Blocking mitochondrial cyclophilin D ameliorates TSH-impaired defensive barrier of artery.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:Endothelial cells (ECs) constitute the defensive barrier of vasculature, which maintains the vascular homeostasis. Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) in ECs significantly affects the initiation and progression of vascular diseases. The higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is being recognized as a nonconventional risk factor responsible for the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). However, effects and underlying mechanisms of elevated TSH on ECs are still ambiguous. We sought to investigate whether cyclophilin D (CypD), emerging as a crucial mediator in mitoOS, regulates effects of TSH on ECs. METHODS AND RESULTS:SCH patients with TSH > = 10mIU/L showed a positive correlation between serum TSH and endothelin-1 levels. When TSH levels declined to normal in these subjects after levothyroxine therapy, serum endothelin-1 levels were significantly reduced. Supplemented with exogenous thyroxine to keep normal thyroid hormones, thyroid-specific TSH receptor (TSHR)-knockout mice with injection of exogenous TSH exhibited elevated serum TSH levels, significant endothelial oxidative injuries and disturbed endothelium-dependent vasodilation. However, Tshr-/- mice resisted to TSH-impaired vasotonia. We further confirmed that elevated TSH triggered excessive mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and mitochondrial oxidative damages in mouse aorta, as well as in cultured ECs. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CypD (the key regulator for mPTP opening) attenuated TSH-induced mitochondrial oxidative damages and further rescued endothelial functions. Finally, we confirmed that elevated TSH could activate CypD by enhancing CypD acetylation via inhibiting adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/sirtuin-3 signaling pathway in ECs. CONCLUSIONS:These findings reveal that elevated TSH triggers mitochondrial perturbations in ECs and provide insights that blocking mitochondrial CypD enhances the defensive ability of ECs under TSH exposure.
Project description:Background & Aims:Oxidative stress-related liver diseases were shown to be associated with elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Mitochondria are the main source of cellular reactive oxygen species. However, the relationship between TSH and hepatic mitochondrial stress/dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we focused on exploring the effects and mechanism of TSH on hepatic mitochondrial stress. Methods:As the function of TSH is mediated through the TSH receptor (TSHR), Tshr -/- mice and liver-specific Tshr -/- mice and liver-specific Tshr -/- mice and liver-specific. Results:A relatively lower degree of mitochondrial stress was observed in the livers of Tshr -/- mice and liver-specific in vitro. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses showed that Tshr -/- mice and liver-specific. Conclusions:TSH stimulates hepatic CypD acetylation through the lncRNA-AK044604/SIRT1/SIRT3 signaling pathway, indicating an essential role for TSH in mitochondrial stress in the liver.
Project description:Loss-of-function mutations in the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene lead to resistance to TSH (RTSH) presenting with either congenital hypothyroidism (CH) or subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Despite several reports of patients with TSHR mutations, data on the long-term outcome of this condition are limited, and no consensus exists on the need for hormone replacement therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term outcome in children and adolescents with RTSH due to TSHR mutations.The TSHR gene was sequenced in 94 subjects (aged 3 days-21 years) with either nonautoimmune SCH or CH with RTSH.Twenty-seven subjects (29%) carried mutations in TSHR. Fifteen infants were identified by neonatal screening, and the other 79 patients were detected in the process of testing for various other conditions or because of family occurrence of thyroid test abnormalities. Six different mutations were identified: c.484C>G (p.P162A), c.202C>T (p.P68S), c.790C>T (p.P264S), c.269A>C (p.Q90P), c.1957C>G (p.L653V), and c.1347C>T (p.R450C). Twelve subjects were homozygous, three were compound heterozygous, and 12 were heterozygous. Mean serum TSH levels at diagnosis and at last visit were significantly higher in patients with TSHR mutations than in those without mutations (29.04 vs. 14.15, p=0.002; 31.73 vs. 6.19, p<0.0001, respectively). Homozygous patients had a more severe phenotype (TSH 53.6 vs. 9.24, p<0.0001). Mean serum free thyroxine (fT4) levels at the last visit were significantly lower than at the first visit in the homozygous individuals (p=0.05) for a follow-up period of as long as 11 years. Heterozygous subjects had only mild hyperthyrotropinemia with stable TSH levels. However, homozygous subjects showed a trend toward increased TSH and decreased fT4 with time.SCH in heterozygotes with TSHR mutations is a stable compensated condition with an appropriately adjusted set point for pituitary-thyroid feedback that does not require replacement therapy. However, homozygous subjects, with incompletely compensated SCH, show reduced fT4 levels over time and may require levothyroxine treatment. Replacement therapy should be considered on an individual basis, and long-term follow up is recommended.
Project description:Pathogenic factors associated with aging, such as oxidative stress and hormone depletion converge on mitochondria and impair their function via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). The MPTP is a large non-selective pore regulated by cyclophilin D (CypD) that disrupts mitochondrial membrane integrity. MPTP involvement has been firmly established in degenerative processes in heart, brain, and muscle. Bone has high energy demands and is therefore expected to be highly sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite this, the role of mitochondria and the MPTP in bone maintenance and bone pathology has not been elucidated. Our goal was to determine whether mitochondria are impaired in aging bone and to see if protecting mitochondria from MPTP opening via CypD deletion protects against bone loss. We found that bone mass, strength, and formation progressively decline over the course of 18 months in C57BL/6J mice. Using metabolomics and electron microscopy, we determined that oxidative metabolism is impaired in aging bone leading to a glycolytic shift, imbalance in nucleotides, and decreased NAD+/NADH ratio. Mitochondria in osteocytes appear swollen which is a major marker of MPTP opening. CypD deletion by CypD knockout mouse model (CypD KO) protects against bone loss in 13- and 18-month-old mice and prevents decline in bone formation and mitochondrial changes observed in wild type C57BL/6J mice. Together, these data demonstrate that mitochondria are impaired in aging bone and that CypD deletion protects against this impairment to prevent bone loss. This implicates CypD-regulated MPTP and mitochondrial dysfunction in the impairment of bone cells and in aging-related bone loss. Our findings suggest mitochondrial metabolism as a new target for bone therapeutics and inhibition of CypD as a novel strategy against bone loss.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction lies at the core of acute pancreatitis (AP). Diverse AP stimuli induce Ca2+-dependent formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), a solute channel modulated by cyclophilin D (CypD), the formation of which causes ATP depletion and necrosis. Oxidative stress reportedly triggers MPTP formation and is elevated in clinical AP, but how reactive oxygen species influence cell death is unclear. Here, we assessed potential MPTP involvement in oxidant-induced effects on pancreatic acinar cell bioenergetics and fate. H2O2 application promoted acinar cell apoptosis at low concentrations (1-10 ?m), whereas higher levels (0.5-1 mm) elicited rapid necrosis. H2O2 also decreased the mitochondrial NADH/FAD+ redox ratio and ??m in a concentration-dependent manner (10 ?m to 1 mm H2O2), with maximal effects at 500 ?m H2O2 H2O2 decreased the basal O2 consumption rate of acinar cells, with no alteration of ATP turnover at <50 ?m H2O2 However, higher H2O2 levels (?50 ?m) diminished spare respiratory capacity and ATP turnover, and bioenergetic collapse, ATP depletion, and cell death ensued. Menadione exerted detrimental bioenergetic effects similar to those of H2O2, which were inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Oxidant-induced bioenergetic changes, loss of ??m, and cell death were not ameliorated by genetic deletion of CypD or by its acute inhibition with cyclosporine A. These results indicate that oxidative stress alters mitochondrial bioenergetics and modifies pancreatic acinar cell death. A shift from apoptosis to necrosis appears to be associated with decreased mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity and ATP production, effects that are independent of CypD-sensitive MPTP formation.
Project description:The osteoporosis associated with human hyperthyroidism has traditionally been attributed to elevated thyroid hormone levels. There is evidence, however, that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is low in most hyperthyroid states, directly affects the skeleton. Importantly, Tshr-knockout mice are osteopenic. In order to determine whether low TSH levels contribute to bone loss in hyperthyroidism, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of wild-type and Tshr-knockout mice that were rendered hyperthyroid. We found that hyperthyroid mice lacking TSHR had greater bone loss and resorption than hyperthyroid wild-type mice, thereby demonstrating that the absence of TSH signaling contributes to bone loss. Further, we identified a TSH-like factor that may confer osteoprotection. These studies suggest that therapeutic suppression of TSH to very low levels may contribute to bone loss in people.
Project description:Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is postulated to increase stroke risk via atherogenic changes associated with abnormal thyroid function. However, the direct relationship of SCH with subsequent stroke is poorly studied.In this nested case-cohort study, we prospectively evaluated the association between any SCH and severity of SCH in relation to incident ischemic stroke risk among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Trained Women's Health Initiative staff, masked to thyroid status, adjudicated stroke cases. We assessed thyroid function using baseline blood specimens. Women with normal free thyroxine levels and thyrotropin (TSH) levels ?4.69?mU/L were considered to have SCH. Primary analysis included 639 ischemic stroke cases and 2927 randomly selected subcohort members with an average of seven years of follow-up.The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) from weighted Cox models were 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77, 1.46) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.47) for women with any SCH and with mild SCH (TSH 4.69 to 6.99?mU/L), when compared with women with normal thyroid function. The HR for moderate/severe SCH (TSH ?7.00?mU/L) was modestly elevated (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 0.73, 2.05).We found no evidence to suggest an association between SCH and ischemic stroke among healthy postmenopausal women.
Project description:Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), also called mild thyroid failure, is diagnosed when peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference laboratory range but serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels are mildly elevated. This condition occurs in 3% to 8% of the general population. It is more common in women than men, and its prevalence increases with age. Of patients with SCH, 80% have a serum TSH of less than 10 mIU/L. The most important implication of SCH is high likelihood of progression to clinical hypothyroidism. The possibility that it is a cardiovascular risk factor has been a subject of debate. Large-scale randomized studies are needed for evidence-based recommendations regarding screening for mild thyroid failure and levothyroxine therapy for this condition. Currently, the practical approach is routine levothyroxine therapy for persons with a persistent serum TSH of more than 10.0 mIU/L and individualized therapy for those with a TSH of less than 10.0 mIU/L.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The BRAF(V600E) mutation is the most common genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). Transgenic mice overexpressing BRAF(V600E) in their thyroids under control of the thyroglobulin promoter (Tg-BRAF2 mice) developed invasive PTCs with high penetrance. However, these mice showed elevated thyrotropin (TSH) levels, which also stimulate the proliferation of thyrocytes and tumorigenesis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how TSH signaling cooperates with BRAF(V600E) in the process of thyroid carcinogenesis. METHODS: We crossed Tg-BRAF2 mice with TSH receptor knockout (TshR(-/-)) mice. Four genetically distinct mice groups-Braf(wt)/TshR(+/-) (group 1), Braf(wt)/TshR(-/-) (group 2), Tg-BRAF2/TshR(+/-) (group 3), and Tg-BRAF2/TshR(-/-) (group 4)--were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks of age. We performed histopathological analysis. Genomic instability was evaluated by immunofluorescence for p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and ?H2AX. Invasiveness and genomic instability were also evaluated using thyroid PCCL3 cells expressing BRAF(V600E). RESULTS: Groups 3 and 4 developed distinct neoplasias comparable to human PTCs. Group 3 developed typically larger, more aggressive, invasive tumors compared to group 4. The frequency of 53BP1 and ?H2AX foci-indicators of genomic instability--in group 3 was higher than that in group 4. TSH also enhanced invasiveness and genomic instability in PCCL3 cells with BRAF(V600E) expression. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that the TSH signaling confers more aggressive features in BRAF(V600E)-induced thyroid tumors in mice. This might be due, in part, to accelerated genomic instability.
Project description:Resistance to TSH (RTSH) is a condition of impaired responsiveness of the thyroid gland to TSH, characterized by elevated serum TSH, low or normal thyroid hormone levels, and hypoplastic or normal-sized thyroid gland.The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical course and the genotype-phenotype relationship of RTSH caused by two different TSH receptor (TSHR) gene mutations in a consanguineous population.We conducted a clinical and genetic investigation of 46 members of an extended family and 163 individuals living in the same town. In vitro functional studies of the mutant TSHRs were also performed.Two TSHR gene mutations (P68S and L653V) were identified in 33 subjects occurring as homozygous L653V (five subjects), heterozygous L653V (20 subjects), heterozygous P68S (four subjects), and compound heterozygous L653V/P68S (four subjects). With the exception of one individual with concomitant autoimmune thyroid disease, all homozygotes and compound heterozygotes presented with compensated RTSH (high TSH with free T(4) and T(3) in the normal range). Only nine of 24 heterozygotes had mild hyperthyrotropinemia. The L653V mutation resulted in a higher serum TSH concentration and showed a more severe in vitro abnormality than P68S. Haplotype analysis predicted a founder of the L653V six to seven generations earlier, whereas the P68S is older. Cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies indicate that TSH and T(4) concentrations remain stable over time.High frequency hyperthyrotropinemia in an Israeli Arab-Muslim consanguineous community is attributed to two inactivating TSHR gene mutations. Concordant genotype-phenotype was demonstrated clinically and by in vitro functional analysis. Retrospective and prospective studies indicate that in the absence of concomitant autoimmune thyroid disease, elevated TSH levels reflect stable compensated RTSH.
Project description:Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). SCH is further classified into a milder condition with TSH levels between 4.0 and 10.0 milli-international units (mIU)/l (mild-SCH) and a severe form with TSH >10.0 mIU/l (severe-SCH). SCH is a common problem (prevalence is greater in women than men), which increases further with increasing age and TSH levels. Even though the risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is higher in patients with severe-SCH, the risk is also significant in patients having mild-SCH; it has been suggested that every twofold rise in serum TSH would increase the risk from 1 to 4%, which further increases to 38% if thyroid antibodies are positive. Current data have shown increased cardiovascular risk in patients with mild-SCH and have demonstrated some benefits of levothyroxine treatment in reducing these events. However, evidence on the association of mild-SCH and musculoskeletal system, cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and goitre is conflicting. Similarly, the discussion regarding the exact upper limit of normal for serum TSH remains controversial. The data have also shown increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in patient with mild-SCH, with some benefits of thyroxine treatment. The recent available guidelines related to management of patients with serum TSH <10 mIU/l have suggested decisions should be made taking into account the age of the patient, associated risk factors and comorbid conditions. This chronicle review assesses current evidence regarding the risks associated and the recommendations related to benefits of levothyroxine treatment in patients having mild-SCH.