Investigation of C1-complex regions reveals new C1Q variants associated with protection from systemic lupus erythematosus, and affect its transcript abundance.
ABSTRACT: Although rare variant C1Q deficiency was identified as causative risk for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), there are limited and inconsistent reports regarding the common polymorphisms of C1Q genes in SLE susceptibility. Furthermore, there are no reports concerning polymorphisms of C1S, C1R, and C1RL and whether they confer susceptibility to SLE. We therefore evaluated 22 SNPs across six C1-complex genes in two independent case-control cohorts, and identified four novel SNPs that confer protection from SLE. The four SNPs are all located in C1Q. Particularly, the variant rs653286 displayed an independent reduced risk on SLE susceptibility (OR 0.75, P?=?2.16?×?10-3) and anti-dsDNA antibodies (OR 0.68, P?=?0.024). By bioinformatics analysis, SNPs rs653286 and rs291985 displayed striking cis-eQTL effects on C1Q genes expression. Individuals homozygous for the 'protective' allele at four SNPs had significantly higher levels of serum C1q (rs680123-rs682658: P?=?0.0022; rs653286-rs291985: P?=?0.0076). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that only C1Q polymorphisms are associated with SLE. The C1Q SNP rs653286 confers an independent protective effect on SLE susceptibility and affects transcript abundance.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody formation. Previously published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have investigated SLE as a single phenotype. Therefore, we conducted a GWAS to identify genetic factors associated with anti-dsDNA autoantibody production, a SLE-related autoantibody with diagnostic and clinical importance. Using two independent datasets, over 400,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were studied in a total of 1,717 SLE cases and 4,813 healthy controls. Anti-dsDNA autoantibody positive (anti-dsDNA +, n?=?811) and anti-dsDNA autoantibody negative (anti-dsDNA -, n?=?906) SLE cases were compared to healthy controls and to each other to identify SNPs associated specifically with these SLE subtypes. SNPs in the previously identified SLE susceptibility loci STAT4, IRF5, ITGAM, and the major histocompatibility complex were strongly associated with anti-dsDNA + SLE. Far fewer and weaker associations were observed for anti-dsDNA - SLE. For example, rs7574865 in STAT4 had an OR for anti-dsDNA + SLE of 1.77 (95% CI 1.57-1.99, p?=?2.0E-20) compared to an OR for anti-dsDNA - SLE of 1.26 (95% CI 1.12-1.41, p?=?2.4E-04), with p(heterogeneity)<0.0005. SNPs in the SLE susceptibility loci BANK1, KIAA1542, and UBE2L3 showed evidence of association with anti-dsDNA + SLE and were not associated with anti-dsDNA - SLE. In conclusion, we identified differential genetic associations with SLE based on anti-dsDNA autoantibody production. Many previously identified SLE susceptibility loci may confer disease risk through their role in autoantibody production and be more accurately described as autoantibody propensity loci. Lack of strong SNP associations may suggest that other types of genetic variation or non-genetic factors such as environmental exposures have a greater impact on susceptibility to anti-dsDNA - SLE.
Project description:To investigate whether the cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator ? (CREM?) polymorphisms are novel susceptibility factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), four tag SNPs, rs1057108, rs2295415, rs11592925, and rs1148247, were genotyped in 889 SLE cases and 825 healthy controls. Association analyses were performed on whole dataset or clinical/serologic subsets. Association statistics were calculated by age and sex adjusted logistic regression. The G allele frequencies of rs2295415 and rs1057108 were increased in SLE patients, compared with healthy controls (rs2295415: 21.2% versus 17.8%, OR 1.244, P = 0.019; rs1057108: 30.8% versus 27.7%, OR 1.165, P = 0.049). The haplotype constituted by the two risk alleles "G-G" from rs1057108 and rs2295415 displayed strong association with SLE susceptibility (OR 1.454, P = 0.00056). Following stratification by clinical/serologic features, a suggestive association was observed between rs2295415 and anti-Sm antibodies-positive SLE (OR 1.382, P = 0.044). Interestingly, a potential protective effect of rs2295415 was observed for SLE patients with renal disorder (OR 0.745, P = 0.032). Our data provide first evidence that CREM? SNPs rs2295415 and rs1057108 maybe novel genetic susceptibility factors for SLE. SNP rs2295415 appears to confer higher risk to develop anti-Sm antibodies-positive SLE and may play a protective role against lupus nephritis.
Project description:Complement cascade plasma proteins play a complex role in the etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Hereditary C1q deficiency has been strongly related to SLE; however, there are very few published SLE studies that evaluate the polymorphisms of genes encoding for C1q (A, B and C). In this study, we evaluated 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 37 kb of C1QA, C1QB and C1QC in a lupus cohort of individuals of the African-American and Hispanic origin. In a case-only analysis, a significant association at multiple SNPs in the C1QA gene was detected in African Americans with kidney nephritis (best P=4.91 x 10(-6)). In addition, C1QA was associated with SLE in African Americans with a lack of nephritis and accompanying photosensitivity when compared with that in normal controls (P=6.80 x 10(-6)). A similar trend was observed in the Hispanic subjects (P=0.003). Quantitative analysis showed that some SNPs in C1q genes might be correlated with C3 complement levels in an additive model among African Americans (best P=0.0001). The C1QA gene is associated with subphenotypes of lupus in the African-American and Hispanic subjects. Further studies with higher SNP densities in this region and other complement components are necessary to elucidate the complex genetics and phenotypic interactions between complement components and SLE.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by augmented type I interferon signaling. High-throughput technologies have identified plenty of SLE susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) yet the exact roles of most of them are still unknown. Functional studies are principally focused on SNPs in the coding regions, with limited attention paid to the SNPs in non-coding regions. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important players in shaping the immune response and show relationship to autoimmune diseases. In order to reveal the role of SNPs located near SLE related lncRNAs, we performed a transcriptome profiling of SLE patients and identified linc00513 as a significantly over expressed lncRNA containing functional SLE susceptibility loci in the promoter region. The risk-associated G allele of rs205764 and A allele of rs547311 enhanced linc00513 promoter activity and related to increased expression of linc00513 in SLE. We also identified linc00513 to be a novel positive regulator of type I interferon pathway by promoting the phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2. Elevated linc00513 expression positively correlated with IFN score in SLE patients. Linc00513 expression was higher in active disease patients than those inactive ones. In conclusion, our data identify two functional promoter variants of linc00513 that contribute to increased level of linc00513 and confer susceptibility on SLE. The study provides new insights into the genetics of SLE and extends the role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of SLE.
Project description:A previous large-scale replication study validation of a genome wide association study (GWAS) identified I?B kinase ? (IKBKB) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a risk factor associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Chinese Han population. IKBKB SNPs were associated with polymerase ? (POLB) SNPs and reduced POLB expression, and this was proposed to be an underlying cause of human SLE development. In the current case-control study, we evaluated IKBKB (rs12676482 and rs2272733) and POLB (rs3136717 and rs3136744) SNPs in 946 SLE patients and 961 healthy controls. We investigated the possible association of these four SNPs with SLE in a Chinese Han population using the polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction (PCR-LDR) technique. The differences in the frequencies of the four SNP alleles and the genotypes and haplotypes of the POLB polymorphisms were statistically insignificant when the SLE patients were compared with the controls in the Chinese Han population enrolled in this study (all, p ? 0.05). Furthermore, no associations were detected using different genetic models (additive, dominant, and recessive; all, p ? 0.05). Our findings indicate that the IKBKB (rs12676482 and rs2272733) and POLB (rs3136717, rs3136744) SNPs confer no genetic predisposition to SLE risk in this Chinese Han population.
Project description:Leptin is abnormally elevated in the plasma of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), where it is thought to promote and/or sustain pro-inflammatory responses. Whether this association could reflect an increased genetic susceptibility to develop SLE is not known, and studies of genetic associations with leptin-related polymorphisms in SLE patients have been so far inconclusive. Here we genotyped DNA samples from 15,706 SLE patients and healthy matched controls from four different ancestral groups, to correlate polymorphisms of genes of the leptin pathway to risk for SLE. It was found that although several SNPs showed weak associations, those associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. These data do not support associations between defined leptin-related polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to develop SLE.
Project description:Increasing evidence has demonstrated the association between long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and multiple autoimmune diseases. To explore four lncRNAs (GAS5, lnc-DC, linc0597 and linc0949) expression levels and gene polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a two stage design was applied. In the first stage, 85 SLE patients and 71 healthy controls were enrolled to investigate the lncRNAs expression levels. Then, 1260 SLE patients and 1231 healthy controls were included to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the differentially expressed lncRNAs identified in the first stage. Linc0597, lnc-DC and GAS5 expression levels were significantly lower in SLE patients than healthy controls (P?<?0.001, P?<?0.001, P?=?0.003 respectively). Association of five SNPs (rs10515177, rs2070107, rs2632516, rs2877877, rs2067079) with SLE risk were analyzed. No significant association was observed between these gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to SLE (all P?>?0.010), and we did not find significant association between any genotypes at five SNPs and their respective lncRNAs expression in SLE (all P?>?0.010). In summary, the expression levels of linc0597, lnc-DC and GAS5 are decreased in SLE patients, but their gene polymorphisms are not associated with SLE risk, and do not influence their expression levels.
Project description:Interleukin-35 (IL-35) exerts crucial roles in the pathogenesis and development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in this study we aim to explore the associations between IL-35 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility, clinical features and plasma IL-35 levels of SLE patients, respectively. 490 SLE patients and 489 healthy controls were recruited in our study. The correlations between the polymorphisms of seven SNPs of IL-35 encoding gene and the susceptibility, main clinical manifestations of SLE were evaluated, respectively. Plasma IL-35 levels were assessed in 76 SLE patients, and the associations between plasma IL-35 levels and the polymorphisms of genotyped SNPs were explored. There were significant associations between the polymorphisms of rs4740 and the occurrence of renal disorder, hematological disorder in SLE patients, respectively (p = 0.001; p = 0.001). In addition, there were no significant associations observed between the genotype frequencies of genotyped SNPs and the risk of SLE, plasma IL-35 levels, respectively. The polymorphism of rs4740 of IL-35 encoding gene is associated with the occurrence of renal disorder and hematological disorder of SLE patients.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Chinese and Korean populations demonstrated strong association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the GTF2I-NCF1 region, rs73366469 (GTF2I), rs117026326 (GTF2I), rs80346167(GTF2IRD1) and rs201802880 (NCF1). This region has also been associated with susceptibility to Sjögren syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis; however, association studies with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) have not been reported. Here we made an attempt to confirm their associations with SLE in the Japanese population, to find the primarily associated SNP, and to investigate whether these SNPs are also associated with susceptibility to SSc and AAV. By genotyping these four SNPs on 842 SLE, 467 SSc, 477 AAV patients and 934 healthy controls, striking association was confirmed in Japanese SLE. In addition, these SNPs were significantly associated with susceptibility to SSc, but not with AAV. Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that the association of NCF1 rs201802880, a missense SNP encoding p.Arg90His, can account for the association of other SNPs by linkage disequilibrium. These results suggested that GTF2I-NCF1 region is associated with susceptibility to multiple autoimmune rheumatic diseases but not with AAV, and the primarily associated variant may be the missense SNP in NCF1.
Project description:Recently, different microRNA (miRNA) gene polymorphisms have been evaluated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Graves' disease (GD). In the present study, we examined three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre-miR-146a (rs2910164G/C), pre-miR-196a-2 (rs11614913C/T), and pre-miR-499 (rs3746444A/G) genes. Our study population included 900 Mexican patients with RA, SLE, or GD, as well as 486 healthy control individuals with no family history of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes and a 5' exonuclease assay. None of the investigated SNPs were associated with RA or GD susceptibility under any genetic model (co-dominant, recessive, or dominant). Genotype and allele frequencies of the miR-196a-2 rs11614913C/T polymorphism were similar between SLE cases and controls. In contrast, the miR-146a rs2910164G/C and miR-499 rs3746444A/G polymorphisms were associated with SLE susceptibility. These SNPs were not associated with lupus nephritis (LN). Our results suggest that polymorphisms in miR-146a, miR-196a-2, and miR-499 are not associated with RA or GD susceptibility. This is the first report documenting that the miR-146a rs2910164G/C and miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphisms are associated with SLE susceptibility but not with LN.