The effects of the introduction of a chronic care model-based program on utilization of healthcare resources: the results of the Puglia care program.
ABSTRACT: Ageing is continuously increasing the prevalence of patients with chronic conditions, putting pressure on the sustainability of Healthcare Systems. Chronic Care Models (CCM) have been used to address the needs of frail people in the continuum of care, testifying to an improvement in health outcomes and more efficient access to healthcare services. The impact of CCM deployment has already been experienced in a selected cohort of patients affected by specific chronic illnesses. We have investigated its effects in a heterogeneous frail cohort included in a regional CCM-based program.a retrospective population-based cohort study was carried out involving a non-oncological cohort of adult subjects with chronic diseases included in the CCM-oriented program (Puglia Care). Individuals in usual care with comparable demographic and clinical characteristics were selected for matched pair analysis. Study cohorts were defined by using a record linkage analysis of administrative databases and electronic medical records, including data on the adult population in the 6 local area health authorities of Puglia in Italy (approximately 2 million people). The effects of Puglia Care on the utilizations of healthcare resources were evaluated both in a before-after and in a case-control analysis.There were 1074 subjects included in Puglia Care and 2126 matched controls. In before-after analysis of the Puglia Care cohort, 240 unplanned hospitalizations occurred in the pre-inclusion period, while 239 were registered during follow-up. The incidence of unplanned hospitalization was 10.3 per 100 person/year (95% CI, 9.1-11.7) during follow-up and 12.1 per 100 person/year (95% CI, 10.7-13.8) in the pre-inclusion period (IRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99). During follow-up a significant reduction in costs related to unplanned hospitalizations (IRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.91-0.92) was registered, while costs related to drugs (IRR, 1.14; p
Project description:Importance:Severe hypoglycemia is a serious and potentially preventable complication of diabetes, with some of the most severe episodes requiring emergency department (ED) care or hospitalization. A variety of health conditions increase the risk of hypoglycemia. People with diabetes often have multiple comorbidities, and the association of such multimorbidity with hypoglycemia risk in the context of other risk factors is uncertain. Objective:To examine the associations of age, cumulative multimorbidity, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and use of glucose level-lowering medication with hypoglycemia-related ED visits and hospitalizations. Design, Setting, and Participants:Cohort study of claims and laboratory data from OptumLabs Data Warehouse, an administrative claims database of commercially insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries in the United States. Participants were adults (aged ?18 years) with diabetes who had an available HbA1c level result in 2015. Data from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2016, were analyzed. Final analyses were conducted from December 2017 to September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:This study calculated rates of hypoglycemia-related ED visits and hospitalizations during the year after the index HbA1c level was obtained, stratified by patient demographic characteristics, diabetes type, comorbidities (from 16 guideline-specified high-risk conditions), index HbA1c level, and glucose level-lowering medication use. The association of each variable with hypoglycemia-related ED and hospital care was examined using multivariable Poisson regression analysis overall and by diabetes type. Results:The study cohort was composed of 201?705 adults with diabetes (mean [SD] age, 65.8 [12.1] years; 102?668 [50.9%] women; 118?804 [58.9%] white; mean [SD] index HbA1c level, 7.2% [1.5%]). Overall, there were 9.06 (95% CI, 8.64-9.47) hypoglycemia-related ED visits and hospitalizations per 1000 persons per year. The risk of hypoglycemia-related ED visits and hospitalizations was increased by age 75 years or older (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.56 [95% CI, 1.23-2.02] vs 18-44 years), black race/ethnicity (IRR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.16-1.46] vs white race/ethnicity), lower annual household income (IRR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.53-0.74] for ?$100?000 vs <$40?000), number of comorbidities (increasing from IRR of 1.66 [95% CI, 1.42-1.95] in the presence of 2 comorbidities to IRR of 4.12 [95% CI, 3.07-5.51] with ?8 comorbidities compared with ?1), prior hypoglycemia-related ED visit or hospitalization (IRR, 6.60 [95% CI, 5.77-7.56]), and glucose level-lowering treatment regimen (IRR, 6.73 [95% CI, 4.93-9.22] for sulfonylurea; 12.53 [95% CI, 8.90-17.64] for basal insulin; and 27.65 [95% CI, 20.32-37.63] for basal plus bolus insulin compared with other medications). Independent of these factors, having type 1 diabetes was associated with a 34% increase in the risk of hypoglycemia-related ED visits or hospitalizations (IRR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.15-1.55]). The index HbA1c level was associated with hypoglycemia-related ED visits and hospitalizations when both low (IRR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.12-1.87] for HbA1c level ?5.6% vs 6.5%-6.9%) and high (IRR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.02-1.50] for HbA1c level ?10%). Conclusions and Relevance:In this cohort study of adults with diabetes, the risk of an ED visit or hospitalization for hypoglycemia appeared to be highest among patients with type 1 diabetes, multiple comorbidities, prior severe hypoglycemia, and sulfonylurea and/or insulin use. At-risk patients may benefit from individualized treatment regimens to decrease their risk of hypoglycemia.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Global initiatives to improve breastfeeding practices have focused on the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of implementing Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) steps 1-9 and BFHI steps 1-10 on incidence of diarrhea and respiratory illnesses in the first 6?months of life. METHODS:We reanalyzed a cluster randomized trial in which health-care clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, were randomly assigned to standard care (control group), BFHI steps 1-9, or BFHI steps 1-10. Outcomes included episodes of diarrhea and respiratory illness. Piecewise Poisson regression with generalized estimation equations to account for clustering by clinic was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS:Steps 1-9 was associated with a decreased incidence of reported diarrhea (IRR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53, 0.99) and respiratory illness (IRR 0.48, 95% CI 0.37, 0.63), health facility visits due to diarrhea (IRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42, 0.85) and respiratory illness (IRR 0.47, 95% CI 0.36, 0.63), and hospitalizations due to diarrhea (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.17, 1.06) and respiratory illness (IRR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11, 0.98). Addition of Step 10 attenuated this effect: episodes of reported diarrhea (IRR 1.24, 95% CI 0.93, 1.68) and respiratory illness (IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.60, 0.99), health facility visits due to diarrhea (IRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.54, 1.08) and respiratory illness (IRR 0.75 95% CI 0.57, 0.97), and hospitalizations due to respiratory illness (IRR 0.48 95% CI 0.16, 1.40); but strengthened the effect against hospitalizations due to diarrhea (IRR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03, 0.60). CONCLUSIONS:Implementation of steps 1-9 significantly reduced incidence of mild and severe episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infection in the first 6?months of life, addition of step 10 appeared to lessen this effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01428232.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the relationship between the proportion of time under the potentially protective effect of a general practitioner (GP) captured using the Cover Index and diabetes-related hospitalisation and length of stay (LOS). DESIGN:An observational cohort study over two 3-year time periods (2009/2010-2011/2012 as the baseline and 2012/2013-2014/2015 as the follow-up). SETTING:Linked self-report and administrative health service data at individual level from the 45 and Up Study in New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 21 965 individuals aged 45 years and older identified with diabetes before July 2009 were included in this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Diabetes-related hospitalisation, unplanned diabetes-related hospitalisation and LOS of diabetes-related hospitalisation and unplanned diabetes-related hospitalisation. METHODS:The average annual GP cover index over a 3-year period was calculated using information obtained from Australian Medicare and hospitalisation. The effect of exposure to different levels of the cover on the main outcomes was estimated using negative binomial models weighted for inverse probability of treatment weight to control for observed covariate imbalance at the baseline period. RESULTS:Perfect GP cover was observed among 53% of people with diabetes in the study cohort. Compared with perfect level of GP cover, having lower levels of GP cover including high (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.8, 95%?CI 2.6 to 3.0), medium (IRR 3.2, 95%?CI 2.7 to 3.8) and low (IRR 3.1, 95%?CI 2.0 to 4.9) were significantly associated with higher number of diabetes-related hospitalisation. Similar association was observed between the different levels of GP cover and other outcomes including LOS for diabetes-related hospitalisation, unplanned diabetes-related hospitalisation and LOS for unplanned diabetes-related hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS:Measuring longitudinal continuity in terms of time under cover of GP care may offer opportunities to optimise the performance of primary healthcare and reduce secondary care costs in the management of diabetes.
Project description:Increasing access to care may be insufficient to improve the health of patients with diabetes mellitus and unmet basic needs (hereinafter referred to as material need insecurities). How specific material need insecurities relate to clinical outcomes and the use of health care resources in a setting of near-universal access to health care is unclear.To determine the association of food insecurity, cost-related medication underuse, housing instability, and energy insecurity with control of diabetes mellitus and the use of health care resources.Cross-sectional data were collected from June 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013, at 1 academic primary care clinic, 2 community health centers, and 1 specialty center for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Massachusetts. A random sample of 411 patients, stratified by clinic, consisted of adults (aged ?21 years) with diabetes mellitus (response rate, 62.3%).The prespecified primary outcome was a composite indicator of poor diabetes control (hemoglobin A1c level, >9.0%; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, >100 mg/dL; or blood pressure, >140/90 mm Hg). Prespecified secondary outcomes included outpatient visits and a composite of emergency department (ED) visits and acute care hospitalizations (ED/inpatient visits).Overall, 19.1% of respondents reported food insecurity; 27.6%, cost-related medication underuse; 10.7%, housing instability; 14.1%, energy insecurity; and 39.1%, at least 1 material need insecurity. Poor diabetes control was observed in 46.0% of respondents. In multivariable models, food insecurity was associated with a greater odds of poor diabetes control (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.97 [95% CI, 1.58-2.47]) and increased outpatient visits (adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR], 1.19 [95% CI, 1.05-1.36]) but not increased ED/inpatient visits (IRR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.51-1.97]). Cost-related medication underuse was associated with poor diabetes control (OR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.35-2.70]) and increased ED/inpatient visits (IRR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.21-2.34]) but not outpatient visits (IRR, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.95-1.21]). Housing instability (IRR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.14-1.51]) and energy insecurity (IRR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.00-1.25]) were associated with increased outpatient visits but not with diabetes control (OR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.60-2.02] and OR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.96-1.69], respectively) or with ED/inpatient visits (IRR, 1.49 [95% CI, 0.81-2.73] and IRR, 1.31 [95% CI, 0.80-2.13], respectively). An increasing number of insecurities was associated with poor diabetes control (OR for each additional need, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.18-1.63]) and increased use of health care resources (IRR for outpatient visits, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.03-1.15]; IRR for ED/inpatient visits, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.99-1.51]).Material need insecurities were common among patients with diabetes mellitus and had varying but generally adverse associations with diabetes control and the use of health care resources. Material need insecurities may be important targets for improving care of diabetes mellitus.
Project description:We examined whether nonadherence to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) or immunosuppressive medications (ISMs) was associated with higher subsequent acute care utilization among Medicaid beneficiaries with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).We utilized US Medicaid data from 2000-2006 to identify adults ages 18-64 years with SLE who were new users of HCQ or ISMs. We defined the index date as receipt of HCQ or ISMs without use in the prior 6 months. We measured adherence using the medication possession ratio (MPR), the proportion of days covered by total days' supply dispensed, for the 1-year post-index date. Our outcomes were all-cause and SLE-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations in the subsequent year. We used multivariable Poisson regression models to examine the association between nonadherence (MPR <80%) and acute care utilization, adjusting for sociodemographics and comorbidities.We identified 9,600 HCQ new users and 3,829 ISM new users with SLE. The mean?±?SD MPR for HCQ was 47.8%?± 30.3% and for ISMs was 42.7%?±?30.7%. Seventy-nine percent of HCQ users and 83% of ISM users were nonadherent (MPR <80%). In multivariable models, among HCQ users, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of ED visits was 1.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.43-1.69) and the IRR of hospitalizations was 1.37 (95% CI 1.25-1.50), comparing nonadherers to adherers. For ISM users, the IRR of ED visits was 1.64 (95% CI 1.42-1.89) and of hospitalizations was 1.67 (95% CI 1.41-1.96) for nonadherers versus adherers.In this cohort, nonadherence to HCQ and ISMs was common and was associated with significantly higher subsequent acute care utilization.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Little is known about the factors associated with frequency of emergency department visits (FEDV) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with recurrent exacerbations. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the use of emergency department (ED) services in patients with COPD exacerbation and identify factors associated with FEDV. DESIGN: A prospective, multicenter cohort study. PATIENTS: Three hundred eighty-eight patients were included. Fifty-two percent were women and the median age was 69 years (interquartile range 62-76). MEASUREMENTS: Using a standard questionnaire, consecutive ED patients with COPD exacerbation were interviewed. The number of ED visits in the previous year was retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Over the past year, this cohort reported a total of 1,090 ED visits because of COPD exacerbation. Thirteen percent of COPD patients had 6 or more ED visits, accounting for 57% of the total ED visits in the past year. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with an increased FEDV were more likely to be Hispanic (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-3.33), to have more severe COPD as determined by previous hospitalizations (IRR 2.06, 95% CI 1.51-2.82), prior intubations (IRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.02-2.18), prior use of systemic corticosteroids (IRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.16-2.13) and methylxanthine (IRR 1.48, 95% CI 1.04-2.12), and less likely to have a primary care provider (IRR 0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that both disease and health care-related factors were associated with FEDV in COPD exacerbation. Multidisciplinary efforts through primary care provider follow-up should be assessed to test the effects on reducing the high morbidity and cost of recurrent COPD exacerbations.
Project description:Importance:Women veterans increasingly seek care yet continue to face barriers in the Veterans Health Administration (VA), which predominantly cares for men. Evidence-based collaborative care models can improve patient access to treatment of depression, which is experienced at higher rates by women. While the VA has implemented these care models nationally, it is not known whether access improvements occur equitably across genders in primary care. Objective:To examine whether the VA's national Primary Care-Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI) initiative (beginning 2007) expanded realized access to mental health care similarly for men and women. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cohort study included 5?377?093 million primary care patients assigned to 396 VA clinics that provided integrated mental health services nationally between October 2013 and September 2016. Data analysis occurred between May 2017 and July 2020. Exposures:Clinic PC-MHI penetration, calculated as the proportion of clinic patients who saw an integrated specialist per fiscal year. Main Outcomes and Measures:Estimates of mean VA health care utilization (mental health, primary care, other specialty care, telephone, hospitalizations) and median total costs for men and women. Multilevel models adjusted for year, clinic, patient characteristics, and interactions between patient-defined gender and clinic PC-MHI penetration. Results:This study examined 5?377?093 veterans (448?455 [8.3%] women; 3?744?140 [69.6%] White) with a mean (SD) baseline age 62.0 (16.6) years. Each percentage-point increase in the proportion of clinic patients who saw an integrated specialist was associated with 38% fewer mental health visits per year for women (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.60-0.65), but 39% more visits for men (IRR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.34-1.44; P?<?.001). Both men and women had more primary care visits (men: IRR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.36-1.45; women: IRR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.17-1.28; P?<?.001) and total costs (men: ? [SE], 2.23 [0.10]; women: ? [SE], 1.24 [0.15]; P?=?.06), but women had 74% fewer hospitalizations than men related to clinics with mental health integration (IRR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.19-0.36 vs IRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.83-1.24; P?<?.001). Conclusions and Relevance:While greater outpatient service use for men was observed in this study, PC-MHI was associated with a decrease in mental health specialty visits (and hospitalizations) for women veterans, potentially signifying a shift of services to primary care. With increasing patient choice for where veterans receive care, the VA must tailor medical care to the needs of rising numbers of women patients. Differences in health care utilization by gender highlight the importance of anticipating policy impacts on and tailoring services for patients in the numerical minority in the VA and other health systems.
Project description:People with decompensated cirrhosis are often prescribed a complex regimen of therapeutic and prophylactic medications. In other chronic diseases, polypharmacy increases the risk of medication misadventure and medication-related problems (MRPs), with associated increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. This study examined MRPs in a cohort of ambulatory patients with a history of decompensated cirrhosis who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a pharmacist-led, patient-oriented medication education intervention and assessed the association between MRPs and patient outcomes. A total of 375 MRPs were identified among 57 intervention patients (median, 6.0; interquartile range, 3.5-8.0 per patient; maximum 17). Nonadherence (31.5%) and indication issues (29.1%) were the most prevalent MRP types. The risk of potential harm associated with MRPs was low in 18.9% of instances, medium in 33.1%, and high in 48.0%, as categorized by a clinician panel using a risk matrix tool. Patients had a greater incidence rate of high-risk MRPs if they had a higher Child-Pugh score (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.56); greater comorbidity burden (IRR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29); and were taking more medications (IRR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22). A total of 221 MRPs (58.9%) were resolved following pharmacist intervention. A greater proportion of high-risk MRPs were resolved compared to those of low and medium risk (68.9% versus 49.7%; P < 0.001). During the 12-month follow-up period, intervention patients had a lower incidence rate of unplanned admissions compared to usual care (IRR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.92). Conclusion: High-risk MRPs are prevalent among adults with decompensated cirrhosis. Pharmacist intervention facilitated identification and resolution of high-risk MRPs and was associated with reduced incidence rate of unplanned hospital admissions in this group.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study investigated whether a move to public housing affects people's use of healthcare services. METHOD:Using administrative data from Manitoba, the number of hospitalizations, general practitioner (GP), specialist and emergency department (ED) visits, and prescription drugs dispensed in the years before and after the housing move-in date (2012/2013) were measured for a public housing and matched cohort. Generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations tested for differences between the cohorts in utilization trends. The data were modeled using Poisson (rate ratio, RR), negative binomial (incident rate ratio, IRR), and binomial (odds ratio, OR) distributions. RESULTS:GP visits (IRR?=?1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06) and prescriptions (IRR?=?1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.05) increased, while ED visits (RR?=?0.90, 95% CI 0.82-1.00) and hospitalizations (OR?=?0.95, 95% CI 0.93-0.96) decreased over time. The public housing cohort had a significantly higher rate of GP visits (IRR?=?1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.13), ED visits (RR?=?1.18, 95% CI 1.01-1.37), and prescriptions (IRR?=?1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.13), and was more likely to be hospitalized (OR?=?1.39, 95% CI 1.21-1.61) compared to the matched cohort. The rate of inpatient days significantly decreased for the public housing cohort, but did not change for the matched cohort. CONCLUSION:Healthcare use changed similarly over time (except inpatient days) for the two cohorts. Public housing provides a basic need to a population who has a high burden of disease and who may not be able to obtain and maintain housing in the private market.
Project description:Background:Influenza illness may impact the risk of falls and fractures during acute illness due to unsteady gait or dizziness. We evaluated the association between influenza and hip fracture hospitalizations in long-stay (LS) nursing home (NH) residents. Methods:We analyzed weekly rates of hospitalization in a retrospective cohort of LS NH residents between January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009. Hip fracture and influenza like illness (ILI) hospitalizations were identified with Medicare fee-for-service part A claims. We evaluated unadjusted and adjusted models with the primary exposures, weekly rate of influenza-like illness hospitalizations, city-wide mortality, and NH influenza vaccination rate and primary outcome of weekly rate of hip fracture hospitalizations. Results:There were 9,237 incident hip fractures in the cohort. Facility wide ILI hospitalization rate was associated with the hip fracture hospitalization rate in the unadjusted (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.17) and adjusted (IRR 1.13, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.18) analyses. City-wide influenza mortality was associated with hip fracture hospitalization rates for the unadjusted (IRR 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.04), and adjusted (IRR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03) analyses. NH influenza vaccination rates were not associated with changes in hip fracture hospitalization rates. Conclusions:ILI hospitalizations are associated with a 13% average increase in hip fracture hospitalization risk. In a given NH week, an increase in the number ILI hospitalizations from none to two was associated with an approximate one percentage point increase in hip fracture hospitalization risk. Strategies to reduce influenza risk should be investigated to reduce hip fracture risk.