Molecular Identification of Sarcocystis grueneri in Wild Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).
ABSTRACT: The cysts of Sarcocystis grueneri were detected and characterized from the cardiac muscles of the Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus). Of the 38 heart muscle samples examined by light microscopy, 10 were found infected with the cysts of Sarcocystis sp. The cysts appeared oval to spherical shape and measured 110-380 ?m in length and 90-170 ?m in width. A phylogenetic tree of the 18S rRNA sequences (1.5 kb) revealed a close relationship of the infected cysts to genus Sarcocystis. The 18S rRNA sequence of the infected cysts showed 100% identity to S. grueneri and 97% to S. capracanis. Here, we first report the S. grueneri infections in the Korean water deer.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in the Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus). Pathogens were identified using PCR which included Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Theileria. Rickettsia was not detected, whereas Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Theileria infections were detected in 4, 2, and 8 animals, respectively. The most prevalent pathogen was Theileria. Of the 8 Theileria-positive animals, 2 were mixed-infected with 3 pathogens (Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Theileria) and another 2 animals showed mixed-infection with 2 pathogens (Anaplasma and Theileria). Sequencing analysis was used to verify the PCR results. The pathogens found in this study were identified as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Theileria sp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report identifying these 3 pathogens in the Korean water deer. Our results suggest that the Korean water deer may serve as a major reservoir for these tick-borne pathogens, leading to spread of tick-borne diseases to domestic animals, livestock, and humans. Further studies are needed to investigate their roles in this respect.
Project description:Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anaplasma spp. are tick-borne Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that infect humans and a wide range of animals. Anaplasma capra has emerged as a human pathogen; however, little is known about the occurrence and genetic identity of this agent in wildlife. The present study aimed to determine the infection rate and genetic profile of this pathogen in wild animals in the Republic of Korea. METHODS:A total of 253 blood samples [198 from Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus), 53 from raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and one sample each from a leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) and a roe deer (Capreolus pygargus)] were collected at Chungbuk Wildlife Center during the period 2015-2018. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples and screened for presence of Anaplasma species by PCR/sequence analysis of 429 bp of the 16S rRNA gene marker. Anaplasma capra-positive isolates were genetically profiled by amplification of a longer fragment of 16S rRNA (rrs) as well as partial sequences of citrate synthase (gltA), heat-shock protein (groEL), major surface protein 2 (msp2) and major surface protein 4 (msp4). Generated sequences of each gene marker were aligned with homologous sequences in the database and phylogenetically analyzed. RESULTS:Anaplasma capra was detected in blood samples derived from Korean water deer, whereas samples from other animal species were negative. The overall infection rate in tested samples was 13.8% (35/253) and in the water deer the rate was 17.8% (35/198), distributed along the study period from 2015 to 2018. Genetic profiling and a phylogenetic analysis based on analyzed gene markers revealed the occurrence of two distinct strains, clustered in a single clade with counterpart sequences of A. capra in the database. CONCLUSIONS:Anaplasma capra infection were detected in Korean water deer in the Republic of Korea, providing insight into the role of wildlife as a potential reservoir for animal and human anaplasmosis. However, further work is needed in order to evaluate the role of Korean water deer as a host/reservoir host of A. capra.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Microsatellites, a special class of repetitive DNA sequence, have become one of the most popular genetic markers for population/conservation genetic studies. However, its application to endangered species has been impeded by high development costs, a lack of available sequences, and technical difficulties. The water deer Hydropotes inermis is the sole existing endangered species of the subfamily Capreolinae. Although population genetics studies are urgently required for conservation management, no species-specific microsatellite marker has been reported. METHODS: We adopted next-generation sequencing (NGS) to elucidate the microsatellite markers of Korean water deer and overcome these impediments on marker developments. We performed genotyping to determine the efficiency of this method as applied to population genetics. RESULTS: We obtained 98 Mbp of nucleotide information from 260,467 sequence reads. A total of 20,101 di-/tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were identified; di-repeats were 5.9-fold more common than tri-repeats. [CA](n) and [AAC](n)/[AAT](n) repeats were the most frequent di- and tri-repeats, respectively. Of the 17,206 di-repeats, 12,471 microsatellite primer pairs were derived. PCR amplification of 400 primer pairs yielded 106 amplicons and 79 polymorphic markers from 20 individual Korean water deer. Polymorphic rates of the 79 new microsatellites varied from 2 to 11 alleles per locus (H(e): 0.050-0.880; H(o): 0.000-1.000), while those of known microsatellite markers transferred from cattle to Chinese water deer ranged from 4 to 6 alleles per locus (H(e): 0.279-0.714; H(o): 0.300-0.400). CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphic microsatellite markers from Korean water deer were successfully identified using NGS without any prior sequence information and deposited into the public database. Thus, the methods described herein represent a rapid and low-cost way to investigate the population genetics of endangered/non-model species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To differentiate Sarcocystis macro-cyst-forming species in slaughtered sheep in Babol area, Mazandaran Province, sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene was performed. METHODS:Overall, 150 slaughtered sheep were examined macroscopically in slaughterhouse, Babol and intra-abdominal and diaphragm muscles tissues infected with macro-cyst of Sarcocystis spp. were collected in 2013. One macro-cyst was isolated from the infected muscles of each sheep. The partial 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced afterward. RESULTS:The rate of infection with macro-cyst producing Sarcocystis spp. was 33.3% (50 / 150). The partial 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis species was amplified at the expected PCR product size (?1100 bp) from all 50 macroscopic cysts samples. From 30 sequences DNA samples, 20 samples (66.7%), six (20%) and four (13.3%) isolates were identified as S. gigantea, S. moulei and Sarcocystis spp., respectively. Eight and thirty-four variations in nucleotide position were seen in partial sequence of the18S rRNA gene of S. gigantea and S. moulei. CONCLUSION:Sheep can be considered as an alternative intermediate host for S. moulei. Furthermore, multiple alignments showed some variations in the consensus sequences of the isolates obtained in the current study compared with previously published isolates. To understand better the genetic diversity among Sarcocystis species complete sequences of the18S rRNA gene or sequence analysis of other genetic loci would be beneficial.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Typically, carnivores serve as definitive hosts for Sarcocystis spp. parasites; currently, their role as intermediate hosts is being elucidated. The present study aimed to identify and molecularly characterize Sarcocystis cysts detected in striated muscle of red foxes from different populations in Latvia, Lithuania and Spain. METHODS:Muscle samples from 411 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 269 racoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Latvia, 41 red foxes from Lithuania and 22 red foxes from Spain were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis sarcocysts by light microscopy (LM). Sarcocystis spp. were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and molecular biology techniques. RESULTS:Sarcocystis cysts were detected in 11/411 (2.7%) Latvian, 3/41 (7.3%) Lithuanian, and 6/22 (27.3%) Spanish red foxes, however, cysts were not observed in the muscles of racoon dogs. Based on LM, TEM, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS1, cox1 and rpoB sequences, Sarcocystis arctica and Sarcocystis lutrae cysts were identified in red fox muscles from Latvia and Lithuania, whereas only S. arctica was detected in Spain. The 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and ITS1 sequences from the 21 isolates of S. arctica from Latvia, Lithuania and Spain were identical. By contrast, two and four haplotypes were determined based on mtDNA cox1 and apicoplast rpoB sequences, respectively. Polymorphisms were not detected between the two isolates of S. lutrae from Latvia and Lithuania. Based on phylogenetic results, S. arctica and S. lutrae were most closely related to Sarcocystis spp. using predatory mammals as intermediate hosts and to Sarcocystis species with a bird-bird life-cycle. CONCLUSIONS:Based on current knowledge, the red fox and Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) could act as intermediate host for the same two Sarcocystis species. Molecular results suggest the existence of two genetic lineages of S. arctica, and such divergence relies on its geographical distribution but not on their intermediate host species.
Project description:To provide consumers correct information on meat species, specific and sensitive detection methods are needed. Thus, we developed a capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex PCR assay to simultaneously detect red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and water deer (Hydropotes inermis). Specific primer sets for these three species were newly designed. Each primer set only amplified target species without any reactivity against non-target species. To identify multiple targets in a single reaction, multiplex PCR was optimized and combined with capillary electrophoresis to increase resolution and accuracy for the detection of multiple targets. The detection levels of this assay were 0.1 pg for red deer and roe deer and 1 pg for water deer. In addition, its applicability was demonstrated using various concentrations of meat DNA mixtures. Consequently, as low as 0.1% of the target species was detectable using the developed method. This capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three types of deer meat could authenticate deer species labeled on products, thus protecting consumers from meat adulteration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A selection of haematological and serum biochemical profile was first presented from the 81 samples of Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis). The deer health assessment database was initially established, especially in relation to determining potential effects associated with diseases diagnosis. RESULTS:Blood samples were analyzed for different haematological parameters viz. white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), packed-cell volume (PCV), platelet count (PLT), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean red blood cells distribution width coefficient of variation (RDW) and different hematological parameters viz. total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB), albumin to globulin ratio (A/G), total bilirubin (TBIL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), AST/ALT, creatinine, urea (BUN), uric acid, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cortisol. The adult females had higher values than adult males in albumin, mean corpuscular volume, packed-cell volume, and hemoglobin content values. The deer from Shanghai had higher urea nitrogen values than those from Zhoushan. CONCLUSION:To our knowledge this is the first report about the haematological and serum biochemical parameters in Chinese water deer. We had initially established a profile of Chinese water deer on haematological and serum biochemical parameters based on 81 samples we had collected. The findings can serve as a primary reference for health monitoring and disease prevention in this species.
Project description:Sarcocystis species are heteroxenous cyst-forming coccidian protozoan parasites with a wide host range, including rodents. In this study, Sarcocystis spp. samples were isolated from Bandicota indica, Rattus argentiventer, R. tiomanicus and R. norvegicus across five provinces of Thailand. Two major groups of Sarcocystis cysts were determined in this study: large and small cysts. By sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses based on the partial sequences of 28S ribosomal DNA, the large cysts showed the highest identity value (99%) with the S. zamani in GenBank database. While the small cysts could be divided into 2 groups of Sarcocystis: S. singaporensis and presupposed S. zuoi. The further analysis on 18S rDNA supported that the 2 isolates (S2 and B6 no.2) were as identified as S. singaporensis shared a high sequence identity with the S. singaporensis in GenBank database and the unidentified Sarcocystis (4 isolates, i.e., B6 no.10, B6 no.12, B10 no.4 and B10 no.7) showed 96.3-99.5% identity to S. zuoi as well as high distinct identity from others Sarcocystis spp. (?93%). The result indicated that these four samples should be S. zuoi. In this study, we provided complete sequence of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of these three Sarcocystis species and our new primer set could be useful to study the evolution of Sarcocystis.
Project description:Sarcocystis is a genus of cyst-forming parasites infecting both animals and human. This study aimed to isolate coccidian tissue cysts from muscle of infected animals by a simple method in addition to molecular identification of Sarcocystis cruzi from the samples. The samples were obtained from commercial source in Babol, Northern Iran. Five grams of calf muscle was cut into 2-3 pieces in 30 ml of phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.1% Tween 80 and homogenized with IKA T25, DIGITAL ULTRA-TURRAX. The homogenate was filtrated twice and used for microscopy examination and molecular analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal gene were used to identify the Sarcocystis species. Giemsa stain of the filtrated calf muscle samples showed that the sample had ellipse to around tissue cysts contained crescent-shaped bodies. The PCR of the 18SrDNA yielded an 1100 bp DNA band on agarose gel and sequence analysis of the DNA confirmed the isolate as S. cruzi. The sequence was deposited in GenBank by Accession No.KC508514. This is the first molecular identification of an isolate of S. cruzi in Iran.