All-optical control of long-lived nuclear spins in rare-earth doped nanoparticles.
ABSTRACT: Nanoscale systems that coherently couple to light and possess spins offer key capabilities for quantum technologies. However, an outstanding challenge is to preserve properties, and especially optical and spin coherence lifetimes, at the nanoscale. Here, we report optically controlled nuclear spins with long coherence lifetimes (T2) in rare-earth-doped nanoparticles. We detect spins echoes and measure a spin coherence lifetime of 2.9?±?0.3?ms at 5?K under an external magnetic field of 9 mT, a T2 value comparable to those obtained in bulk rare-earth crystals. Moreover, we achieve spin T2 extension using all-optical spin dynamical decoupling and observe high fidelity between excitation and echo phases. Rare-earth-doped nanoparticles are thus the only nano-material in which optically controlled spins with millisecond coherence lifetimes have been reported. These results open the way to providing quantum light-atom-spin interfaces with long storage time within hybrid architectures.
Project description:Solid-state single spins are promising resources for quantum sensing, quantum-information processing and quantum networks, because they are compatible with scalable quantum-device engineering. However, the extension of their coherence times proves challenging. Although enrichment of the spin-zero 12C and 28Si isotopes drastically reduces spin-bath decoherence in diamond and silicon, the solid-state environment provides deleterious interactions between the electron spin and the remaining spins of its surrounding. Here we demonstrate, contrary to widespread belief, that an impurity-doped (phosphorus) n-type single-crystal diamond realises remarkably long spin-coherence times. Single electron spins show the longest inhomogeneous spin-dephasing time ([Formula: see text]?ms) and Hahn-echo spin-coherence time (T2???2.4?ms) ever observed in room-temperature solid-state systems, leading to the best sensitivities. The extension of coherence times in diamond semiconductor may allow for new applications in quantum technology.
Project description:We theoretically investigate the dynamics of environment and coherence behaviours of the central ion in a quantum memory based on a rare-earth doped crystal. The interactions between the central ion and the bath spins suppress the flip-flop rate of the neighbour bath spins and yield a specific environment spectral density S(?). Under dynamical decoupling pulses, this spectrum provides a general scaling for the coherence envelope and coherence time, which significantly extend over a range on an hour-long time scale. The characterized environment spectrum with ultra-long coherence time can be used to implement various quantum communication and information processing protocols.
Project description:Quantum light-matter interfaces connecting stationary qubits to photons will enable optical networks for quantum communications, precise global time keeping, photon switching and studies of fundamental physics. Rare-earth-ion-doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical photons, microwave photons and spin waves. Here we demonstrate coupling of an ensemble of neodymium rare-earth-ions to photonic nanocavities fabricated in the yttrium orthosilicate host crystal. Cavity quantum electrodynamics effects including Purcell enhancement (F=42) and dipole-induced transparency are observed on the highly coherent (4)I(9/2)-(4)F(3/2) optical transition. Fluctuations in the cavity transmission due to statistical fine structure of the atomic density are measured, indicating operation at the quantum level. Coherent optical control of cavity-coupled rare-earth ions is performed via photon echoes. Long optical coherence times (T2?100??s) and small inhomogeneous broadening are measured for the cavity-coupled rare-earth ions, thus demonstrating their potential for on-chip scalable quantum light-matter interfaces.
Project description:Optically-interfaced spins in the solid state are a promising platform for quantum technologies. A crucial component of these systems is high-fidelity, projective measurement of the spin state. Here, we demonstrate single-shot spin readout of a single rare earth ion qubit, Er3+, which is attractive for its telecom-wavelength optical transition and compatibility with silicon nanophotonic circuits. In previous work with laser-cooled atoms and ions, and solid-state defects, spin readout is accomplished using fluorescence on an optical cycling transition; however, Er3+ and other rare earth ions generally lack strong cycling transitions. We demonstrate that modifying the electromagnetic environment around the ion can increase the strength and cyclicity of the optical transition by several orders of magnitude, enabling single-shot quantum nondemolition readout of the ion's spin with 94.6% fidelity. We use this readout to probe coherent dynamics and relaxation of the spin.
Project description:We demonstrate electrical detection of the 14N nuclear spin coherence of NV centres at room temperature. Nuclear spins are candidates for quantum memories in quantum-information devices and quantum sensors, and hence the electrical detection of nuclear spin coherence is essential to develop and integrate such quantum devices. In the present study, we used a pulsed electrically detected electron-nuclear double resonance technique to measure the Rabi oscillations and coherence time (T2) of 14N nuclear spins in NV centres at room temperature. We observed T2 ? 0.9?ms at room temperature, however, this result should be taken as a lower limit due to limitations in the longitudinal relaxation time of the NV electron spins. Our results will pave the way for the development of novel electron- and nuclear-spin-based diamond quantum devices.
Project description:Crystal defects can confine isolated electronic spins and are promising candidates for solid-state quantum information. Alongside research focusing on nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond, an alternative strategy seeks to identify new spin systems with an expanded set of technological capabilities, a materials-driven approach that could ultimately lead to 'designer' spins with tailored properties. Here we show that the 4H, 6H and 3C polytypes of SiC all host coherent and optically addressable defect spin states, including states in all three with room-temperature quantum coherence. The prevalence of this spin coherence shows that crystal polymorphism can be a degree of freedom for engineering spin qubits. Long spin coherence times allow us to use double electron-electron resonance to measure magnetic dipole interactions between spin ensembles in inequivalent lattice sites of the same crystal. Together with the distinct optical and spin transition energies of such inequivalent states, these interactions provide a route to dipole-coupled networks of separately addressable spins.
Project description:Magnetic field fluctuations arising from fundamental spins are ubiquitous in nanoscale biology, and are a rich source of information about the processes that generate them. However, the ability to detect the few spins involved without averaging over large ensembles has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate the detection of gadolinium spin labels in an artificial cell membrane under ambient conditions using a single-spin nanodiamond sensor. Changes in the spin relaxation time of the sensor located in the lipid bilayer were optically detected and found to be sensitive to near-individual (4 ± 2) proximal gadolinium atomic labels. The detection of such small numbers of spins in a model biological setting, with projected detection times of 1 s [corresponding to a sensitivity of ?5 Gd spins per Hz(1/2)], opens a pathway for in situ nanoscale detection of dynamical processes in biology.
Project description:Magnetic semiconductors with coupled magnetic and electronic properties are of high technological and fundamental importance. Rare-earth elements can be used to introduce magnetic moments associated with the uncompensated spin of 4f-electrons into the semiconductor hosts. The luminescence produced by rare-earth doped semiconductors also attracts considerable interest due to the possibility of electrical excitation of characteristic sharp emission lines from intra 4f-shell transitions. Recently, electroluminescence of Eu-doped GaN in current-injection mode was demonstrated in p-n junction diode structures grown by organometallic vapour phase epitaxy. Unlike most other trivalent rare-earth ions, Eu(3+) ions possess no magnetic moment in the ground state. Here we report the detection of an induced magnetic moment of Eu(3+) ions in GaN which is associated with the (7)F(2) final state of (5)D(0)→(7)F(2) optical transitions emitting at 622 nm. The prospect of controlling magnetic moments electrically or optically will lead to the development of novel magneto-optic devices.
Project description:The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin-photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3?T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity.
Project description:Quantum coherence control usually requires low temperature environments. Even for nitrogen-vacancy center spins in diamond, a remarkable exception, the coherence signal is limited to about 700 K due to the quench of the spin-dependent fluorescence at a higher temperature. Here we overcome this limit and demonstrate quantum coherence control of the electron spins of nitrogen-vacancy centers in nanodiamonds at temperatures near 1000 K. The scheme is based on initialization and readout of the spins at room temperature and control at high temperature, which is enabled by pulse laser heating and rapid diffusion cooling of nanodiamonds on amorphous carbon films. Using the diamond magnetometry based on optically detected magnetic resonance up to 800 K, we observe the magnetic phase transition of a single nickel nanoparticle at about 615 K. This work enables nano-thermometry and nano-magnetometry in the high-temperature regime.