Genomic and ecological study of two distinctive freshwater bacteriophages infecting a Comamonadaceae bacterium.
ABSTRACT: Bacteriophages of freshwater environments have not been well studied despite their numerical dominance and ecological importance. Currently, very few phages have been isolated for many abundant freshwater bacterial groups, especially for the family Comamonadaceae that is found ubiquitously in freshwater habitats. In this study, we report two novel phages, P26059A and P26059B, that were isolated from Lake Soyang in South Korea, and lytically infected bacterial strain IMCC26059, a member of the family Comamonadaceae. Morphological observations revealed that phages P26059A and P26059B belonged to the family Siphoviridae and Podoviridae, respectively. Of 12 bacterial strains tested, the two phages infected strain IMCC26059 only, showing a very narrow host range. The genomes of the two phages were different in length and highly distinct from each other with little sequence similarity. A comparison of the phage genome sequences and freshwater viral metagenomes showed that the phage populations represented by P26059A and P26059B exist in the environment with different distribution patterns. Presence of the phages in Lake Soyang and Lake Michigan also indicated a consistent lytic infection of the Comamonadaceae bacterium, which might control the population size of this bacterial group. Taken together, although the two phages shared a host strain, they showed completely distinctive characteristics from each other in morphological, genomic, and ecological analyses. Considering the abundance of the family Comamonadaceae in freshwater habitats and the rarity of phage isolates infecting this family, the two phages and their genomes in this study would be valuable resources for freshwater virus research.
Project description:Bacteriophage P26218 is a virus that thrives in freshwater and infects Rhodoferax sp. strain IMCC26218, both of which were isolated from Soyang Lake, Korea. The bacterial host, IMCC26218, belongs to the genus Rhodoferax and is closely related to R. saidenbachensis, with 98.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Bacteriophage P26218 has an icosahedral head structure with a diameter of ~52 nm and short tail of ~9 nm, which is a typical morphology of the Podoviridae family. Its complete dsDNA genome was 36,315 bp with 56.7 % G?+?C content. This is the first genome sequence reported for a lytic phage of the genus Rhodoferax.
Project description:The study of bacteriophages continues to generate key information about microbial interactions in the environment. Many phenotypic characteristics of bacteriophages cannot be examined by sequencing alone, further highlighting the necessity for isolation and examination of phages from environmental samples. While much of our current knowledge base has been generated by the study of marine phages, freshwater viruses are understudied in comparison. Our group has previously conducted metagenomics-based studies samples collected from Lake Michigan - the data presented in this study relate to four phages that were extracted from the same samples.Four phages were extracted from Lake Michigan on the same bacterial host, exhibiting similar morphological characteristics as shown under transmission electron microscopy. Growth characteristics of the phages were unique to each isolate. Each phage demonstrated a host-range spanning several phyla of bacteria - to date, such a broad host-range is yet to be reported. Genomic data reveals genomes of a similar size, and close similarities between the Lake Michigan phages and the Pseudomonas phage PB1, however, the majority of annotated genes present were ORFans and little insight was offered into mechanisms for host-range.The phages isolated from Lake Michigan are capable of infecting several bacterial phyla, and demonstrate varied phenotypic characteristics despite similarities in host preference, and at the genomic level. We propose that such a broad host-range is likely related to the oligotrophic nature of Lake Michigan, and the competitive benefit that this characteristic may lend to phages in nature.
Project description:An indigenous freshwater bacterium (Sphingomonas sp. strain B18) from Lake Plubetasee (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany) was used to isolate 44 phages from 13 very different freshwater and brackish habitats in distant geographic areas. This bacterial strain was very sensitive to a broad spectrum of phages from different aquatic environments. Phages isolated from geographically distant aquatic habitats, but also those from the same sample, were diverse with respect to morphology and restriction pattern. Some phages were widely distributed, while different types coexisted in the same sample. It was concluded that phages could be a major factor in shaping the structure of bacterial communities and maintaining a high bacterial diversity.
Project description:Cyanobacteria are one of the dominant autotrophs in tropical freshwater communities, yet phages infecting them remain poorly characterized. Here we present the characterization of cyanophage S-SRP02, isolated from a tropical freshwater lake in Singapore, which infects <i>Synechococcus</i> sp. Strain SR-C1 isolated from the same lake. S-SRP02 represents a new evolutionary lineage of cyanophage. Out of 47 open reading frames (ORFs), only 20 ORFs share homology with genes encoding proteins of known function. There is lack of auxiliary metabolic genes which was commonly found as core genes in marine cyanopodoviruses. S-SRP02 also harbors unique structural genes highly divergent from other cultured phages. Phylogenetic analysis and viral proteomic tree further demonstrate the divergence of S-SRP02 from other sequenced phage isolates. Nonetheless, S-SRP02 shares synteny with phage genes of uncultured phages obtained from the Mediterranean Sea deep chlorophyll maximum fosmids, indicating the ecological importance of S-SRP02 and its related viruses. This is further supported by metagenomic mapping of environmental viral metagenomic reads onto the S-SRP02 genome.
Project description:Although many culture-independent molecular analyses have elucidated a great diversity of freshwater bacterioplankton, the ecophysiological characteristics of several abundant freshwater bacterial groups are largely unknown due to the scarcity of cultured representatives. Therefore, a high-throughput dilution-to-extinction culturing (HTC) approach was implemented herein to enable the culture of these bacterioplankton lineages using water samples collected at various seasons and depths from Lake Soyang, an oligotrophic reservoir located in South Korea. Some predominant freshwater bacteria have been isolated from Lake Soyang via HTC (e.g., the acI lineage); however, large-scale HTC studies encompassing different seasons and water depths have not been documented yet. In this HTC approach, bacterial growth was detected in 14% of 5,376 inoculated wells. Further, phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes from a total of 605 putatively axenic bacterial cultures indicated that the HTC isolates were largely composed of <i>Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria</i>, and <i>Verrucomicrobia</i>. Importantly, the isolates were distributed across diverse taxa including phylogenetic lineages that are widely known cosmopolitan and representative freshwater bacterial groups such as the acI, acIV, LD28, FukuN57, MNG9, and TRA3-20 lineages. However, some abundant bacterial groups including the LD12 lineage, <i>Chloroflexi</i>, and <i>Acidobacteria</i> could not be domesticated. Among the 71 taxonomic groups in the HTC isolates, representative strains of 47 groups could either form colonies on agar plates or be revived from frozen glycerol stocks. Additionally, season and water depth significantly affected bacterial community structure, as demonstrated by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analyses. Therefore, our study successfully implemented a dilution-to-extinction cultivation strategy to cultivate previously uncultured or underrepresented freshwater bacterial groups, thus expanding the basis for future multi-omic studies.
Project description:<i>Pseudomonas</i> phage MD8 is a temperate phage isolated from the freshwater lake Baikal. The organisation of the MD8 genome resembles the genomes of lambdoid bacteriophages. However, MD8 gene and protein sequences have little in common with classified representatives of lambda-like phages. Analysis of phage genomes revealed a group of other <i>Pseudomonas</i> phages related to phage MD8 and the genomic layout of MD8-like phages indicated extensive gene exchange involving even the most conservative proteins and leading to a high degree of genomic mosaicism. Multiple horizontal transfers and mosaicism of the genome of MD8, related phages and other λ-like phages raise questions about the principles of taxonomic classification of the representatives of this voluminous phage group. Comparison and analysis of various bioinformatic approaches applied to λ-like phage genomes demonstrated different efficiency and contradictory results in the estimation of genomic similarity and relatedness. However, we were able to make suggestions for the possible origin of the MD8 genome and the basic principles for the taxonomic classification of lambdoid phages. The group comprising 26 MD8-related phages was proposed to classify as two close genera belonging to a big family of λ-like phages.
Project description:There is growing evidence that phages with unusually large genomes are common across various microbiomes, but little is known about their genetic inventories or potential ecosystem impacts. In the present study, we reconstructed large phage genomes from freshwater lakes known to contain bacteria that oxidize methane. Of manually curated genomes, 22 (18 are complete), ranging from 159?kilobase (kb) to 527?kb in length, were found to encode the pmoC gene, an enzymatically critical subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase, the predominant methane oxidation catalyst in nature. The phage-associated PmoC sequences show high similarity to (>90%), and affiliate phylogenetically with, those of coexisting bacterial methanotrophs, including members of Methyloparacoccus, Methylocystis and Methylobacter spp. In addition, pmoC-phage abundance patterns correlate with those of the coexisting bacterial methanotrophs, supporting host-phage relationships. Future work is needed to determine whether phage-associated PmoC has similar functions to additional copies of PmoC encoded in bacterial genomes, thus contributing to growth on methane. Transcriptomics data from Lake Rotsee (Switzerland) showed that some phage-associated pmoC genes were highly expressed in situ and, of interest, that the most rapidly growing methanotroph was infected by three pmoC-phages. Thus, augmentation of bacterial methane oxidation by pmoC-phages during infection could modulate the efflux of this potent greenhouse gas into the environment.
Project description:A high number of viral metagenomes have revealed countless genomes of putative bacteriophages that have not yet been identified due to limitations in bacteriophage cultures. However, most virome studies have been focused on marine or gut environments, thereby leaving the viral community structure of freshwater lakes unclear. Because the lakes located around the globe have independent ecosystems with unique characteristics, viral community structures are also distinctive but comparable. Here, we present data on viral metagenomes that were seasonally collected at a depth of 1?m from Lake Soyang, the largest freshwater reservoir in South Korea. Through shotgun metagenome sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform, 3.08 to 5.54-Gbps of reads per virome were obtained. To predict the viral genome sequences within Lake Soyang, contigs were constructed and 648 to 1,004 putative viral contigs were obtained per sample. We expect that both viral metagenome reads and viral contigs would contribute in comparing and understanding of viral communities among different freshwater lakes depending on seasonal changes.
Project description:Host-like genes are often found in viral genomes. To date, multiple host-like genes involved in photosynthesis and the pentose phosphate pathway have been found in phages of marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus. These gene products are predicted to redirect host metabolism to deoxynucleotide biosynthesis for phage replication while maintaining photosynthesis. A cyanophage, Ma-LMM01, infecting the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, was isolated from a eutrophic freshwater lake and assigned as a member of a new lineage of the Myoviridae family. The genome encodes a host-like NblA. Cyanobacterial NblA is known to be involved in the degradation of the major light harvesting complex, the phycobilisomes. Ma-LMM01 nblA gene showed an early expression pattern and was highly transcribed during phage infection. We speculate that the co-option of nblA into Microcystis phages provides a significant fitness advantage to phages by preventing photoinhibition during infection and possibly represents an important part of the co-evolutionary interactions between cyanobacteria and their phages.
Project description:Despite the abundance, ubiquity and impact of environmental viruses, their inherent genomic plasticity and extreme diversity pose significant challenges for the examination of bacteriophages on Earth. Viral metagenomic studies have offered insight into broader aspects of phage ecology and repeatedly uncover genes to which we are currently unable to assign function. A combined effort of phage isolation and metagenomic survey of Chicago’s nearshore waters of Lake Michigan revealed the presence of Pbunaviruses, relatives of the Pseudomonas phage PB1. This prompted our expansive investigation of PB1-like phages. Genomic signatures of PB1-like phages and Pbunaviruses were identified, permitting the unambiguous distinction between the presence/absence of these phages in soils, freshwater and wastewater samples, as well as publicly available viral metagenomic datasets. This bioinformatic analysis led to the de novo assembly of nine novel PB1-like phage genomes from a metagenomic survey of samples collected from Lake Michigan. While this study finds that Pbunaviruses are abundant in various environments of Northern Illinois, genomic variation also exists to a considerable extent within individual communities.