Comparative Evaluation of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce and Its ZnO Nanoparticles on Scopolamine Induced Amnesia.
ABSTRACT: Over recent years, utilization of green synthesized nanomaterials has been widely growing on human body because of its special properties. With the increasing acceptance of nanoparticle approach for various clinical treatments, the biosafety and toxicological effects on the vital organs such as central nervous system, have received more concern. Main focus of this study was to evaluate acute exposure of n-butanol fraction of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce hydroethanolic extract (BuPC) and green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles of BuPC (ZnOPC) on spatial cognition behavior, and to assess underlying mechanism by estimation of enzymatic antioxidative status along with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in mice brain. Strongest in vitro antioxidant and AChE inhibitory activity exhibiting fraction, BuPC, was examined for inhibition kinetic study by Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots. BuPC was further used for fabrication ZnOPC and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X ray (EDX), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis. Old male swiss albino mice were randomly divided into seven groups and treated for 21 days. Subsequently spatial memory was determined by two behavioral models [Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Hebbs William maze (HWM)] and supernatant of brain homogenate was analyzed for enzymatic antioxidant level and AChE inhibitory activity. Zinc content of blood plasma and brain was estimated. Results showed prolonged transfer latency (TL) and time taken to reach reward chamber (TRC) by scopolamine was not ameliorated by the ZnOPC group, whereas BuPC group showed significant reduction in scopolamine induced increase in TL and TRC compared to control and scopolamine treated groups. ZnOPC alleviated enzymatic antioxidant activity and AChE as compared to donepezil and BuPC treated groups. Study concludes that ZnOPC attenuated spatial learning and memory by increase in oxidative stress and decrease in AChE activity at both dose levels. Our results suggest that BuPC exhibited a strong neuroprotective effect on cognitive deficit mice and it may be employed as a strong substance for the treatment of dementia whereas the green synthesized ZnOPC was not proficient to reverse the memory impairment induced by scopolamine.
Project description:Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors represent a major class of drugs which provide symptomatic relief and improvement in cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, cubebin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, was isolated from Piper cubeba and investigated for its AChE inhibitory activity in an attempt to explore its potential for memory-enhancing activities in mice.Molecular docking of cubebin was carried out followed by in vitro AChE activity. Mice were treated with cubebin (25 & 50 mg/kg; i.p.), for three days and memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (3 mg/kg; i.p.). Memory function was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. Biochemical parameters of oxidative stress and cholinergic function were estimated in brain.Molecular docking study revealed that cubebin was well bound within the binding site of the AChE enzyme showing interactions such as π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding with residues present therein. Cubebin inhibited AChE enzyme in an in vitro assay with IC50value of 992 μM. Scopolamine administration caused a significant impairment of learning and memory in mice, as indicated by a marked decrease in MWM performance. Scopolamine administration also produced a significant enhancement of brain AChE activity and oxidative stress in mice brain. Pre-treatment of cubebin (25 and 50 mg/kg; i.p.) significantly prevented scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits along with attenuation of scopolamine-induced rise in brain AChE activity and oxidative stress level.Cubebin showed promising protective activity in scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in mice. This could be attributed to its brain AChE inhibition and antioxidant activity.
Project description:Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a traditional herb with various therapeutic applications such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anticholinesterase activities, and can be used for the prevention or treatment of dementia. In the present study, we tested whether Rosmarinus officinalis L. could counteract scopolamine-induced anxiety, dementia, and brain oxidative stress in the zebrafish model and tried to find the underlying mechanism. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil (REO: 25, 150, and 300 µL/L) was administered by immersion to zebrafish (Danio rerio) once daily for eight days while scopolamine (100 µM) treatment was delivered 30 min before behavioral tests. The antidepressant and cognitive-enhancing actions of the essential oil in the scopolamine zebrafish model was measured in the novel tank diving test (NTT) and Y-maze test. The chemical composition was identified by Gas chromatograph-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The brain oxidative status and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also determined. REO reversed scopolamine-induced anxiety, memory impairment, and brain oxidative stress. In addition, a reduced brain AChE activity following the administration of REO in scopolamine-treated fish was observed. In conclusion, REO exerted antidepressant-like effect and cognitive-enhancing action and was able to abolish AChE alteration and brain oxidative stress induced by scopolamine.
Project description:Mangosteen extracts (ME) contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Protective effects of ME against ?-amyloid peptide (A?), induced cytotoxicity have been reported. Here, we further studied the protective effects of ME against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and demonstrated the protection against memory impairment in mice. The cytoprotective effects of ME were measured as cell viability and the reduction in ROS activity. In SK-N-SH cell cultures, 200 ?g/ml ME could partially antagonize the effects of 150 or 300 µM H2O2 on cell viability, ROS level and caspase-3 activity. At 200, 400 or 800 µg/ml, ME reduced AChE activity of SK-N-SH cells to about 60% of the control. In vivo study, Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to assess the memory of the animals. ME, especially at 100 mg/kg body weight, could improve the animal's memory and also antagonize the effect of scopolamine on memory. The increase in ROS level and caspase-3 activity in the brain of scopolamine-treated mice were antagonized by the ME treatment. The study demonstrated cytoprotective effects of ME against H2O2 and PCB-52 toxicity and having AChE inhibitory effect in cell culture. ME treatment in mice could attenuate scopolamine-induced memory deficit and oxidative stress in brain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:E. coccinae (SIMS) G. (Asteraceae) is an annual plant commonly found throughout the plain of the Central Africa and widely used in Cameroonian folk medicine for the treatment of fever and convulsions in children. We previously reported that the methanolic extract of this plant improved spatial memory. However no underlying mechanism was explored. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae on memory in scopolamine treated rats and to propose possible mechanisms of action. METHODS:Novel object recognition and Y-maze paradigm were used to test memory while oxidative profile, AChE and ACh level of the whole brain were assessed to outline the mechanism of nootropic activity of the extract. 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract were chronically administrated during 14 consecutive days in separate groups of scopolamine intraperitoneal treated rats (1.5 mg/kg). RESULTS:The hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae (HEEC) at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly improved the memory of rats and reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine. In addition, we showed that this extract is decreasing the acetyl cholinesterase activity while also increasing the acetylcholine levels in the brain. HEEC (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GSH and CAT) and reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA level) in the rat whole brain homogenates. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction in scopolamine treated rats through the blockage of the oxidative effect of scopolamine and inhibition of AChE activity.
Project description:Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the treatment of diabetes, immunodeficiency diseases, and stomach ulcer in Asia. However, the anti-amnesic effect of T. chebula has not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to determine whether T. chebula extract (TCE) alleviates amnesia induced by scopolamine in mice. We also investigated possible mechanisms associated with cholinergic system and anti-oxidant effects.TCE (100 or 200 mg/kg) was orally administered to mice for fourteen days (days 1-14), and scopolamine was intraperitoneally injected to induce memory impairment for seven days (days 8-14). Learning and memory status were evaluated using the Morris water maze. Hippocampal levels of acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were measured ex vivo. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the hippocampus were also examined.In the Morris water maze task, TCE treatment reversed scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits in acquisition and retention. TCE reduced hippocampal AChE activities and increased ChAT and ACh levels in the scopolamine-induced model. Moreover, TCE treatment suppressed scopolamine-induced oxidative damage by ameliorating the increased levels of ROS, NO, and MDA.These findings suggest that TCE exerts potent anti-amnesic effects via cholinergic modulation and anti-oxidant activity, thus providing evidence for its potential as a cognitive enhancer for amnesia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elaeagnus umbellata is abundantly found in Himalayan regions of Pakistan which is traditionally used to treat various health disorders. However, the experimental evidence supporting the anti-amnesic effect is limited. Therefore the study was aimed to evaluate the prospective beneficial effect of E. umbellata on learning and memory in mice. OBJECTIVES:To assess neuroprotective and anti-amnesic effects of E. umbellata fruit extracts and isolated compounds on the central nervous system. METHODS:Major phytochemical groups present in methanolic extract of E. umbellata were qualitatively determined. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined in extract/fractions of E. umbellata. On the basis of in vitro promising anticholinesterases (AChE & BChE) and antioxidant activities observed for CHF. Ext and isolated compound-I (Chlorogenic acid?=?CGA), they were further evaluated for learning and memory in normal and scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice using memory behavioral tests such as the Y maze and Novel object recognition using standard procedures. The test sample were further assessed for in vivo anticholinesterases (AChE & BChE) and DPPH free radical scavenging activities in mice brain sample and finally validated by molecular docking study using GOLD software. RESULTS:The extract/fractions and isolated compounds were tested for their anticholinesterase and antioxidant potentials. The CHF. Ext and CGA showed maximum % inhibition of tested cholinesterases and free radicals. The CHF. Ext and CGA reversed the effects of scopolamine in mice. The CHF. Ext and CGA significantly increased the alternate arm returns and % spontaneous alteration performance while escape latency times (second) significantly decreased in Y maze test. The CHF. Ext and CGA significantly increased the time spent with novel object and also increased the discrimination index in the Novel object recognition test. Furthermore, molecular docking was used to validate the mechanism of cholinesterases inhibition of isolated compounds. CONCLUSION:The data obtained from behavioral and biochemical studies (AChE/BChE and DPPH/ABTS inhibition) have shown that E. umbellata possessed significant memory enhancing potency. These results suggest that E. umbellata extract possess potential antiamnesic effects and amongst the isolated compounds, compound I could be more effective anti-amnesic therapeutics. However, further studies are needed to identify the exact mechanism of action.
Project description:Thymus vulgaris L. is an aromatic herb used for medicinal purposes such as antimicrobial, spasmolytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antitumor, and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The present study aimed to investigate whether Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil enhances cognitive function via the action on cholinergic neurons using scopolamine (Sco)-induced zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of memory impairments. Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TEO, 25, 150, and 300 µL/L) was administered by immersion to zebrafish once daily for 13 days, whereas memory impairment was induced by Sco (100 ?M), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, delivered 30 min before behavioral tests. Spatial memory was assessed using the Y-maze test and novel object recognition test (NOR). Anxiety and depression were measured in the novel tank diving test (NTT). Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to study the phytochemical composition of TEO. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress response in the brain of zebrafish were determined. TEO ameliorated Sco-induced increasing of AChE activity, amnesia, anxiety, and reduced the brain antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that TEO may have preventive and/or therapeutic potentials in the management of memory deficits and brain oxidative stress in zebrafish with amnesia.
Project description:Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a day for 30 days and then mouse learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze and step-through tests. The mechanisms of CSGNL improving learning and memory were investigated by assaying acetylcholine (ACh) levels and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the brain tissues of treated mice. The results showed that CSGNL significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment, at least in part, by modulating ACh levels and ChAT and AChE activities in the mouse brain. Our data support the use of CSGNL as a functional food for learning and memory enhancement.
Project description:Ziziphus mucronata Willd, also known as "buffalo thorn," belongs to the family Rhamnaceae. Its bark and leaves are used in folk medicine for the treatment of various deficiencies related to nociception, inflammation, mood, and depression. Still, there is a lack of scientific data regarding its potential effect on learning and memory process. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Ziziphus mucronata (ZM) on learning and memory impairment in a scopolamine-induced model of dementia in mice. The phytochemical analysis revealed five cyclopeptide alkaloids (sanjoinines) in the extract from Ziziphus Mucronata leaves using LC-HRMS, and the structural characterization of these compounds was determined via MS/MS. Alzheimer-type amnesia was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (1?mg/kg) to mice for 7 consecutive days. ZM (150?mg/kg, 300?mg/kg, and 600?mg/kg) and piracetam (150?mg/kg) were orally administrated to mice daily for a period of 14 days. Memory-related behavioural parameters were evaluated using the radial arm maze task for 7 days, Y-maze, and novel object recognition task. At the end of protocol schedule, animals were sacrificed, and the levels of acetylcholinesterase, malondialdehyde, catalase, and superoxide dismutase were determined in brain homogenates. Histological studies of the hippocampus were subsequently performed. The long-term scopolamine-injected group decreased the spontaneous alternation (Y-maze), the discrimination index, and the time taken to explore the new object (novel object recognition task). These effects were significantly reversed by ZM at all the doses tested. In the radial arm maze task, ZM (300 and 600?mg/kg) significantly decreased the working and reference memory errors when compared with the demented group. Scopolamine-mediated changes in AChE activity were also attenuated by ZM in mice. In addition, extract-treated groups showed a significant increase in the level of CAT and SOD activity and decreased levels of MDA in the mice brains, as compared with the control group. The present study suggests that ZM could have an important role in neuroprotection on this scopolamine-induced model of Alzheimer-type dementia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4><i>Ferula ammoniacum</i> (D. Don) is one of the endemic medicinal plants that is traditionally used to treat a number of diseases. Although the plant has been used to enhance memory, the investigational evidence supporting the nootropic effect was unsubstantial. Hence, the rationale for this study was to assess the potential beneficial effect of <i>F. ammoniacum</i> seed extracts on learning and memory in mice.<h4>Methods</h4>The powdered plant samples (aerial parts) were subjected to extraction ad fractionation. Among the extracts, crude and ethyl acetate extracts were screened for major phytochemicals through HPLC analysis. All the extracts were evaluated for the in vitro anticholinesterase (AChE and BChE) and antioxidant potentials. Among the extracts the active fraction was further assessed for improving learning and memory in mice using behavioural tests like Y-maze and novel object recognition test (NORT) using standard protocols. After behavioural tests, all the animals were sacrificed and brains tissues were assessed for the ex vivo anticholinesterase and antioxidant potentials.<h4>Results</h4>Phytochemicals like chlorogenic acid, quercetin, mandelic acid, phloroglucinol, hydroxy benzoic acid, malic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, ellagic acid, rutin, and pyrogallol were identified in crude methanolic extract (Fa.Met) and ethyl acetate fraction (Fa.EtAc) through HPLC. Fa.EtAc and Fa.Chf extracts more potently inhibited AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 40 and 43 µg/mL, and 41 and 42 µg/mL, respectively. Similarly highest free radical scavenging potential was exhibited by Fa.EtAc fraction against DPPH (IC50 = 100 µg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 120 µg/mL). The extract doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (<i>p</i> < 0.01) improved the short-term memory by increasing the percent spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze test along with increasing discrimination index in the NORT that clearly indicated the enhancement in the recognition memory of mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The extracts more potently scavenged the tested free radicals, exhibited anticholinesterase activities, improved the learning abilities and reduced the memory impairment induced by scopolamine in mice model thus suggesting that these extracts could be effectively used for the management of oxidative stress, neurodegenerative diseases and memory loss.