Nanophthalmos: A Review of the Clinical Spectrum and Genetics.
ABSTRACT: Nanophthalmos is a clinical spectrum of disorders with a phenotypically small but structurally normal eye. These disorders present significant clinical challenges to ophthalmologists due to a high rate of secondary angle-closure glaucoma, spontaneous choroidal effusions, and perioperative complications with cataract and retinal surgeries. Nanophthalmos may present as a sporadic or familial disorder, with autosomal-dominant or recessive inheritance. To date, five genes (i.e., MFRP, TMEM98, PRSS56, BEST1, and CRB1) and two loci have been implicated in familial forms of nanophthalmos. Here, we review the definition of nanophthalmos, the clinical and pathogenic features of the condition, and the genetics of this disorder.
Project description:PURPOSE: Nanophthalmos is a rare genetic ocular disorder in which the eyes of affected individuals are abnormally small. Patients suffer from severe hyperopia as a result of their markedly reduced axial lengths, but otherwise are capable of seeing well unlike other more general forms of microphthalmia. To date one gene for nanophthalmos has been identified, encoding the membrane-type frizzled related protein MFRP. Identification of additional genes for nanophthalmos will improve our understanding of normal developmental regulation of eye growth. METHODS: We ascertained a cohort of families from eastern Canada and Mexico with familial nanophthalmos. We performed high density microsatellite and high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to identify potential chromosomal regions of linkage. We sequenced coding regions of genes in the linked interval by traditional PCR-based Sanger capillary electrophoresis methods. We cloned and sequenced a novel cDNA from a putative causal gene to verify gene structure. RESULTS: We identified a linked locus on chromosome 2q37 with a peak logarithm (base 10) of odds (LOD) score of 4.7. Sequencing of coding exons of all genes in the region identified multiple segregating variants in one gene, recently annotated as serine protease gene (PRSS56), coding for a predicted trypsin serine protease-like protein. One of our families was homozygous for a predicted pathogenic missense mutation, one family was compound heterozygous for two predicted pathogenic missense mutations, and one family was compound heterozygous for a predicted pathogenic missense mutation plus a frameshift leading to obligatory truncation of the predicted protein. The PRSS56 gene structure in public databases is based on a virtual transcript assembled from overlapping incomplete cDNA clones; we have now validated the structure of a full-length transcript from embryonic mouse brain RNA. CONCLUSIONS: PRSS56 is a good candidate for the causal gene for nanophthalmos in our families.
Project description:PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify the genetic defect in a Turkish family with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, nanophthalmos, and optic disc drusen. METHODS: Ophthalmological examinations consisted of measuring the best-corrected visual acuity and the refractive error, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, B-mode ultrasonography, and fundus photography. The involvement of the membrane frizzled-related protein (MFRP) gene in this family was studied with direct DNA sequencing of the coding exons of MFRP and with linkage analysis with microsatellite markers. After MFRP was excluded, genome-wide homozygosity mapping was performed with 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. Mutation analysis of the crumbs homolog 1 (CRB1) gene was performed with direct sequencing. RESULTS: Ophthalmological evaluation of both affected individuals in the family revealed a decreased axial length (18-19 mm), retinal dystrophy, macular edema, and hyperopia of >+8.0 diopters. Sequencing of MFRP did not reveal any pathogenic changes, and microsatellite marker analysis showed that the chromosomal region did not segregate within the disease in this family. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays revealed a 28-Mb homozygous region encompassing the CRB1 gene, and direct sequencing disclosed a novel homozygous missense mutation (p.Gly833Asp) in CRB1. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies associated mutations in the MFRP gene with the syndrome nanophthalmos-retinitis pigmentosa-foveoschisis-optic disc drusen. In this study, we demonstrated that a similar disease complex can be caused by mutations in the CRB1 gene.
Project description:Autosomal dominant nanophthalmos is an inherited eye disorder characterized by a structurally normal but smaller eye. Patients with nanophthalmos have high hyperopia (far-sightedness), a greater incidence of angle-closure glaucoma, and increased risk of surgical complications. In this study, the clinical features and the genetic basis of nanophthalmos were investigated in two large autosomal dominant nanophthalmos pedigrees.Fourteen members of a Caucasian pedigree from the United States and 15 members of a pedigree from the Mariana Islands enrolled in a genetic study of nanophthalmos and contributed DNA samples. Twenty of 29 family members underwent eye examinations that included measurement of axial eye length and/or refractive error. The genetic basis of nanophthalmos in the pedigrees was studied with linkage analysis, whole exome sequencing, and candidate gene (i.e., TMEM98) sequencing to identify the nanophthalmos-causing gene.Nine members of the pedigree from the United States and 11 members of the pedigree from the Mariana Islands were diagnosed with nanophthalmos that is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. The patients with nanophthalmos had abnormally short axial eye lengths, which ranged from 15.9 to 18.4 mm. Linkage analysis of the nanophthalmos pedigree from the United States identified nine large regions of the genome (greater than 10 Mbp) that were coinherited with disease in this family. Genes within these "linked regions" were examined for disease-causing mutations using exome sequencing, and a His196Pro mutation was detected in the TMEM98 gene, which was recently reported to be a nanophthalmos gene. Sanger sequencing subsequently showed that all other members of this pedigree with nanophthalmos also carry the His196Pro TMEM98 mutation. Testing the Mariana Islands pedigree for TMEM98 mutations identified a 34 bp heterozygous deletion that spans the 3' end of exon 4 in all affected family members. Neither TMEM98 mutation was detected in public exome sequence databases.A recent report identified a single TMEM98 missense mutation in a nanophthalmos pedigree. Our discovery of two additional TMEM98 mutations confirms the important role of the gene in the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant nanophthalmos.
Project description:This study aimed to genetically and clinically characterize a unique cohort of 25 individuals from 21 unrelated families with autosomal recessive nanophthalmos (NNO) and posterior microphthalmia (MCOP) from different ethnicities. An ophthalmological assessment in all families was followed by targeted MFRP and PRSS56 testing in 20 families and whole-genome sequencing in one family. Three families underwent homozygosity mapping using SNP arrays. Eight distinct MFRP mutations were found in 10/21 families (47.6%), five of which are novel including a deletion spanning the 5' untranslated region and the first coding part of exon 1. Most cases harbored homozygous mutations (8/10), while a compound heterozygous and a monoallelic genotype were identified in the remaining ones (2/10). Six distinct PRSS56 mutations were found in 9/21 (42.9%) families, three of which are novel. Similarly, homozygous mutations were found in all but one, leaving 2/21 families (9.5%) without a molecular diagnosis. Clinically, all patients had reduced visual acuity, hyperopia, short axial length and crowded optic discs. Retinitis pigmentosa was observed in 5/10 (50%) of the MFRP group, papillomacular folds in 12/19 (63.2%) of MCOP and in 3/6 (50%) of NNO cases. A considerable phenotypic variability was observed, with no clear genotype-phenotype correlations. Overall, our study represents the largest NNO and MCOP cohort reported to date and provides a genetic diagnosis in 19/21 families (90.5%), including the first MFRP genomic rearrangement, offering opportunities for gene-based therapies in MFRP-associated disease. Finally, our study underscores the importance of sequence and copy number analysis of the MFRP and PRSS56 genes in MCOP and NNO.
Project description:Background Nanophthalmos has a significant genetic background and disease-causing mutations have been recently been reported in the myelin regulatory factor (MYRF) gene. We report clinical features in a patient with nanophthalmos and a Thr518Met MYRF mutation. Case presentation A three-year-old male was discovered to have nanophthalmos after first presenting to the emergency department for a frontal headache, eye pain, emesis, and lethargy. Imaging studies (CT and MRI) were negative except for increased posterior fossa cerebrospinal fluid. Subsequent examinations revealed nanophthalmos (short axial eye lengths 18.1?mm OD and 18.3?mm OS), microcornea, and a large crystalline lens. Peripheral chorioretinal pigment abnormalities were also observed. He experienced episodes of marked ocular hypertension (53?mmHg OD and 60?mmHg) likely due to intermittent angle closure precipitated by nanophthalmos. The ocular hypertension was responsive to topical medicines. Genetic analysis of known nanophthalmos genes MFRP and TMEM98 were negative, while a novel mutation, Thr518Met was detected in MYRF. The Thr518Met mutation was absent from 362 matched normal controls and was extremely rare in a large population database, allele frequency of 0.000024. The Thr518Met mutation altered a highly conserved amino acid in the MYRF protein and three of four algorithms suggested that this mutation is likely pathogenic. Finally, molecular modeling showed that the Thr518Met mutation is damaging to MYRF structure. Together these data suggest that the Thr518Met mutation causes nanophthalmos. Conclusions Nanophthalmos may present at an early age with features of angle closure glaucoma and a Thr518Met mutation in MYRF was detected in a patient with nanophthalmos. Prevalence data, homology data, mutation analysis data, and protein modeling data suggest that this variant is pathogenic and may expand the phenotypic range of syndromic nanophthalmos caused by MYRF mutations to include central nervous system abnormalities (increased posterior fossa cerebrospinal fluid).
Project description:Purpose:We previously found a dominant mutation, Rwhs, causing white spots on the retina accompanied by retinal folds. Here we identify the mutant gene to be Tmem98. In humans, mutations in the orthologous gene cause nanophthalmos. We modeled these mutations in mice and characterized the mutant eye phenotypes of these and Rwhs. Methods:The Rwhs mutation was identified to be a missense mutation in Tmem98 by genetic mapping and sequencing. The human TMEM98 nanophthalmos missense mutations were made in the mouse gene by CRISPR-Cas9. Eyes were examined by indirect ophthalmoscopy and the retinas imaged using a retinal camera. Electroretinography was used to study retinal function. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy techniques were used to study adult eyes. Results:An I135T mutation of Tmem98 causes the dominant Rwhs phenotype and is perinatally lethal when homozygous. Two dominant missense mutations of TMEM98, A193P and H196P, are associated with human nanophthalmos. In the mouse these mutations cause recessive retinal defects similar to the Rwhs phenotype, either alone or in combination with each other, but do not cause nanophthalmos. The retinal folds did not affect retinal function as assessed by electroretinography. Within the folds there was accumulation of disorganized outer segment material as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, and macrophages had infiltrated into these regions. Conclusions:Mutations in the mouse orthologue of the human nanophthalmos gene TMEM98 do not result in small eyes. Rather, there is localized disruption of the laminar structure of the photoreceptors.
Project description:PURPOSE: To report a new familial case of the recently described autosomal recessive syndrome of nanophthalmos-retinitis pigmentosa-foveoschisis-optic disc drusen, which arises from compound heterozygosity for Membrane Frizzled-Related Protein (MFRP) mutations in a sibling pair of Mexican origin. METHODS: Ophthalmological assessment included slit-lamp and dilated fundus examination, applanation tonometry, fundus photography, A-mode and B-mode ultrasound examination, electroretinogram, fluorescein retinal angiography, optical coherence tomography, and electrooculogram in both affected siblings. Molecular genetic analysis consisted of PCR amplification and direct automated sequence of the complete coding region of the MFRP gene. In addition, allele-specific cloning and sequencing techniques were used to characterize a heterozygous MFRP frameshift mutation. RESULTS: Clinical examination revealed high hyperopia of > +16 diopters while electroretinographic and fluorangiographic studies demonstrated a retinal dystrophy compatible with retinitis pigmentosa. Ultrasound examination showed nanophthalmos (eye axial length <15 mm) and optic disc drusen while optical coherence tomography evidenced cystoid macular edema. Nucleotide sequencing in DNA from both affected siblings disclosed the presence of two MFRP mutations: a novel heterozygous point mutation predicting a nonsense change from tyrosine (TAC) to a stop signal (TAA) at codon 317, and a heterozygous 1 bp deletion in exon 5, predicting a prematurely truncated protein (p.Asn167ThrfsX25). DISCUSSION: The third known family with the syndrome of nanophthalmos-retinitis pigmentosa-foveoschisis-optic disc drusen is presented. This is the first demonstration of compound heterozygosity for MFRP mutations as the source of the disease. The affected siblings described here are the youngest patients with the disease reported to date and the comparison of their clinical data with previous individuals with this syndrome suggest that some aspects of the phenotype are probably age-dependent.
Project description:The precise control of eye size is essential for normal vision. TMEM98 is a highly conserved and widely expressed gene which appears to be involved in eye size regulation. Mutations in human TMEM98 are found in patients with nanophthalmos (very small eyes) and variants near the gene are associated in population studies with myopia and increased eye size. As complete loss of function mutations in mouse Tmem98 result in perinatal lethality, we produced mice deficient for Tmem98 in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), where Tmem98 is highly expressed. These mice have greatly enlarged eyes that are very fragile with very thin retinas, compressed choroid and thin sclera. To gain insight into the mechanism of action we used a proximity labelling approach to discover interacting proteins and identified MYRF as an interacting partner. Mutations of MYRF are also associated with nanophthalmos. The protein is an endoplasmic reticulum-tethered transcription factor which undergoes autoproteolytic cleavage to liberate the N-terminal part which then translocates to the nucleus where it acts as a transcription factor. We find that TMEM98 inhibits the self-cleavage of MYRF, in a novel regulatory mechanism. In RPE lacking TMEM98, MYRF is ectopically activated and abnormally localised to the nuclei. Our findings highlight the importance of the interplay between TMEM98 and MYRF in determining the size of the eye.
Project description:Background:The aim of the study was to identify the molecular genetic cause of two different Mendelian traits with ocular involvement present in the members of a single consanguineous Czech Roma family. Methods:We have performed ocular examination and review of medical records in two individuals diagnosed with nanophthalmos (proband and her father) and one individual followed for bilateral congenital cataract and microcornea (uncle of the proband). DNA of subjects with nanophthalmos was analysed by exome sequencing. Sanger sequencing was applied for targeted screening of potentially pathogenic variants and to follow segregation of identified variants within the family. Results:A homozygous variant c.1509G>C; p.(Met503Ile), in PRSS56 was found in the two individuals affected with nanophthalmos. The change was absent from the gnomAD dataset, but two out of 118 control Roma individuals were also shown to be heterozygous carriers. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with the c.1509G>C in PRSS56 suggested a shared chromosomal segment. The nanophthalmos phenotype, characterized in detail in the younger individual, encompassed bilateral corneal steepening, retinal folds, buried optic head drusen, and restricted visual fields, but no signs of retinal dystrophy. A known pathogenic founder CTDP1 variant c.863+389C>T in a homozygous state was identified in the other family member confirming the suspected diagnosis of congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and demyelinating neuropathy syndrome. Conclusions:Herein, we report the first occurrence of nanophthalmos in the Roma population. We have identified pseudodominant inheritance for this phenotype caused by a novel variant in PRSS56, representing a possible founder effect. Despite advances in genetic technologies such as exome sequencing, careful phenotype evaluation in patients from an isolated population, along with an awareness of population-specific founder effects, is necessary to ensure that accurate molecular diagnoses are made.
Project description:Purpose:Nanophthalmos is a rare subtype of microphthalmia associated with high hyperopia and an increased risk of angle-closure glaucoma. We investigated the genetic cause of nanophthalmos and high hyperopia in an autosomal dominant kindred. Methods:A proband with short axial length, high hyperopia, and dextrocardia was subjected to exome sequencing. Human and rodent gene expression data sets were used to investigate the expression of relevant genes. Results:We identified a segregating heterozygous frameshift variant at the 3' end of the penultimate exon of MYRF. Using Myc-MYRF chromatin immunoprecipitation data from rat oligodendrocytes, MYRF was found to bind immediately upstream of the transcriptional start site of Tmem98, a gene that itself has been implicated in autosomal dominant nanophthalmos. MYRF and TMEM98 were found to be expressed in the human retina, with a similar pattern of expression across several dissected human eye tissues. Conclusions:C-terminal variants in MYRF, which are expected to escape nonsense-mediated decay, represent a rare cause of autosomal dominant nanophthalmos with or without dextrocardia or congenital diaphragmatic hernia.