Efficacy and safety of ultrasound guided percutaneous glue embolization in iatrogenic haemorrhagic complications of paracentesis and thoracocentesis in cirrhotic patients.
ABSTRACT: To compare the safety and efficacy of ultrasound guided percutaneous glue (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) embolization with transarterial embolization in the management of iatrogenically injured arteries while performing paracentesis or thoracocentesis in patients with chronic liver disease.Hospital database was searched for cirrhotic patients having abdominal/thoracic wall haemorrhage following paracentesis/thoracocentesis procedure from January 2011 to June 2016. Doppler ultrasound and/or CT angiography were used to localize the site of haemorrhage and patients were treated by transarterial embolization or ultrasound-guided percutaneous glue embolization. Technical success was defined as cessation of haemorrhage as evidenced by angiography/Doppler ultrasound and clinical success was evaluated in terms of stabilization of the vital signs without the need for further transfusion or pressors, and survival. In both groups, the time to "imaging diagnosis of haemorrhage" and "successful embolization" with the outcome was analysed.23 cirrhotic patients had bleeding following a percutaneous procedure, 8 (Group 1) of them underwent transarterial embolization while 15 (Group 2) underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous glue embolization. Mean time needed for embolization in Group 1 was 41?min while in Group 2 was 9?min (p < 0.001). Technical success was achieved in all but one case requiring repeat glue embolization. Initial clinical improvement was noted in all cases but the 30-day mortality owing to all causes was not significantly different between treatment groups.The study and its outcome suggest that ultrasound guided percutaneous glue embolization is a quick and effective treatment for iatrogenic haemorrhage following paracentesis/thoracocentesis in cirrhotic patients with comparable results to transarterial embolotherapy. Advances in knowledge: This study details an innovative technique of ultrasound guided percutaneous glue embolization of the iatrogenically injured vessel in the management of active extravasation and pseudoaneurysm developing after paracentesis/thoracocentesis in patients with cirrhosis.
Project description:Our objective was to review the technical success and clinical outcomes of transcatheter embolization of peripheral renal artery with FuAiLe medical glue (FAL). All patients who underwent FAL embolization for peripheral renal artery bleeding were retrospectively analyzed for underlying pathologies, technical success and outcome of embolization procedure. 14 consecutive patients underwent FAL embolization between November 2009 and February 2013. The causes of bleeding were post biopsy (n = 5), blunt trauma (n = 5), percutaneous lithotripsy of kidney stones (n = 3), and complication of cardiac catheterization (n = 1). Bleeding was effectively controlled with a single injection of FAL. Mean volume of FAL mixture (FAL:Lipiodol, 1:1) was 0.5 mL (range, 0.2-0.8 mL). No reflux of the embolic agent was noted. Average cost of FAL for each procedure was $74. Postembolization clinical follow-up showed no evidence of recurrent hematuria, progression of hematoma, hypertension, or elevation of serum creatinine. Doppler ultrasound examinations in 13 patients demonstrated no abscess, renal parenchyma infarction, or renal artery abnormalities. Superselective FAL embolization may be used for the treatment of active bleeding from peripheral renal arteries. It has a high success rate and is quicker and less expensive than embolization with other agents.
Project description:Gastric varices are found in approximately 20% of patients with portal hypertension. Endoscopic procedures involving the injection of cyanoacrylate (CYA) have proven to be the therapies of choice for primary treatment of gastric varices and have resulted in higher hemostasis rates and lower recurrent bleeding rates compared with band ligation and sclerotherapy. Nevertheless, serious adverse events associated with CYA injection, including glue embolization, have been reported in numerous articles and have occasionally led to fatal adverse events. Gastric fundal varices with abnormal shunts are higher-risk than those without abnormal shunts, and their treatment is more challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided puncture is an important technique in the field of digestive endoscopy. EUS has advantages that include improved therapeutic targeting, enhanced variceal detection, the ability to confirm varix obliteration with Doppler examination, and the ability to perform accurate observations of gastric varices that are not affected by blood in the stomach. The coils currently used for intravascular embolization can be precisely delivered into a varix through fine-needle puncture under EUS guidance, and this technique has provided a new approach for varix obliteration. We herein describe two patients with severe gastric fundal varices who were treated with EUS-guided coil injection and CYA embolization.
Project description:We present the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with a huge pelvic and retroperitoneal high flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM) causing high-output heart failure, who was treated with combined therapies, including transarterial embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate-iodized oil mixture (NBCA-lip) and coils for the right ovarian, both internal iliac, 3rd and 4th lumber arteries, venous sclerotherapy using coils and ethanolamine oleate (EO) for the right ovarian and both internal iliac veins with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration technique, and direct percutaneous sclerotherapy using the NBCA-lip and EO for the large nidus of AVM under outflow control using occlusion balloon catheters. <Learning objective: Huge arteriovenous fistulae or malformation (AVF/M) are potentially life threatening due to the potential for spontaneous hemorrhaging and high-output heart failure and are notoriously difficult to diagnose and treat. To improve the high-output heart failure, intensive and invasive combined treatments for huge AVF/M are needed including transarterial and transvenous embolization and sclerotherapy and percutaneous nidus sclerotherapy.>.
Project description:Infectious complications following interventional radiology (IR) procedures can cause significant patient morbidity and, potentially, mortality. As the number and breadth of IR procedures grow, it becomes increasingly evident that interventional radiologists must possess a thorough understanding of these potential infectious complications. Furthermore, given the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, emphasis on cost containment, and attention to quality of care, it is critical to have infection control strategies to maximize patient safety. This article reviews infectious complications associated with percutaneous ablation of liver tumors, transarterial embolization of liver tumors, uterine fibroid embolization, percutaneous nephrostomy, percutaneous biliary interventions, central venous catheters, and intravascular stents. Emphasis is placed on incidence, risk factors, prevention, and management. With the use of these strategies, IR procedures can be performed with reduced risk of infectious complications.
Project description:Background and Objectives:The risk and timing of bleeding events following ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy are not clearly defined. Design setting participants and measurements:We performed a retrospective study of 617 consecutive adult patients who underwent kidney biopsy between 2012 and 2017 at a tertiary academic hospital in London, Canada. We assessed frequency and timing of minor (not requiring intervention) and major (requiring blood transfusion, surgery, or embolization) bleeds and developed a personalized risk calculator for these. Results:Bleeding occurred in 79 patients (12.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.4%-15.7%). Minor bleeding occurred in 67 patients (10.9%; 95% CI: 8.6%-13.6%). Major bleeding occurred in 12 patients (1.9%; 95% CI: 1.1%-3.4%); 2 required embolization or surgery (0.3%; 95% CI: 0.09%-1.2%) and 10 required blood transfusion (1.6%; 95% CI: 0.9%-3.0%). Seventy-three of 79 events were identified immediately on post-procedure ultrasound (92.4% of cases; 95% CI: 84.4%-96.5%). Four of 617 patients experienced a minor event not detected immediately (0.6%; 95% CI: 0.3%-1.7%). Two patients (0.3%; 95% CI: 0.09%-1.2%) suffered a major complication that was not recognized immediately; both required blood transfusions only. There were no deaths or nephrectomies. A risk calculator using age, body mass index, platelet count, hemoglobin concentration, size of the target kidney, and whether the kidney is native, or an allograft predicted minor (C-statistic, 0.70) and major bleeding (C-statistic, 0.83). Conclusions:This retrospective study of 617 patients who had percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsies supports the safety of short post-biopsy monitoring for most patients. A risk calculator can further personalize estimates of complication risk (http://perioperativerisk.com/kbrc).
Project description:The last few years have seen the rapid development of new image-guided interventions for the local treatment of malignant tumors. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the techniques that are most commonly used today in interventional oncology.Selective literature review on the current state of image-guided interventional techniques for local tumor therapy.While surgery, radiation oncology, and systemic chemotherapy are still the three main pillars of tumor therapy, a broad range of minimally invasive, image-guided techniques for local tumor treatment is now available. These may be categorized as percutaneous injection of a toxic substance, transarterial embolization, thermal ablation, and internal radiotherapy. The choice of treatment depends on the type, location, and size of tumor. The greatest amount of clinical experience to date has been gathered in the treatment of primary and secondary hepatic malignancy, but there are interventional treatment options for virtually all regions of the body. At present, the utility of this form of treatment is limited for very large or multiple tumors; novel therapeutic options for these situations are now being studied.The outcome of treatment depends on a judicious determination of the indication for it. The indication should be established by interdisciplinary consensus after all treatment options have been considered.
Project description:The mainstay of treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma is locoregional therapy including percutaneous ablation and transarterial chemo- and radioembolization. While monitoring for tumor response after transarterial chemoembolization is crucial, current imaging strategies are suboptimal. The standard of care is contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography imaging performed at least 4 to 6 weeks after therapy. We present a case in which contrast-enhanced ultrasound identified a specific extra-hepatic collateral from the gastroduodenal artery supplying residual viable tumor and assisting with directed transarterial management.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that albumin has a value in cirrhotic patients undergoing paracentesis but its value in infection and sepsis is less clear. We planned to perform a meta-analysis of the risk of adverse outcomes in cirrhotic patients with and without albumin use. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE in January 2013 for randomized studies of cirrhotic patients that reported the risk of adverse events and mortality with albumin and no albumin exposure. We performed random effects meta-analysis and assessed heterogeneity using the I² statistic. RESULTS: Our review included 16 studies covering 1,518 patients. The use of albumin in paracentesis was associated with significantly reduced risk of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction (OR 0.26 95%, CI 0.08-0.93) and there was a nonsignificant difference in death, encephalopathy, hyponatraemia, readmission, and renal impairment. Compared to the other volume expanders, albumin use showed no difference in clinical outcomes. In cirrhotic patients with any infection, there was a significant reduction in mortality (OR 0.46 95%, CI 0.25-0.86) and renal impairment (OR 0.34 95%, CI 0.15-0.75) when albumin was used. CONCLUSION: The use of albumin in cirrhotic patients is valuable in patients with any infection and it reduces the risk of circulatory dysfunction among patients undergoing paracentesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Uterine leiomyomas (fibroid tumors) cause considerable symptoms in 30-50% of women and are the leading cause of hysterectomy in the United States. Women with uterine fibroid tumors often seek uterine-preserving treatments, but comparative effectiveness trials are lacking. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to report treatment effectiveness and ovarian function after uterine artery embolization vs magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery from the Fibroid Interventions: Reducing Symptoms Today and Tomorrow study. STUDY DESIGN:The Fibroid Interventions: Reducing Symptoms Today and Tomorrow study, which is a randomized controlled trial of uterine artery embolization vs magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery, enrolled premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors; women who declined randomization were enrolled in a parallel observational cohort. A comprehensive cohort design was used for outcomes analysis. Our target enrollment was 220 women, of which we achieved 41% (n=91) in the randomized and parallel arms of the trial. Primary outcome was reintervention for uterine fibroid tumors within 36 months. Secondary outcomes were change in serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels and standardized measures of fibroid symptoms, quality of life, pain, and sexual function. RESULTS:From 2010-2014, 83 women (mean age, 44.4 years) were treated in the comprehensive cohort design (43 for magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery [27 randomized]; 40 for uterine artery embolization [22 randomized]); baseline clinical and uterine characteristics were similar between treatment arms, except for higher fibroid load in the uterine artery embolization arm. The risk of reintervention was higher with magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery than uterine artery embolization (hazard ratio, 2.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-7.79). Uterine artery embolization showed a significantly greater absolute decrease in anti-Müllerian hormone levels at 24 months compared with magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery. Quality of life and pain scores improved in both arms but to a greater extent in the uterine artery embolization arm. Higher pretreatment anti-Müllerian hormone level and younger age at treatment increased the overall risk of reintervention. CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrates a lower reintervention rate and greater improvement in symptoms after uterine artery embolization, although some of the effectiveness may come through impairment of ovarian reserve. Both pretreatment anti-Müllerian hormone level and age are associated with risk of reintervention. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT00995878, clinicaltrials.gov.
Project description:Nontarget embolization during transarterial chemoembolization, although infrequent, can be a serious complication. The authors describe a case of nontarget gastric embolization to the stomach after transarterial chemoembolization and describe the published incidence of nontarget embolization to various organs, its diagnosis, treatment, and possible outcomes.