Autologous and not allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells improve acute burn wound healing.
ABSTRACT: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transplant has been reported to be a potential treatment for burn wounds. However, the effects of autogenicity and allogenicity of ADSCs on burn wound healing have not been investigated and the method for using ADSCs still needs to be established. This study compared the healing effects of autologous and allogenic ADSCs and determined an optimal method of using ADSCs to treat acute burn wounds. Experiments were performed in 20 male Wistar rats (weight, 176-250 g; age, 6-7 weeks). Two identical full-thickness burn wounds (radius, 4 mm) were created in each rat. ADSCs harvested from inguinal area and characterized by their high multipotency were injected into burn wounds in the original donor rats (autologous ADSCs group) or in other rats (allogenic ADSCs group). The injection site was either the wound center or the four corners 0.5 cm from the wound edge. The reduction of burn surface areas in the two experimental groups and in control group were evaluated with Image J software for 15 days post-wounding to determine the wound healing rates. Wound healing was significantly faster in the autologous ADSCs group compared to both the allogenic ADSCs group (p<0.05) and control group (p<0.05). Wound healing in the allogenic ADSC group did not significantly differ from that in control group. Notably, ADSC injections 0.5cm from the wound edge showed significantly improved healing compared to ADSCs injections in the wound center (p<0.05). This study demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of ADSCs in treating acute burn wounds in rats. However, only autologous ADSCs improved healing in acute burn wounds; allogenic ADSCs did not. This study further determined a superior location of using ADSCs injections to treat burn wounds including the injection site. Future studies will replicate the experiment in a larger and long-term scale burn wounds in higher mammalian models to facilitate ADSCs therapy in burn wound clinical practice.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cell therapy is a promising avenue for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular injections of culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced rat OA model. The paracrine effects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unmatched ADSCs on chondrocytes were investigated in vitro. Rats were divided into an OA group that underwent ACLT surgery and a sham-operated group that did not undergo ACLT surgery. Four weeks after surgery mild OA was induced in the OA group. Subsequently, the OA rats were randomly divided into ADSC and control groups. A single dose of 1 × 106 ADSCs suspended in 60 ?L phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was intra-articularly injected into the rats of the ADSC group. The control group received only 60 ?L PBS. OA progression was evaluated macroscopically and histologically at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. ADSC treatment did not cause any adverse local or systemic reactions. The degeneration of articular cartilage was significantly weaker in the ADSC group compared to that in the control group at both 8 and 12 weeks. Chondrocytes were co-cultured with MHC-unmatched ADSCs in trans-wells to assess the paracrine effects of ADSCs on chondrocytes. Co-culture with ADSCs counteracted the IL-1?-induced mRNA upregulation of the extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 in chondrocytes. Importantly, ADSCs increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in chondrocytes. The results of this study indicated that the intra-articular injection of culture-expanded allogenic ADSCs attenuated cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat OA model without inducing any adverse reactions. MHC-unmatched ADSCs protected chondrocytes from inflammatory factor-induced damage. The paracrine effects of ADSCs on OA chondrocytes are at least part of the mechanism by which ADSCs exert their therapeutic activity.
Project description:Cutaneous wound is a soft tissue injury that is difficult to heal during aging. It has been demonstrated that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and its secreted exosomes exert crucial functions in cutaneous wound healing. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of exosomes derived from ADSCs (ADSC-Exos) containing MALAT1 in wound healing. ADSCs were isolated from human normal subcutaneous adipose tissues and identified by flow cytometry analysis. Exosomes were extracted from ADSC supernatants and MALAT1 expression was determined using qRT-PCR analysis. HaCaT and HDF cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for simulating the skin lesion model. Subsequently, CCK-8, flow cytometry, wound healing and transwell assays were employed to validate the role of ADSC-Exos containing MALAT1 in the skin lesion model. Besides, cells were transfected with sh-MALAT1 to verify the protective role of MALAT1 in wound healing. The binding relationship between MALAT1 and miR-124 were measured by dual-luciferase reporter assay. ADSC-Exos promoted cell proliferation, migration, and inhibited cell apoptosis of HaCaT and HDF cells impaired by H2O2. However, the depletion of MALAT1 in ADSC-Exos lose these protective effects on HaCaT and HDF cells. Moreover, miR-124 was identified to be a target of MALAT1. Furthermore, ADSC-Exos containing MALAT1 could mediate H2O2-induced wound healing by targeting miR-124 and activating Wnt/?-catenin pathway. ADSC-Exos containing MALAT1 play a positive role in cutaneous wound healing possibly via targeting miR-124 through activating the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, which may provide novel insights into the therapeutic target for cutaneous wound healing.
Project description:Both stem cell therapy and physical treatments have been shown to be beneficial in accelerating bone healing. However, the efficacy of combined treatment with stem cells and physical stimuli for large bone defects remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) and human adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) treatments during fracture repair using a comparative rat calvarial defect model. We evaluated the viability of human ADSCs, which were cultured on a porous PLGA scaffold using an MTS assay. The critical-sized calvarial bone defect rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, LPLI group, ADSC group, and ADSC+LPLI group. Bone formation was evaluated using micro-CT. New bone formation areas and osteogenic factor expression levels were then examined by histomorphological analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Our data showed that PLGA had no cytotoxic effect on human ADSCs. Micro-CT analyses revealed that both the LPLI and ADSC groups showed improved calvarial bone defect healing compared to the control group. In addition, the ADSC+LPLI group showed significantly increased bone volume at 16 weeks after surgery. The area of new bone formation ranked as follows: control group < LPLI group < ADSC group < ADSC+LPLI group. There were significant differences between the groups. In addition, both ADSC and ADSC+LPLI groups showed strong signals of vWF expression. ADSC and LPLI treatments improved fracture repair in critical-sized calvarial defects in rats. Importantly, the combined treatment of ADSCs and LPLI further enhances the bone healing process.
Project description:Healing of burn wounds is often associated with scar formation due to excessive inflammation and delayed wound closure. To date, no effective treatment is available to prevent the fibrotic process. The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) was shown to be involved in fibrosis in various organs. Statins (e.g. Atorvastatin), Angiotensin receptor antagonists (e.g. Losartan) and the combination of these drugs are able to reduce the local RAS activation, and reduced fibrosis in other organs. We investigated whether inhibition of the RAS could improve healing of burn wounds by treatment with Atorvastatin, Losartan or the combination of both drugs. Therefore, full and partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted on both flanks of Yorkshire pigs. Oral administration of Atorvastatin, Losartan or the combination was started at post-burn day 1 and continued for 28 days. Full thickness wounds were excised and transplanted with an autologous meshed split-thickness skin graft at post-burn day 14. Partial thickness wounds received conservative treatment. Atorvastatin treatment resulted in enhanced graft take and wound closure of the full thickness wounds, faster resolution of neutrophils compared to all treatments and reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin positive cells compared to control treatment. Treatment with Losartan and to a lesser extent the combination therapy resulted in diminished graft take, increased wound contraction and poorer scar outcome. In contrast, Losartan treatment in partial thickness wounds decreased the alpha-smooth muscle actin+ fibroblasts and contraction. In conclusion, we showed differential effects of Losartan and Atorvastatin in full and partial thickness wounds. The extensive graft loss seen in Losartan treated wounds is most likely responsible for the poor clinical outcome of these full thickness burn wounds. Therefore, Losartan treatment should not be started before transplantation in order to prevent graft loss. Atorvastatin seems to accelerate the healing process in full thickness wounds possibly by dampening the pro-inflammatory response.
Project description:Recently, numerous compounds have been studied in order to develop antibacterial agents, which can prevent colonized wounds from infection, and assist the wound healing. For this purpose, novel silver chloride nanoparticles stabilized with chitosan oligomer (CHI-AgCl NPs) were synthesized to investigate the influence of antibacterial chitosan oligomer (CHI) exerted by the silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl NPs) on burn wound healing in a rat model. The CHI-AgCl NPs had a spherical morphology with a mean diameter of 42 ± 15 nm. The burn wound healing of CHI-AgCl NPs ointment was compared with untreated group, Vaseline ointment, and chitosan ointment group. The burn wound treated with CHI-AgCl NPs ointment was completely healed by 14 treatment days, and was similar to normal skin. Particularly, the regenerated collagen density became the highest in the CHI-AgCl NPs ointment group. The CHI-AgCl NPs ointment is considered a suitable healing agent for burn wounds, due to dual antibacterial activity of the AgCl NPs and CHI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Due to its complex pathogenesis and low clinical cure rate, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) poses a substantial challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Therefore, the treatment of BRONJ should focus on prevention. In clinical studies, primary wound closure can significantly reduce the incidence of BRONJ. Whether local stem cell transplantation can promote primary gingival healing in patients with a medication history and prevent BRONJ has not been reported. METHODS:In this study, animals were divided into a healthy group (non-drug treatment), a BP group, a hydroxyapatite (HA) group, and an adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) group. All groups except the healthy group were treated with BPs and immunosuppressive drugs once per week for 8 weeks, simulating clinical use for the treatment of cancer patients with bone metastasis, to induce BRONJ-like animals. After the sixth drug treatment, the bilateral premolars were extracted in all groups. In contrast to the healthy and BP groups, the extraction sockets in the HA and ADSC groups were filled with HA or HA + ADSCs simultaneously post extraction to observe the preventive effect of ADSCs on the occurrence of BRONJ. At 2 and 8 weeks post extraction, animals from all groups were sacrificed. RESULTS:At 8 weeks post transplantation, ADSCs prevented the occurrence of BRONJ, mainly through accelerating healing of the gingival epithelium at 2 weeks post extraction. We also found that ADSCs could upregulate the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and fibronectin in tissue from animals with a medication history by accelerating gingival healing of the extraction socket. A rescue assay further demonstrated that TGF-β1 and fibronectin expression decreased in TGF-β1-deficient ADSC-treated animals, which partially abolished the preventive effect of ADSCs on the onset of BRONJ. CONCLUSION:ADSCs prevent the onset of BRONJ, mainly by upregulating the expression of TGF-β1 and fibronectin to promote primary gingival healing, ultimately leading to bone regeneration in the tooth extraction socket. Our new findings provide a novel stem cell treatment for the prevention of BRONJ.
Project description:The abilities of intracavernous injection of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to facilitate recovery of erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve (CN) injury were compared. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham and control groups (intracavernous injection of phosphate-buffered saline), SVF group (intracavernous injection of SVF), and ADSC group (intracavernous injection of ADSCs). Rats in the latter three groups underwent bilateral CN injury prior to injection. The evaluation of erectile function and histomorphometric studies were performed 4 weeks after injection. The ratio of maximal intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in the control group than in the sham group (0.18 vs. 0.56, p < .001). Intracavernous injection of SVF (0.36, p = .035) significantly improved erectile function compared with that in the control group, whereas the ADSC group (0.35, p = .052) showed marginally significant improvement. The smooth muscle/collagen ratio, smooth muscle content, number of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-positive nerve fibers, and expression of von Willebrand factor were significantly higher in the SVF and ADSC groups than in the control group. Expression of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase was significantly increased in the SVF group. The increases in the smooth muscle/collagen ratio and von Willebrand factor expression were larger in the SVF group than in the ADSC group. Intracavernous injection of SVF or ADSCs was equally effective in recovering penile erection in a rat model of CN injury.
Project description:The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the healing efficacy of lyophilized aqueous leaf extract of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., family Elaeagnaceae) (SBT) and to explore its possible mechanism of action on experimental burn wounds in rats. The SBT extract, at various concentrations, was applied topically, twice daily for 7 days. Treatment with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) ointment was used as reference control. The most effective concentration of the extract was found to be 5.0% (w/w) for burn wound healing and this was further used for detailed study. The SBT-treated group showed faster reduction in wound area in comparison with control and SSD-treated groups. The topical application of SBT increased collagen synthesis and stabilization at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in hydroxyproline, hexosamine levels and up-regulated expression of collagen type-III. The histological examinations and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9) expression also confirmed the healing efficacy of SBT leaf extract. Furthermore, there was significant increase in levels of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and decrease in lipid peroxide levels in SBT-treated burn wound granulation tissue. The SBT also promoted angiogenesis as evidenced by an in vitro chick chorioallantoic membrane model and in vivo up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. The SBT leaf extract had no cytotoxic effect on BHK-21 cell line. In conclusion, SBT aqueous leaf extract possesses significant healing potential in burn wounds and has a positive influence on the different phases of wound repair.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been isolated, expanded, and applied in the treatment of many diseases. ADSCs have also been used to treat injured articular cartilage. However, there is controversy regarding the treatment efficiency. We considered that ADSC transplantation with activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may improve injured articular cartilage compared with that of ADSC transplantation alone. In this study, we determined the role of PRP in ADSC transplantation to improve the treatment efficiency. METHODS:ADSCs were isolated and expanded from human adipose tissue. PRP was collected and activated from human peripheral blood. The effects of PRP were evaluated in vitro and in ADSC transplantation in vivo. In vitro, the effects of PRP on ADSC proliferation, differentiation into chondrogenic cells, and inhibition of angiogenic factors were investigated at three concentrations of PRP (10%, 15% and 20%). In vivo, ADSCs pretreated with or without PRP were transplanted into murine models of injured articular cartilage. RESULTS:PRP promoted ADSC proliferation and differentiation into chondrogenic cells that strongly expressed collagen II, Sox9 and aggrecan. Moreover, PRP inhibited expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor. As a result, PRP-pretreated ADSCs improved healing of injured articular cartilage in murine models compared with that of untreated ADSCs. CONCLUSION:Pretreatment of ADSCs with PRP is a simple method to efficiently apply ADSCs in cartilage regeneration. This study provides an important step toward the use of autologous ADSCs in the treatment of injured articular cartilage.
Project description:Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90? is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5-treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing.