Epigenetic silencing of miR-200b is associated with cisplatin resistance in bladder cancer.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we identified microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in cisplatin (CDDP) resistance in bladder cancer (BCa). After establishing CDDP-resistant BCa cell lines (T24RC and EJ138RC), TaqMan arrays revealed that members of the miR-200 family (miR-200b, miR-200a and miR-429) were downregulated in T24RC as compared to parental T24 cells. miR-200b was associated with CDDP sensitivity in BCa cells, and its downregulation was associated with CpG island hypermethylation. Pharmacological demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored miR-200b expression, and the combination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine + CDDP strongly inhibited T24RC cell proliferation. Microarray analysis revealed that miR-200b + CDDP induced genes involved in CDDP sensitivity or cytotoxicity, including IGFBP3, ICAM1 and TNFSF10, in the resistant cells. Expression and DNA methylation of miR-200b were inversely associated in primary BCa, and low expression/high methylation was associated with poor overall survival. These results suggest downregulation of miR-200b is associated with CDDP resistance in BCa. Epigenetic silencing of miR-200b may be a marker of CDDP resistance and a useful therapeutic target for overcoming CDDP resistance in BCa.
Project description:We aimed to clarify the role of miR-200b in cisplatin (CDDP) sensitivity in bladder cancer (BCa). CDDP resistant T24 cells (T24RC) were transfected with a miR mimic negative control (NC) or a miR-200b mimic, after which cells were treated with or without CDDP. We found that ectopic miR-200b expression re-sensitized the T24RC cells to CDDP. Gene expression microarray analysis revealed that the combination of miR-200b and CDDP affected genes involved in CDDP sensitivity and cytotoxicity. Overall design: CDDP resistant T24 cells (T24RC) were transfected with a miR mimic negative control (NC) or a miR-200b mimic using Lipofectamine RNAiMAX and incubated for 72 h. Transfectants were then treated with or without 1.6 μg/ml of CDDP for additional 72 h. Total RNA was extracted using a TRI Reagent.
Project description:The role of miRNAs in acquired endocrine-resistant breast cancer is not fully understood. One hallmark of tumor progression is epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by a loss of cell adhesion resulting from reduced E-cadherin and increased cell mobility. miR-200 family members regulate EMT by suppressing expression of transcriptional repressors ZEB1/2. Previously we reported that the expression of miR-200a, miR-200b, and miR-200c was lower in LY2 endocrine-resistant, mesenchymal breast cancer cells compared to parental, endocrine sensitive, epithelial MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Here we investigated the regulation of miR-200 family members and their role in endocrine-sensitivity in breast cancer cells.miR-200 family expression was progressively reduced in a breast cancer cell line model of advancing endocrine/tamoxifen (TAM) resistance. Concomitant with miR-200 decrease, there was an increase in ZEB1 mRNA expression. Overexpression of miR-200b or miR-200c in LY2 cells altered cell morphology to a more epithelial appearance and inhibited cell migration. Further, miR-200b and miR-200c overexpression sensitized LY2 cells to growth inhibition by estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists TAM and fulvestrant. Knockdown of ZEB1 in LY2 cells recapitulated the effect of miR-200b and miR-200c overexpression resulting in inhibition of LY2 cell proliferation by TAM and fulvestrant, but not the aromatase inhibitor exemestane. Demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) in combination with histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) increased miR-200b and miR-200c in LY2 cells. Concomitant with the increase in miR-200b and miR-200c, ZEB1 expression was decreased and cells appeared more epithelial in morphology and were sensitized to TAM and fulvestrant inhibition. Likewise, knockdown of ZEB1 increased antiestrogen sensitivity of LY2 cells resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation.Our data indicate that reduced miRNA-200b and miR-200c expression contributes to endocrine resistance in breast cancer cells and that the reduced expression of these miR-200 family members in endocrine-resistant cells can be reversed by 5-aza-dC+TSA.
Project description:Cisplatin (CDDP) resistance is a major clinical problem associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer (GC) patients. In this study, we performed integrated analysis of TCGA data from microRNAs (miRNAs) expression matrix of GC patients who received CDDP-based chemotherapy with GEO dataset which contains differential miRNAs expression profiles in CDDP-resistant and -sensitive cell lines. We identified miR-148a-3p downregulation as a key step involved in CDDP resistance. Using a cohort consisting 105 GC patients who received CDDP-based therapy, we found that miR-148a-3p downregulation was associated with a decrease in patients' disease-free survival (DFS, P = 0.0077). A series of experiment data demonstrated that: 1) miR-148a-3p was downregulated in CDDP-resistant GC cell lines; 2) miR-148a-3p reconstitution sensitized CDDP-resistant cells to CDDP treatment through promoting mitochondrial fission and decreasing AKAP1 expression level; 3) AKAP1 played a novel role in CDDP resistance by inhibiting P53-mediated DRP1 dephosphorylation; 4) miR-148a-3p reconstitution in CDDP-resistant cells inhibits the cyto-protective autophagy by suppressing RAB12 expression and mTOR1 activation. Taken together, our study demonstrates that miR-148a-3p could be a promising prognostic marker or therapeutic candidate for overcoming CDDP resistance in GC.
Project description:Advanced prostate cancers are known to acquire not only invasive capabilities but also significant resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. To understand how microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to prostate cancer resistance to apoptosis, we compared microRNA expression profiles of a benign prostate cancer cell line WPE1-NA22 and a highly malignant WPE1-NB26 cell line (derived from a common lineage). We found that miR-205 and miR-31 are significantly downregulated in WPE1-NB26 cells, as well as in other cell lines representing advanced-stage prostate cancers. Antiapoptotic genes BCL2L2 (encoding Bcl-w) and E2F6 are identified as the targets of miR-205 and miR-31, respectively. By downregulating Bcl-w and E2F6, miR-205 and miR-31 promote chemotherapeutic agents-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. The promoter region of the miR-205 gene was cloned and was found to be hypermethylated in cell lines derived from advanced prostate cancers, contributing to the downregulation of the gene. Treatment with DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine induced miR-205 expression, downregulated Bcl-w, and sensitized prostate cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Thus, downregulation of miR-205 and miR-31 has an important role in apoptosis resistance in advanced prostate cancer.
Project description:This study found that long-term exposure of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562 cells to BCR/ABL thyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) caused drug-resistance in association with an increase in levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) and a decrease in levels of microRNA miR-217. These observations are clinically relevant; an increase in levels of DNMT3A in association with downregulation of miR-217 were noted in leukemia cells isolated from individuals with BCR/ABL TKI-resistant Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL) and CML. Further studies with TKI-resistant K562 cells found that forced expression of miR-217 inhibited expression of DNMT3A through a miR-217-binding site within the 3'-untranslated region of DNMT3A and sensitized these cells to growth inhibition mediated by the TKI. Of note, long-term exposure of K562 cells to dasatinib (10 nM) together with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AzadC) (0.1 ?M) potently inhibited proliferation of these cells in association with upregulation of miR-217 and downregulation of DNMT3A in vitro. In addition, a decrease in levels of DNMT3A and an increase in levels of miR-217 were noted in K562 tumors growing in immune-deficient mice that were treated with the combination of 5-AzadC and dasatinib. Taken together, Ph(+) leukemia cells acquire TKI resistance via downregulation of miR-217 and upregulation of DNMT3A. Inhibition of DNMT3A by forced expression of miR-217 or 5-AzadC may be useful to prevent drug resistance in individuals who receive TKI.
Project description:Many human tumors require extracellular arginine (Arg) for growth because the key enzyme for de novo biosynthesis of Arg, argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1), is silenced. These tumors are sensitive to Arg-starvation therapy using pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) which digests extracellular Arg. Many previous studies reported that ASS1 silencing is due to epigenetic inactivation of ASS1 expression by DNA methylation, and that the demethylation agent 5-aza-deoxycytidine (Aza-dC) can induce ASS1 expression. Moreover, it was reported that cisplatin suppresses ASS1 expression through ASS1 promoter methylation, leading to synthetic lethality to ADI-PEG20 treatment. We report here that cisplatin supppresses ASS1 expression is due to upregulation of HIF-1? and downregulation of c-Myc, which function as negative and positive regulators of ASS1 expression, respectively, by reciprocal bindings to the ASS1 promoter. In contrast, we found that Aza-dC induces ASS1 expression by downregulation of HIF-1? but upregulation of c-Myc. We further demonstrated that the clock protein DEC1 is the master regulator of HIF-1? and c-Myc that regulate ASS1. cDDP upregulates DEC1, whereas Aza-dC suppresses its expression. Using two proteasomal inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib which induce HIF-1? accumulation, we further demonstrated that HIF-1? is involved in ASS1 silencing for the maintenance of Arg auxotrophy for targeted Arg-starvation therapy.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate angiogenesis by posttranscriptional silencing of target genes. The significance of angiostatic miR-200b in switching on skin wound angiogenesis was tested.Wounding caused imminent and transient downregulation of miR-200b in dermal wound-edge endothelial cells. Derailing this injury response by lentiviral delivery of miR-200b in vivo impaired wound angiogenesis. Computational prediction, target reporter luciferase assay, and Western blot analysis provided first evidence that miR-200b targets globin transcription factor binding protein 2 (GATA2) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Overexpression of GATA2 or VEGFR2 in endothelial cells rescued the angiostatic effect of miR-200b in vitro. Downregulation of miR-200b derepressed GATA2 and VEGFR2 expression to switch on wound angiogenesis, which was disrupted in diabetic wounds. Treatment of endothelial cells with tumor necrosis factor-?, a proinflammatory cytokine abundant in diabetic wounds, induced miR-200b expression, silenced GATA2 and VEGFR2, and suppressed angiogenesis. These outcomes were attenuated using anti-miR-200b strategy. Neutralization of tumor necrosis factor-? in the diabetic wounds improved wound angiogenesis and closure, which was accompanied by downregulation of miR-200b expression and desilencing of GATA2 and VEGFR2.Injury-induced repression of miR-200b turned on wound angiogenesis. In mice with diabetes mellitus,excessive tumor necrosis factor-? induced miR-200b blunting proangiogenic functions of GATA2 and VEGFR2.
Project description:Chemoresistance remains a major clinical problem in combating human lung adenocarcinoma (LAD), and abnormal autophagy is closely associated with this phenomenon. In the present study, an inverse correlation between miR-200b and autophagy-associated gene 12 (ATG12) expressions was observed in docetaxel-resistant (SPC-A1/DTX and H1299/DTX) and sensitive (SPC-A1 and H1299) LAD cells as well as in tissue samples. Further study showed that miR-200b directly targeted ATG12 in LAD. Moreover, miR-200b-dependent ATG12 downregulation inhibited autophagy and enhanced the chemosensitivity of SPC-A1/DTX and H1299/DTX cells both in vivo and in vitro. LAD chemoresistance is therefore closely related to downregulation of miR-200b and the corresponding upregulation of ATG12. These results provide new evidence for the mechanisms governing the microRNA (miRNA)-ATG12 network and their possible contribution to autophagy modulation and LAD chemoresistance.
Project description:microRNAs (miRs) have recently emerged as small non-coding regulators of gene expression. We performed a loss-of-function screening by recruiting retrovirus mediated arbitrary manipulation of genome coupled with escape of cells from 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC)-induced senescence. miRNA pool from cells that emerged from 5-Aza-dC-induced senescence was subjected to miR-microarray analysis with respect to the untreated control. We identified miR-451 as one of the upregulated miRs and characterized its functional relevance to drug resistance, cell growth, tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRb, and stress response. We report that miR-451 caused growth arrest in cells leading to their resistance to 5-Aza-dC-induced senescence. Decrease in cyclin D1, CDK4 and phosphorylated pRB supported the growth arrest in miR-451 transfected cells. We demonstrate that Collaborator of ARF (CARF) protein is a new target of miR-451 that intermediates its function in tumor suppressor and stress signaling.
Project description:Sorafenib resistance and tumor metastasis account for poor outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11) has been reported to exert oncogenic effects in several types of human cancer, but its specific functions and detailed mechanisms in HCC are not fully elucidated. Here we identified HDAC11 as a potential oncogene and promising biomarker in HCC by in silico analysis. Histone deacetylase 11 was upregulated in sorafenib-resistant SMMC7721 compared with its parental cell. Knockdown of HDAC11 suppressed proliferation and sorafenib resistance, which may be due to inhibition of drug metabolism cytochrome P450 predicted by gene-set enrichment analysis. Histone deacetylase expression was higher in highly metastatic MHCC97H than lowly metastatic MHCC97L. Downregulation of HDAC11 significantly attenuated the migrated and invaded abilities of HCC cells. Histone deacetylase 11 was directly targeted and suppressed by miR-145-5p. Inhibition of miR-145-5p enhanced sorafenib resistance and metastasis of HCC, and these effects could be attenuated by knockdown of HDAC11. The promoter methylation level of HDAC11 was markedly decreased in HCC tissues compared with normal controls. Administration of 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, facilitated HDAC11 expression in HCC cells. Our data indicate a role of miR-145-5p/HDAC11 axis in regulation of sorafenib resistance and metastasis in HCC.