An orthogonal system for heterologous expression of actinobacterial lasso peptides in Streptomyces hosts.
ABSTRACT: Lasso peptides are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides produced by bacteria. They are characterized by an unusual lariat-knot structure. Targeted genome scanning revealed a wide diversity of lasso peptides encoded in actinobacterial genomes, but cloning and heterologous expression of these clusters turned out to be problematic. To circumvent this, we developed an orthogonal expression system for heterologous production of actinobacterial lasso peptides in Streptomyces hosts based on a newly-identified regulatory circuit from Actinoalloteichus fjordicus. Six lasso peptide gene clusters, mainly originating from marine Actinobacteria, were chosen for proof-of-concept studies. By varying the Streptomyces expression hosts and a small set of culture conditions, three new lasso peptides were successfully produced and characterized by tandem MS. The newly developed expression system thus sets the stage to uncover and bioengineer the chemo-diversity of actinobacterial lasso peptides. Moreover, our data provide some considerations for future bioprospecting efforts for such peptides.
Project description:Moonmilk are cave carbonate deposits that host a rich microbiome, including antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, making these speleothems appealing for bioprospecting. Here, we investigated the taxonomic profile of the actinobacterial community of three moonmilk deposits of the cave "Grotte des Collemboles" via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Actinobacteria was the most common phylum after Proteobacteria, ranging from 9% to 23% of the total bacterial population. Next to actinobacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) attributed to uncultured organisms at the genus level (~44%), we identified 47 actinobacterial genera with Rhodoccocus (4 OTUs, 17%) and Pseudonocardia (9 OTUs, ~16%) as the most abundant in terms of the absolute number of sequences. Streptomycetes presented the highest diversity (19 OTUs, 3%), with most of the OTUs unlinked to the culturable Streptomyces strains that were previously isolated from the same deposits. Furthermore, 43% of the OTUs were shared between the three studied collection points, while 34% were exclusive to one deposit, indicating that distinct speleothems host their own population, despite their nearby localization. This important spatial diversity suggests that prospecting within different moonmilk deposits should result in the isolation of unique and novel Actinobacteria. These speleothems also host a wide range of non-streptomycetes antibiotic-producing genera, and should therefore be subjected to methodologies for isolating rare Actinobacteria.
Project description:To illuminate the evolution and mechanisms of actinobacterial complexity, we evaluate the distribution and origins of known Streptomyces developmental genes and the developmental significance of actinobacteria-specific genes. As an aid, we developed the Actinoblast database of reciprocal blastp best hits between the Streptomyces coelicolor genome and more than 100 other actinobacterial genomes (http://streptomyces.org.uk/actinoblast/). We suggest that the emergence of morphological complexity was underpinned by special features of early actinobacteria, such as polar growth and the coupled participation of regulatory Wbl proteins and the redox-protecting thiol mycothiol in transducing a transient nitric oxide signal generated during physiologically stressful growth transitions. It seems that some cell growth and division proteins of early actinobacteria have acquired greater importance for sporulation of complex actinobacteria than for mycelial growth, in which septa are infrequent and not associated with complete cell separation. The acquisition of extracellular proteins with structural roles, a highly regulated extracellular protease cascade, and additional regulatory genes allowed early actinobacterial stationary phase processes to be redeployed in the emergence of aerial hyphae from mycelial mats and in the formation of spore chains. These extracellular proteins may have contributed to speciation. Simpler members of morphologically diverse clades have lost some developmental genes.
Project description:Inland solar salterns established in the vicinity of Sambhar Lake are extreme saline environments with high salinity and alkalinity. In view of the fact that microbes inhabiting such extreme saline environments flourish the contemporary bioprospecting, it was aimed to selectively isolate slow growing and rare actinomycetes from the unexplored solar salterns. A total of 14 slow growing actinomycetes were selectively isolated from three composite soil samples of inland solar salterns. Among the isolates, four groups were formed according to similarity of the banding patterns obtained by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A subset of representative isolates for each ARDRA group was identified using 16S rDNA sequence based phylogenetic analysis and subsequently the entire isolates were assigned under three different genera; Streptomyces, Pseudonocardia, and Actinoalloteichus. The genus Streptomyces was found to be the dominant among the isolates. Furthermore, rare actinomycete genus Actinoalloteichus was isolated for the first time from solar saltern. Determination of salt-tolerance revealed that certain level of salt-tolerance and moderate halophilism occurs among the actinomycetes isolated from the inland salterns. In addition, all the acinomycetes were screened in two levels to unravel their ability to produce antimicrobial compounds. Significant antimicrobial activity was found among the actinomycetes against a range of bacteria and fungi to worth further characterization of these persuasive actinomycetes and their antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In a nutshell, this study offered a first interesting insight on occurrence of antagonistic rare actinomycetes and streptomycetes in inland solar salterns associated with Sambhar salt Lake.
Project description:Analysis of the genome sequence of Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii C34T identified biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for three different lasso peptides (Lp1, Lp2, and Lp3) which were not known to be made by the strain. Lasso peptides represent relatively new members of the RiPP (ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides) family of natural products and have not been extensively studied. Lp3, whose production could be detected in culture supernatants from S. leeuwenhoekii C34T and after heterologous expression of its BGC in Streptomyces coelicolor, is identical to the previously characterized chaxapeptin. Lp1, whose production could not be detected or achieved heterologously, appears to be identical to a recently identified member of the citrulassin family of lasso peptides. Since production of Lp2 by S. leeuwenhoekii C34T was not observed, its BGC was also expressed in S. coelicolor The lasso peptide was isolated and its structure confirmed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, revealing a novel structure that appears to represent a new family of lasso peptides.IMPORTANCE Recent developments in genome sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis have revealed that actinomycetes contain a plethora of unexpected BGCs and thus have the potential to produce many more natural products than previously thought. This reflects the inability to detect the production of these compounds under laboratory conditions, perhaps through the use of inappropriate growth media or the absence of the environmental cues required to elicit expression of the corresponding BGCs. One approach to overcoming this problem is to circumvent the regulatory mechanisms that control expression of the BGC in its natural host by deploying heterologous expression. The generally compact nature of lasso peptide BGCs makes them particularly amenable to this approach, and, in the example given here, analysis revealed a new member of the lasso peptide family of RiPPs. This approach should be readily applicable to other cryptic lasso peptide gene clusters and would also facilitate the design and production of nonnatural variants by changing the sequence encoding the core peptide, as has been achieved with other classes of RiPPs.
Project description:RES-701-3 and RES-701-4 are two class II lasso peptides originally identified in the fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. RE-896, which have been described as selective endothelin type B receptor antagonists. These two lasso peptides only differ in the identity of the C-terminal residue (tryptophan in RES-701-3, 7-hydroxy-tryptophan in RES-701-4), thus raising an intriguing question about the mechanism behind the modification of the tryptophan residue. In this study, we describe the identification of their biosynthetic gene cluster through the genome mining of the marine actinomycete Streptomyces caniferus CA-271066, its cloning and heterologous expression, and show that the seven open reading frames (ORFs) encoded within the gene cluster are sufficient for the biosynthesis of both lasso peptides. We propose that ResE, a protein lacking known putatively conserved domains, is likely to play a key role in the post-translational modification of the C-terminal tryptophan of RES-701-3 that affords RES-701-4. A BLASTP search with the ResE amino acid sequence shows the presence of homologues of this protein in the genomes of eight other Streptomyces strains, which also harbour the genes encoding the RES-701-3, -4 precursor peptide, split-B proteins and ATP-dependent lactam synthetase required for the biosynthesis of these compounds.
Project description:Many Actinobacteria, most notably Streptomyces, produce structurally diverse bioactive natural products, including ribosomally synthesized peptides, by multistep enzymatic pathways. The use of site-specific genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids to investigate and manipulate the functions of natural product biosynthetic enzymes, enzyme complexes, and ribosomally derived peptides in these organisms would have important implications for drug discovery and development efforts. Here, we have designed, constructed, and optimized unnatural amino acid systems capable of incorporating p-iodo-l-phenylalanine and p-azido-l-phenylalanine site-specifically into proteins in the model natural product producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. We observed notable differences in the fidelity and efficiency of these systems between S. venezuelae and previously used hosts. Our findings serve as a foundation for using an expanded genetic code in Streptomyces to address questions related to natural product biosynthesis and mechanism of action that are relevant to drug discovery and development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Heterologous expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters is used to achieve increased production of desired compounds, activate cryptic gene clusters, manipulate clusters from genetically unamenable strains, obtain natural products from uncultivable species, create new unnatural pathways, etc. Several Streptomyces species are genetically engineered for use as hosts for heterologous expression of gene clusters. S. lividans TK24 is one of the most studied and genetically tractable actinobacteria, which remain untapped. It was therefore important to generate S. lividans chassis strains with clean metabolic backgrounds. RESULTS:In this study, we generated a set of S. lividans chassis strains by deleting endogenous gene clusters and introducing additional φC31 attB loci for site-specific integration of foreign DNA. In addition to the simplified metabolic background, the engineered S. lividans strains had better growth characteristics than the parental strain in liquid production medium. The utility of the developed strains was validated by expressing four secondary metabolite gene clusters responsible for the production of different classes of natural products. Engineered strains were found to be superior to the parental strain in production of heterologous natural products. Furthermore, S. lividans-based strains were better producers of amino acid-based natural products than other tested common hosts. Expression of a Streptomyces albus subsp. chlorinus NRRL B-24108 genomic library in the modified S. lividans ΔYA9 and S. albus Del14 strains resulted in the production of 7 potentially new compounds, only one of which was produced in both strains. CONCLUSION:The constructed S. lividans-based strains are a great complement to the panel of heterologous hosts for actinobacterial secondary metabolite gene expression. The expansion of the number of such engineered strains will contribute to an increased success rate in isolation of new natural products originating from the expression of genomic and metagenomic libraries, thus raising the chance to obtain novel biologically active compounds.
Project description:The effect of single actinobacterial endophyte seed inoculants and a mixed microbial soil inoculant on the indigenous endophytic actinobacterial population in wheat roots was investigated by using the molecular technique terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Wheat was cultivated either from seeds coated with the spores of single pure actinobacterial endophytes of Microbispora sp. strain EN2, Streptomyces sp. strain EN27, and Nocardioides albus EN46 or from untreated seeds sown in soil with and without a commercial mixed microbial soil inoculant. The endophytic actinobacterial population within the roots of 6-week-old wheat plants was assessed by T-RFLP. Colonization of the wheat roots by the inoculated actinobacterial endophytes was detected by T-RFLP, as were 28 to 42 indigenous actinobacterial genera present in the inoculated and uninoculated plants. The presence of the commercial mixed inoculant in the soil reduced the endophytic actinobacterial diversity from 40 genera to 21 genera and reduced the detectable root colonization by approximately half. The results indicate that the addition of a nonadapted microbial inoculum to the soil disrupted the natural actinobacterial endophyte population, reducing diversity and colonization levels. This was in contrast to the addition of a single actinobacterial endophyte to the wheat plant, where the increase in colonization level could be confirmed even though the indigenous endophyte population was not adversely affected.
Project description:The endophytic actinobacterial population in the roots of wheat grown in three different soils obtained from the southeast part of South Australia was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the amplified 16S rRNA genes. A new, validated approach was applied to the T-RFLP analysis in order to estimate, to the genus level, the actinobacterial population that was identified. Actinobacterium-biased primers were used together with three restriction enzymes to obtain terminal restriction fragments (TRFs). The TRFs were matched to bacterial genera by the T-RFLP Analysis Program, and the data were analyzed to validate and semiquantify the genera present within the plant roots. The highest diversity and level of endophytic colonization were found in the roots of wheat grown in a dark loam from Swedes Flat, and the lowest were found in water-repellent sand from Western Flat. This molecular approach detected a greater diversity of actinobacteria than did previous culture-dependent methods, with the predominant genera being Mycobacterium (21.02%) in Swedes Flat, Streptomyces (14.35%) in Red Loam, and Kitasatospora (15.02%) in Western Flat. This study indicates that the soil that supported a higher number of indigenous organisms resulted in wheat roots with higher actinobacterial diversity and levels of colonization within the plant tissue. Sequencing of 16S rRNA clones, obtained using the same actinobacterium-biased PCR primers that were used in the T-RFLP analysis, confirmed the presence of the actinobacterial diversity and identified a number of Mycobacterium and Streptomyces species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Actinobacteria are famous for the production of unique secondary metabolites that help in controlling the continuously emerging drug resistance all over the globe. This study aimed at the investigation of an extreme environment the Cholistan desert, located in southern Punjab, Pakistan, for actinobacterial diversity and their activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The Cholistan desert is a sub-tropical and arid ecosystem with harsh environment, limited rainfall and low humidity. The 20 soil and sand samples were collected from different locations in the desert and the actinobacterial strains were selectively isolated. The isolated strains were identified using a polyphasic taxonomic approach including morphological, biochemical, physiological characterization, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS:A total of 110 desert actinobacterial strains were recovered, which were found to be belonging to 3 different families of the order Actinomycetales, including the family Streptomycetaceae, family Pseudonocardiaceae and the family Micrococcaceae. The most frequently isolated genus was Streptomyces along with the genera Pseudonocardia and Arthrobacter. The isolated strains exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with zone of inhibition in the range of 9-32?mm in antimicrobial screening assays. The chemical profiling by thin layer chromatography, HPLC-UV/Vis and LC-MS analysis depicted the presence of different structural classes of antibiotics. CONCLUSION:The study revealed that Cholistan desert harbors immense actinobacterial diversity and most of the strains produce structurally diverse bioactive secondary metabolites, which are a promising source of novel antimicrobial drug candidates.