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INP1 involvement in pollen aperture formation is evolutionarily conserved and may require species-specific partners.

ABSTRACT: Pollen wall exine is usually deposited non-uniformly on the pollen surface, with areas of low exine deposition corresponding to pollen apertures. Little is known about how apertures form, with the novel Arabidopsis INP1 (INAPERTURATE POLLEN1) protein currently being the only identified aperture factor. In developing pollen, INP1 localizes to three plasma membrane domains and underlies formation of three apertures. Although INP1 homologs are found across angiosperms, they lack strong sequence conservation. Thus, it has been unclear whether they also act as aperture factors and whether their sequence divergence contributes to interspecies differences in aperture patterns. To explore the functional conservation of INP1 homologs, we used mutant analysis in maize and tested whether homologs from several other species could function in Arabidopsis. Our data suggest that the INP1 involvement in aperture formation is evolutionarily conserved, despite the significant divergence of INP1 sequences and aperture patterns, but that additional species-specific factors are likely to be required to guide INP1 and to provide information for aperture patterning. To determine the regions in INP1 necessary for its localization and function, we used fragment fusions, domain swaps, and interspecific protein chimeras. We demonstrate that the central portion of the protein is particularly important for mediating the species-specific functionality.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC5965098 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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