Dystonia-deafness syndrome caused by ACTB p.Arg183Trp heterozygosity shows striatal dopaminergic dysfunction and response to pallidal stimulation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Dystonia-deafness syndrome is a well-known clinical entity, with sensorineural deafness typically manifesting earlier than dystonia. ACTB p.Arg183Trp heterozygosity has been reported in six patients to cause combined infant-onset deafness and dystonia manifesting in adolescence or young adulthood. Three of these have received beneficial pallidal stimulation. Brain imaging to assess striatal function has not been reported previously, however. Nor has a comprehensive hypothesis been presented for how the pleiotropic manifestations of this specific beta-actin gene mutation originate developmentally. CASE PRESENTATION:A 19-year-old girl with congenital mild dysmorphic facial features, cochlear implants for infant-onset deafness, and mild cognitive and emotional disability, presented with an adolescent-onset, severe generalized dystonia. Brain MRI and multiple single gene sequencing were inconclusive. Due to life-threatening dystonia, we implanted a neurostimulation device, targeting the postero-ventral internal pallidum bilaterally. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale motor/disability scores improved from 87/25 to 21/13 at 2.5 months postoperatively, 26/14 at 3 years, and 30/14 at 4 years. Subsequent whole exome sequencing identified heterozygosity for the ACTB p.Arg183Trp variant. Brain imaging included 123I-ioflupane single photon emission computed tomography (Dopamine Transporter-SPECT), SPECT with 123I-epidepride (binds to dopamine type 2-receptors) and 18 Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose (FDG)-PET. Both Epidepride-SPECT and FDG-PET showed reduced tracer uptake in the striatum bilaterally, particularly in the putamen. DaT-SPECT was slightly abnormal. CONCLUSIONS:In this patient with dystonia-deafness syndrome caused by ACTB p.Arg183Trp heterozygosity, unprecedented brain imaging findings strongly indicate striatal neuronal/dopaminergic dysfunction as the underlying cause of the dystonia. Pallidal stimulation provided a substantial improvement of the severe generalized dystonia, which is largely sustained at 4-year follow-up, and we advise this treatment to be considered in such patients. We hypothesize that the pleiotropic manifestations of the dystonia-deafness syndrome caused by this mutation derive from diverse developmental functions of beta-actin in neural crest migration and proliferation (facial dysmorphogenesis), hair cell stereocilia function (infant-onset deafness), and altered synaptic activity patterns associated with pubertal changes in striatal function (adolescent-onset dystonia). The temporal differences in developmental onset are likely due to varying degrees of susceptibility and of compensatory upregulation of other actin variants in the affected structures.
Project description:Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a neurodegenerative condition predominantly manifesting with chorea and often acanthocytes on peripheral blood film. Abnormal appearances with 123I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have not previously been reported in ChAc. We describe 2 cases with typical presentations of ChAc and late development of parkinsonism with asymmetric reduction in presynaptic striatal uptake on 123I-FP-CIT SPECT. Case 1, a 50-year-old male, developed micrographia and limb bradykinesia 14 years after initial presentation at the age of 30. Case 2, a 42-year-old female presenting with vocal tics and generalized dystonia at the age of 25, developed tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity 11 years into the disease course. These cases represent the best description to date of the natural history of ChAc, in which the early hyperkinetic clinical syndromes give way to a parkinsonian phenotype. This is consistent with a gradual deterioration of presynaptic nigrostriatal projections, reflected in the clinical parkinsonism and abnormal 123I FP-CIT SPECT.
Project description:Background: In clinical practice, assessment of the striatal accumulation in 123I-ioflupane single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is commonly performed calculating the specific binding ratio (SBR) for the whole striatum. On the other hand, visual assessment of striatal accumulation in the SPECT was recently established. However, correlations of visual assessment with motor and cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD) have rarely been examined. Differences in the usefulness of these assessments at clinics are uncertain. Objective: We performed this study to compare correlations of cognitive and motor functions in drug-naive PD between the SBR and visual assessment using 123I-ioflupane SPECT. Methods: Cognitive and motor assessments and 123I-ioflupane SPECT were performed in 47 drug-naïve PD patients with Mini-mental State Examination scores of ?25. Cognitive function was assessed using the total score and 6 subscores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and 10 separate subtests of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (COGNISTAT). Motor function was assessed using the Hoehn and Yahr scale and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Accumulation of 123I-ioflupane was determined by visual assessment based on five grades: 1, burst striatum; 2, egg-shaped; 3, mixed type; 4, eagle wing; 5, normal striatum; and by calculating SBR averaged for the bilateral striatum using the DaTView computer software commonly used in clinical practice. Each SPECT assessment was compared with each subscore for cognitive and motor assessments. Results: Spearman correlation analysis showed SBR was significantly correlated with the MoCA subscores of visuospatial function and attention, and with COGNISTAT subtests of attention. Visual assessment showed significant negative correlation with the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Mean score of postural instability in patients with visual grade of 1 was significantly higher than those in patients with visual grades of 2 and 3. Conclusion: Clinical symptoms reflected by 123I-ioflupane SPECT differ between the SBR and visual assessment. SBR reflects some cognitive functions, whereas a visual assessment grade of 1, which signifies decreased uptake of 123I-Ioflupane in the caudate nucleus, reflects postural instability. Thus, the caudate nucleus may play an important role in posture maintenance. Our results suggest that performing both assessments is of value.
Project description:Objective:To perform a comprehensive characterization of a cohort of patients with chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) in Sweden. Methods:Clinical assessments, targeted genetic studies, neuroimaging with MRI, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, and dopamine transporter with 123I FP-CIT (DaTscan) SPECT. One patient underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Results:Four patients living in Sweden but with different ethnical backgrounds were included. Their clinical features were variable. Biallelic VPS13A mutations were confirmed in all patients, including 3 novel mutations. All tested patients had either low or absent chorein levels. One patient had progressive caudate atrophy. Investigation using FDG-PET revealed severe bilateral striatal hypometabolism, and DaTscan SPECT displayed presynaptic dopaminergic deficiency in 3 patients. MRS demonstrated reduced N-acetylaspartate/creatine (Cr) ratio and mild elevation of both choline/Cr and combined glutamate and glutamine/Cr in the striatum in 1 case. One patient died during sleep, and another was treated with deep brain stimulation, which transiently attenuated feeding dystonia but not his gait disorder or chorea. Conclusions:Larger longitudinal neuroimaging studies with different modalities, particularly MRS, are needed to determine their potential role as biomarkers for ChAc.
Project description:BACKGROUND:[123I]epidepride is a high-affinity radiotracer used in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the D2/3 receptors. It binds with high affinity to striatal and extrastriatal receptors. Nevertheless, its slow kinetics in the striatum impedes quantification in this region. Thus, an approach that would allow a simultaneous quantification of both striatal and extrastriatal D2/3 receptors would be of interest for preclinical and clinical SPECT neuroimaging. We describe a partial saturation protocol that allows us to produce an in vivo Scatchard plot and thus estimate Bavail and appKd separately in both striatal and extrastriatal regions, through a single dynamic SPECT session. To validate this approach, a multi-injection protocol is used for the full kinetic modeling of [123I]epidepride using a two-tissue compartment, 5-parameter model (2T-5k). METHODS:Eighteen male rats were used. Binding parameters were estimated using the multi-injection protocol. Various simulations were performed to estimate the optimal conditions for the partial saturation protocol, which was applied at the region and voxel level. The results of the partial saturation study were compared to those obtained with the 2T-5k model. To illustrate the interest of the partial saturation approach, we performed a preliminary study of the effect of a chronic, subcutaneous administration of haloperidol (1?mg/kg/day), a D2 receptor antagonist, on the Bavail of [123I]epidepride in the rat striatum. RESULTS:A series of simulations demonstrated that a mass of 3 ug/kg of unlabeled epidepride allows the formation of an in vivo Scatchard plot. The partial saturation study led to robust estimations of Bavail in all brain regions that highly correlated (r = 0.99) with the corresponding values from the multi-injection study. A chronic haloperidol treatment resulted in a 17.9% increase in the Bavail values in the left Caudate Putamen nucleus (CP) (p = 0.07) and a 13.8% increase in the right CP (p = 0.12). CONCLUSION:A partial saturation method allowed the robust quantification of D2/3 receptors in striatal and extrastriatal D2/3 receptors with a single-scan approach. This approach may be applied in the mapping of the D2/3 receptor in translational biological studies and potentially, in clinical SPECT imaging.
Project description:The aim of this multicenter trial was to generate a [123I]FP-CIT SPECT database of healthy controls from the common SPECT systems available in Japan.This study included 510 sets of SPECT data from 256 healthy controls (116 men and 140 women; age range, 30-83 years) acquired from eight different centers. Images were reconstructed without attenuation or scatter correction (NOACNOSC), with only attenuation correction using the Chang method (ChangACNOSC) or X-ray CT (CTACNOSC), and with both scatter and attenuation correction using the Chang method (ChangACSC) or X-ray CT (CTACSC). These SPECT images were analyzed using the Southampton method. The outcome measure was the specific binding ratio (SBR) in the striatum. These striatal SBRs were calibrated from prior experiments using a striatal phantom.The original SBRs gradually decreased in the order of ChangACSC, CTACSC, ChangACNOSC, CTACNOSC, and NOACNOSC. The SBRs for NOACNOSC were 46% lower than those for ChangACSC. In contrast, the calibrated SBRs were almost equal under no scatter correction (NOSC) conditions. A significant effect of age was found, with an SBR decline rate of 6.3% per decade. In the 30-39 age group, SBRs were 12.2% higher in women than in men, but this increase declined with age and was absent in the 70-79 age group.This study provided a large-scale quantitative database of [123I]FP-CIT SPECT scans from different scanners in healthy controls across a wide age range and with balanced sex representation. The phantom calibration effectively harmonizes SPECT data from different SPECT systems under NOSC conditions. The data collected in this study may serve as a reference database.
Project description:Variation of the gene coding for D2 receptors (DRD2) has been associated with risk for schizophrenia and with working memory deficits. A functional intronic SNP (rs1076560) predicts relative expression of the two D2 receptors isoforms, D2S (mainly pre-synaptic) and D2L (mainly post-synaptic). However, the effect of functional genetic variation of DRD2 on striatal dopamine D2 signaling and on its correlation with prefrontal activity during working memory in humans is not known.Thirty-seven healthy subjects were genotyped for rs1076560 (G>T) and underwent SPECT with [123I]IBZM (which binds primarily to post-synaptic D2 receptors) and with [123I]FP-CIT (which binds to pre-synaptic dopamine transporters, whose activity and density is also regulated by pre-synaptic D2 receptors), as well as BOLD fMRI during N-Back working memory.Subjects carrying the T allele (previously associated with reduced D2S expression) had striatal reductions of [123I]IBZM and of [123I]FP-CIT binding. DRD2 genotype also differentially predicted the correlation between striatal dopamine D2 signaling (as identified with factor analysis of the two radiotracers) and activity of the prefrontal cortex during working memory as measured with BOLD fMRI, which was positive in GG subjects and negative in GT.Our results demonstrate that this functional SNP within DRD2 predicts striatal binding of the two radiotracers to dopamine transporters and D2 receptors as well as the correlation between striatal D2 signaling with prefrontal cortex activity during performance of a working memory task. These data are consistent with the possibility that the balance of excitatory/inhibitory modulation of striatal neurons may also affect striatal outputs in relationship with prefrontal activity during working memory performance within the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Parkinson's disease (PD) affects the integrity of the dopamine and serotonin system, and is characterized by a plethora of different symptoms, including cognitive impairments of which the pathophysiology is not yet fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES:Investigate the role of the integrity of the dopaminergic and serotonergic system in cognitive functioning in early-stage PD using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) combined with the radiotracer 123I-N-?-fluoropropyl-2?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane (123I-FP-CIT). METHODS:We studied the association between cognitive functions and dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in the caudate nucleus and putamen - as a proxy for striatal dopaminergic integrity - and serotonin transporter (SERT) availability as a proxy for serotonergic integrity in the thalamus and hippocampus using bootstrapped multiple regression. One-hundred-and-twenty-nine (129) PD patients underwent a 123I-FP-CIT SPECT scan and a neuropsychological assessment. RESULTS:We showed a positive association between DAT availability in the head of the caudate nucleus and the Stroop Color Word Task - card I (reading words; ? = 0.32, P = 0.001) and a positive association between DAT availability in the anterior putamen and the Trail Making Test part A (connecting consecutively numbered circles; ? = 0.25, P = 0.02). These associations remained after adjusting for motor symptom severity or volume of the region-of-interest and were most pronounced in medication-naïve PD patients. There were no associations between cognitive performance and SERT availability in the thalamus or hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS:We interpret these results as a role for striatal dopamine - and its PD-related decline - in aspects of processing speed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Abnormal cardiac uptake of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) is a diagnostic marker of Lewy body diseases (LBDs), e.g., Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Planar imaging is generally used to assess cardiac sympathetic dysfunction in 123I-MIBG scintigraphy; however, its clinical utility requires further improvement. We hypothesized that the co-registration of single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) images would improve the diagnostic accuracy of 123I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy for LBDs. This study sought to evaluate the effects of SPECT/CT imaging on 123I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy for diagnosing LBDs.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively investigated data of 54 patients (consecutive 18 patients in each PD, DLB, and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus [iNPH] groups) who underwent 123I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy (planar and SPECT/CT) because of suspected LBDs at the Tohoku University hospital from June 2012 to June 2015. We compared the diagnostic accuracies of the conventional planar 123I-MIBG method and SPECT/CT methods (manual and semi-automatic).<h4>Results</h4>In the conventional planar analysis, 123I-MIBG uptake decreased only in the DLB group compared with the iNPH group. In contrast, the SPECT/CT analysis revealed significantly lower 123I-MIBG uptake in both the PD and DLB groups compared with the iNPH group. Furthermore, a receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that both the manual and semi-automatic SPECT/CT methods were superior to the conventional planar method in differentiating the 3 disorders.<h4>Conclusions</h4>SPECT/CT 123I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy can detect mild cardiac sympathetic dysfunction in LDBs. Our results suggest that the SPECT/CT technique improves diagnostic accuracy for LBDs.
Project description:Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for the protein huntingtin, resulting in a pathogenic expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of this protein. The HD pathology resulting from the mutation is most prominent in the striatal part of the basal ganglia, and progressive differential dysfunction and loss of striatal projection neurons and interneurons account for the progression of motor deficits seen in this disease. The present review summarizes current understanding regarding the progression in striatal neuron dysfunction and loss, based on studies both in human HD victims and in genetic mouse models of HD. We review evidence on early loss of inputs to striatum from cortex and thalamus, which may be the basis of the mild premanifest bradykinesia in HD, as well as on the subsequent loss of indirect pathway striatal projection neurons and their outputs to the external pallidal segment, which appears to be the basis of the chorea seen in early symptomatic HD. Later loss of direct pathway striatal projection neurons and their output to the internal pallidal segment account for the severe akinesia seen late in HD. Loss of parvalbuminergic striatal interneurons may contribute to the late dystonia and rigidity.
Project description:Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare, adult-onset disease usually characterized by, hence the name, a movement disorder and acanthocytosis in the blood. It is caused by mutations of the VPS13A gene with an autosomal recessive transmission. We report a consanguineous Turkish family with a different and informative clinical and diagnostic course. Three siblings developed seizures and the index patient had been diagnosed with bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. A key finding, however, was the basal ganglia involvement in neuroimaging although no movement disorder was present. [18F]FDG-PET showed a prominent decline in striatal glucose metabolism at 31 years of age and [123I]FP-CIT-SPECT revealed a moderate loss of striatal dopamine transporter availability. The family was referred for genetic testing and exome sequencing detected a homozygous novel truncating mutation c.4326 T>A (p.Tyr1442*) in VPS13A in all affected siblings. With this case, we present autosomal recessive epilepsy as the predominant phenotype of ChAc with a new homozygous VPS13A mutation and provide pathological structural and molecular neuroimaging findings.