Aspirin for the chemoprevention of colorectal adenomas: meta-analysis of the randomized trials.
ABSTRACT: Multiple lines of evidence indicate that aspirin has an antineoplastic effect in the large bowel. Randomized clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of aspirin for reducing the risk of colorectal adenomas. A meta-analysis of these trials will provide more precise estimates of the aspirin effect, both overall and in subgroups.We combined data from all randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials that evaluated aspirin for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. We used random-effects meta-analysis to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effect of aspirin on the occurrence of adenomas and of advanced lesions (ie, tubulovillous adenomas, villous adenomas, adenomas >or=1 cm in diameter, adenomas with high-grade dysplasia, or invasive cancer). All statistical tests were two-sided.We identified four clinical trials with 2967 randomly assigned participants. Each trial evaluated aspirin for the secondary prevention of colorectal adenomas. Doses of aspirin tested ranged from 81 to 325 mg/d. The average age of participants at baseline was 58 years, and 60% were male. Median follow-up was 33 months. A total of 2698 participants underwent colonoscopic follow-up and were included in the analysis of adenoma occurrence and advanced-lesion occurrence after randomization. Among these participants, adenomas were found in 424 (37%) of the 1156 participants allocated to placebo and in 507 (33%) of the 1542 participants allocated to any dose of aspirin. Advanced lesions were found in 12% of participants in the placebo group and in 9% of participants allocated to any dose of aspirin. The pooled risk ratio of any adenoma for any dose of aspirin vs placebo was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.72 to 0.96). This corresponded to an absolute risk reduction of 6.7% (95% CI = 3.2% to 10.2%). For any advanced lesion, the pooled risk ratio was 0.72 (95% CI = 0.57 to 0.90). We found no statistically significant effect modification for any of the baseline factors studied.Aspirin is effective for the prevention of colorectal adenomas in individuals with a history of these lesions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The naturally-occurring omega (?)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces colorectal adenoma (polyp) number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. The safety profile and potential cardiovascular benefits associated with ?-3 PUFAs make EPA a strong candidate for colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention, alone or in combination with aspirin, which itself has recognized anti-CRC activity. Colorectal adenoma number and size are recognized as biomarkers of future CRC risk and are established as surrogate end-points in CRC chemoprevention trials. DESIGN:The seAFOod Polyp Prevention Trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial 'efficacy' study, which will determine whether EPA prevents colorectal adenomas, either alone or in combination with aspirin. Participants are 55-73 year-old patients, who have been identified as 'high risk' (detection of ?5 small adenomas or ?3 adenomas with at least one being ?10 mm in diameter) at screening colonoscopy in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). Exclusion criteria include the need for more than one repeat endoscopy within the three-month BCSP screening period, malignant change in an adenoma, regular use of aspirin or non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, regular use of fish oil supplements and concomitant warfarin or anti-platelet agent therapy. Patients are randomized to either EPA-free fatty acid 1 g twice daily or identical placebo AND aspirin 300 mg once daily or identical placebo, for approximately 12 months. The primary end-point is the number of participants with one or more adenomas detected at routine one-year BCSP surveillance colonoscopy. Secondary end-points include the number of adenomas (total and 'advanced') per patient, the location (left versus right colon) of colorectal adenomas and the number of participants re-classified as 'intermediate risk' for future surveillance. Exploratory end-points include levels of bioactive lipid mediators such as ?-3 PUFAs, resolvin E1 and PGE-M in plasma, urine, erythrocytes and rectal mucosa in order to gain insights into the mechanism(s) of action of EPA and aspirin, alone and in combination, as well as to discover predictive biomarkers of chemopreventive efficacy. The recruitment target is 904 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN05926847.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Visceral adiposity is a risk factor for colorectal adenomas, and aspirin is an established chemopreventive agent. Evidence from clinical trials suggests the effectiveness of aspirin at preventing cardiovascular disease and cancer may require higher doses for higher body weight. METHODS:Body mass index, body surface area, fat-free mass, and fat mass were calculated from baseline height and weight in 1,121 participants of the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3 × 2 factorial randomized clinical trial of low-dose (81 mg/day) or high-dose (325 mg/day) aspirin and/or 1 mg/day folic acid to prevent metachronous colorectal adenomas. Participants were treated during a surveillance colonoscopy interval of approximately 3 years. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for any colorectal neoplasia and high-risk adenoma (HRA, advanced or ?3 adenomas) were estimated from log-linear regression. RESULTS:We did not find evidence to suggest aspirin dose-response differed by body composition measurements, including weight alone. Among those weighing ? 80 kg, treatment effects for low-dose aspirin (RR for colorectal neoplasia, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.94; RR for HRA, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.86) and high-dose aspirin (RR for colorectal neoplasia, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.72-1.08; RR for HRA, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.43-1.09) were not meaningfully different than for those weighing 70-79 kg or <70 kg. CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body composition calculated from height and weight did not modify aspirin treatment effects for colorectal adenoma prevention. IMPACT:Aspirin dosing strategies accounting for body weight suggested in previous trials of colorectal cancer may not apply to adenomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Selenium supplementation may help to prevent colorectal cancer; as precursors of colorectal cancer, colorectal adenomas are a surrogate for colorectal cancer. Selenium supplementation may increase risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS:The Selenium and Celecoxib (Sel/Cel) Trial was a randomized, placebo controlled trial of selenium 200 µg daily as selenized yeast and celecoxib 400?mg once daily, alone or together, for colorectal adenoma prevention. Men and women between age 40 and 80 years were eligible following colonoscopic removal of colorectal adenomas. The primary outcome was adenoma development. Celecoxib was suspended because of cardiovascular toxicity in other trials, but accrual continued to selenium and placebo. A total of 1621 participants were randomly assigned to selenium or placebo, of whom 1374 (84.8%) were available for analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:In the respective placebo and selenium arms of 689 and 685 participants, adenoma detection after medians of 33.6 (range = 0.0-85.1 months) and 33.0 months (range = 0.0-82.6 months) were 42.8% and 44.1% (relative risk [RR] = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91 to 1.16, P = .68). In participants with baseline advanced adenomas, adenoma recurrence was reduced by 18% with selenium (RR?=?0.82, 95% CI?=?0.71 to 0.96, P = .01). In participants receiving selenium, the hazard ratio for new-onset T2D was 1.25 (95% CI?=?0.74 to 2.11, P = .41), with a statistically significantly increased risk of selenium-associated T2D among older participants (RR?=?2.21; 95% CI?=?1.04 to 4.67, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS:Overall, selenium did not prevent colorectal adenomas and showed only modest benefit in patients with baseline advanced adenomas. With limited benefit and similar increases in T2D to other trials, selenium is not recommended for preventing colorectal adenomas in selenium-replete individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and aspirin both have proof of concept for colorectal cancer chemoprevention, aligned with an excellent safety profile. Therefore, we aimed to test the efficacy of EPA and aspirin, alone and in combination and compared with a placebo, in individuals with sporadic colorectal neoplasia detected at colonoscopy. METHODS:In a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2?×?2 factorial trial, patients aged 55-73 years who were identified during colonoscopy as being at high risk in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP; ?3 adenomas if at least one was ?10 mm in diameter or ?5 adenomas if these were <10 mm in diameter) were recruited from 53 BCSP endoscopy units in England, UK. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1:1:1) using a secure web-based server to receive 2 g EPA-free fatty acid (FFA) per day (either as the FFA or triglyceride), 300 mg aspirin per day, both treatments in combination, or placebo for 12 months using random permuted blocks of randomly varying size, and stratified by BCSP site. Research staff and participants were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was the adenoma detection rate (ADR; the proportion of participants with any adenoma) at 1 year surveillance colonoscopy analysed in all participants with observable follow-up data using a so-called at-the-margins approach, adjusted for BCSP site and repeat endoscopy at baseline. The safety population included all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. The trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number registry, number ISRCTN05926847. FINDINGS:Between Nov 11, 2011, and June 10, 2016, 709 participants were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (176 to placebo, 179 to EPA, 177 to aspirin, and 177 to EPA plus aspirin). Adenoma outcome data were available for 163 (93%) patients in the placebo group, 153 (85%) in the EPA group, 163 (92%) in the aspirin group, and 161 (91%) in the EPA plus aspirin group. The ADR was 61% (100 of 163) in the placebo group, 63% (97 of 153) in the EPA group, 61% (100 of 163) in the aspirin group, and 61% (98 of 161) in the EPA plus aspirin group, with no evidence of any effect for EPA (risk ratio [RR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·87 to 1·12; risk difference -0·9%, -8·8 to 6·9; p=0·81) or aspirin (RR 0·99 (0·87 to 1·12; risk difference -0·6%, -8·5 to 7·2; p=0·88). EPA and aspirin were well tolerated (78 [44%] of 176 had ?1 adverse event in the placebo group compared with 82 [46%] in the EPA group, 68 [39%] in the aspirin group, and 76 [45%] in the EPA plus aspirin group), although the number of gastrointestinal adverse events was increased in the EPA alone group at 146 events (compared with 85 in the placebo group, 86 in the aspirin group, and 68 in the aspirin plus placebo group). Six upper-gastrointestinal bleeding events were reported across the treatment groups (two in the EPA group, three in the aspirin group, and one in the placebo group). INTERPRETATION:Neither EPA nor aspirin treatment were associated with a reduction in the proportion of patients with at least one colorectal adenoma. Further research is needed regarding the effect on colorectal adenoma number according to adenoma type and location. Optimal use of EPA and aspirin might need a precision medicine approach to adenoma recurrence. FUNDING:Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme, a UK Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health Research partnership.
Project description:COX inhibitors reduce colorectal adenoma recurrence by up to 45% and selenium supplementation may prevent colorectal cancer. Following colonoscopic adenoma resection, 1,600 men and women, ages 40 to 80 years, were randomized to celecoxib (400 mg daily), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and/or selenium (200 ?g daily as selenized yeast), or double placebo. The trial was initiated in November 2001. The primary trial endpoint is adenoma recurrence in each intervention group compared with placebo, as determined by surveillance colonoscopy conducted three to five years after baseline. Randomization was stratified by use of low-dose aspirin (81 mg) and clinic site. Following reports of cardiovascular toxicity associated with COX-2 inhibitors, the celecoxib arm was discontinued in December 2004 when 824 participants had been randomized. Accrual continued with randomization to selenium alone or placebo. Randomization of the originally planned cohort (n = 1,621) was completed in November 2008. A further 200 patients with one or more advanced adenomas (denoting increased risk for colorectal cancer) were accrued to enhance statistical power for determining intervention efficacy in this higher-risk subgroup. Accrual of the total cohort (n = 1,824) was completed in January 2011. Baseline cohort characteristics include: mean age 62.9 years; 65% male; body mass index (BMI) 29.1 ± 5.1; 47% taking low-dose aspirin while on trial; 20% with three or more adenomas; and 38% with advanced adenomas. Intervention effects on adenoma recurrence will be determined, and their modification by genetic background and baseline selenium level. The effect of selenium supplementation on risk for type II diabetes will also be reported.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors such as celecoxib were designed to preserve anti-inflammatory activity without inhibiting COX-1. Downregulation of COX-2 inhibits colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS:The Selenium and Celecoxib Trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of once-daily selenium 200 µg and celecoxib 400?mg, alone or together, for colorectal adenoma prevention. Men and women between age 40 and 80 years were eligible following colonoscopic removal of adenomas. The primary outcome was development of new adenomas. Celecoxib was suspended early because of cardiovascular toxicity in other trials. Accrual to selenium or placebo continued. Before suspension, 824 participants were randomly assigned to celecoxib or placebo, of whom 712 (86.4%) were available for analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:In the placebo and celecoxib arms of 356 participants each, adenoma detection was 47.5% and 49.7% (relative risk [RR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90 to 1.21, P = .58), respectively, after median periods of 13.6 and 14.2 months on intervention. Among participants colonoscoped within 12 months of discontinuing intervention (n?=?244), overall adenoma recurrence (RR?=?0.69, 95% CI?=?0.48 to 0.98, P = .04) and recurrence with advanced adenomas (RR?=?0.23, 95% CI?=?0.07 to 0.80, P = .02) were reduced with celecoxib. Reduction of adenoma recurrence was greatest in participants with previous advanced adenomas. Celecoxib increased risk of hypertension in participants with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors compared with placebo (hazard ratio = 2.19, 95% CI?=?1.07 to 4.50, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS:Limited-duration celecoxib prevents adenoma recurrence in patients with prior high-risk adenomas, in whom strategies to minimize cardiovascular toxicity might be feasible.
Project description:Frequent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been shown to reduce the risk of colorectal adenomas in randomized trials. We examined the persistence of the protective effect after the cessation of randomized aspirin treatment and whether it is affected by the duration and frequency of subsequent NSAID use.We used data from the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study (AFPPS), in which 1121 subjects were randomly assigned to receive placebo or aspirin (81 or 325 mg/d) for 3 years. After the end of treatment and a follow-up colonoscopy, AFPPS participants were invited to remain under follow-up until their next surveillance colonoscopies, scheduled 3-5 years later. Information regarding use of NSAIDs during posttreatment follow-up was gathered periodically via questionnaires. Average weekly NSAID use was classified as sporadic (<2 days per week), moderate (2 to <4 days per week), or frequent (>or=4 days per week). The analysis was stratified according to randomized aspirin groups and posttreatment NSAID use; placebo subjects who later were sporadic NSAID users formed the reference group. The primary outcomes were all adenomas and advanced lesions. Adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were computed with generalized linear models. All statistical tests were two-sided.A total of 850 subjects underwent a posttreatment colonoscopy, on average 4 years after the end of study treatment. The protective effect of 81 mg of aspirin for colorectal adenomas persisted with continued posttreatment NSAID use. The risk of any adenoma among frequent NSAID users was 26.8% vs 39.9% among placebo subjects who later used NSAIDs sporadically (adjusted relative risk = 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39 to 0.98; P(trend) with NSAID use frequency = .03). The unadjusted absolute risk reduction was 13.1 percentage points (95% CI = -0.3 to 26.5 percentage points) (P = .07). Results for 325 mg of aspirin were similar, although not statistically significant. For advanced lesions, small numbers of endpoints limited the analysis, but findings among subjects randomly assigned to 81 mg of aspirin suggested a protective association regardless of posttreatment NSAID use.Long-term and frequent use of NSAIDs may enhance the chemopreventive effect of aspirin against colorectal neoplasia.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the production of prostaglandins, potent mediators of inflammation. Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer. Aspirin inhibits COX-2 activity and lowers the risk for colorectal adenomas and cancer. We investigated whether common genetic variation in COX-2 influenced risk for colorectal adenoma recurrence among 979 participants in the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study who were randomly assigned to placebo or aspirin and followed for 3 years for the occurrence of new adenomas. Of these participants, 44.2% developed at least one new adenoma during follow-up. Adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to test the association between genetic variation at six COX-2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and adenoma occurrence and interaction with aspirin treatment. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased adenoma recurrence: for rs5277, homozygous carriers of the minor C allele had a 51% increased risk compared with GG homozygotes (relative risk, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.01-2.25), and for rs4648310, heterozygous carriers of the minor G allele had a 37% increased risk compared with AA homozygotes (relative risk, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.79). (There were no minor allele homozygotes.) In stratified analyses, there was suggestive evidence that rs4648319 modified the effect of aspirin. These results support the hypothesis that COX-2 plays a role in the etiology of colon cancer and may be a target for aspirin chemoprevention and warrant further investigation in other colorectal adenoma and cancer populations.
Project description:To determine the efficacy of calcium supplementation in reducing the recurrence of colorectal adenomas.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and the ClinicalTrials.gov website, through December 2015. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials assessing supplemental calcium intake for the prevention of recurrence of adenomas were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently selected studies based on predefined criteria, extracted data and outcomes (recurrence of colorectal adenomas, and advanced or "high-risk" adenomas), and rated each trial's risk-of-bias. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed, and pooled risk ratio (RR) estimates with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models. To express the treatment effect in clinical terms, we calculated the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one adenoma recurrence. We also assessed the quality of evidence using GRADE.Four randomized, placebo-controlled trials met the eligibility criteria and were included. Daily doses of elemental calcium ranged from 1200 to 2000 mg, while the duration of treatment and follow-up of participants ranged from 36 to 60 mo. Synthesis of intention-to-treat data, for participants who had undergone follow-up colonoscopies, indicated a modest protective effect of calcium in prevention of adenomas (fixed-effects, RR = 0.89, 95%CI: 0.82-0.96; random-effects, RR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.77-0.98; high quality of evidence). The NNT was 20 (95%CI: 12-61) to prevent one colorectal adenoma recurrence within a period of 3 to 5 years. On the other hand, the association between calcium treatment and advanced adenomas did not reach statistical significance (fixed-effects, RR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.75-1.13; random-effects, RR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.71-1.18; moderate quality of evidence).Our results suggest a modest chemopreventive effect of calcium supplements against recurrent colorectal adenomas over a period of 36 to 60 mo. Further research is warranted.
Project description:Statins are widely prescribed for cardiovascular disease prevention and also commonly used in patients at high risk for colorectal cancer. We report the results of a planned secondary analysis of the relationship between statin use and colorectal adenoma risk in a large chemoprevention trial. The Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib (APC) trial randomized 2,035 adenoma patients to receive placebo (679 patients), 200 mg celecoxib twice daily (bid; 685 patients), or 400 mg celecoxib bid (671 patients). The study collected complete medical history and medication use data and performed colonoscopic surveillance to 5 years after study enrollment. The effects of statin use on newly detected adenomas and cardiovascular adverse events were analyzed as time-dependent variables by multivariable Cox regression. Statins were used by 36% (n = 730) of APC trial participants. When adjusted for covariates including cardioprotective aspirin use, age, and sex, participants on the placebo arm who used statins at any time had no benefit over 5 years compared with never users (risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.56; P = 0.065). Statin use for >3 years increased adenoma risk over 5 years (risk ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.86; P = 0.024). For all comparisons of patients treated with celecoxib, adenoma detection rates for statin users and nonusers were equivalent. Consistent with their use in patients at high risk, cardiovascular serious adverse events were more common among statin users. For patients at high risk of colorectal cancer, statins do not protect against colorectal neoplasms and may even increase the risk of developing colorectal adenomas.