up) information and feedback from higher visual areas. The activation is enhanced when an interior portion of a figure is in the RF via feedback from units that detect closure in the boundary contours of a figure. Our model produces maximal activity along the medial axis of well-known figures with and without concavities, and inside algorithmically generated shapes. Our results suggest that the dynamic balancing of feedforward signals with the specific feedback mechanisms proposed by the model is crucial for figure-ground segregation.
Project description:Figure-ground discrimination refers to the perception of an object, the figure, against a nondescript background. Neural mechanisms of figure-ground detection have been associated with feedback interactions between higher centers and primary visual cortex and have been held to index the effect of global analysis on local feature encoding. Here, in recordings from visual thalamus of alert primates, we demonstrate a robust enhancement of neuronal firing when the figure, as opposed to the ground, component of a motion-defined figure-ground stimulus is located over the receptive field. In this paradigm, visual stimulation of the receptive field and its near environs is identical across both conditions, suggesting the response enhancement reflects higher integrative mechanisms. It thus appears that cortical activity generating the higher-order percept of the figure is simultaneously reentered into the lowest level that is anatomically possible (the thalamus), so that the signature of the evolving representation of the figure is imprinted on the input driving it in an iterative process.
Project description:Visual perception depends not only on local stimulus features but also on their relationship to the surrounding stimulus context, as evident in both local and contextual influences on figure-ground segmentation. Intermediate visual areas may play a role in such contextual influences, as we tested here by examining LG, a rare case of developmental visual agnosia. LG has no evident abnormality of brain structure and functional neuroimaging showed relatively normal V1 function, but his intermediate visual areas (V2/V3) function abnormally. We found that contextual influences on figure-ground organization were selectively disrupted in LG, while local sources of figure-ground influences were preserved. Effects of object knowledge and familiarity on figure-ground organization were also significantly diminished. Our results suggest that the mechanisms mediating contextual and familiarity influences on figure-ground organization are dissociable from those mediating local influences on figure-ground assignment. The disruption of contextual processing in intermediate visual areas may play a role in the substantial object recognition difficulties experienced by LG.
Project description:Figure-ground segregation is the process by which the visual system identifies image elements of figures and segregates them from the background. Previous studies examined figure-ground segregation in the visual cortex of monkeys where figures elicit stronger neuronal responses than backgrounds. It was demonstrated in anesthetized mice that neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) of mice are sensitive to orientation contrast, but it is unknown whether mice can perceptually segregate figures from a background. Here, we examined figure-ground perception of mice and found that mice can detect figures defined by an orientation that differs from the background while the figure size, position or phase varied. Electrophysiological recordings in V1 of awake mice revealed that the responses elicited by figures were stronger than those elicited by the background and even stronger at the edge between figure and background. A figural response could even be evoked in the absence of a stimulus in the V1 receptive field. Current-source-density analysis suggested that the extra activity was caused by synaptic inputs into layer 2/3. We conclude that the neuronal mechanisms of figure-ground segregation in mice are similar to those in primates, enabling investigation with the powerful techniques for circuit analysis now available in mice.