Roles of B739_1343 in iron acquisition and pathogenesis in Riemerella anatipestifer CH-1 and evaluation of the RA-CH-1?B739_1343 mutant as an attenuated vaccine.
ABSTRACT: Iron is one of the most important elements for bacterial survival and pathogenicity. The iron uptake mechanism of Riemerella anatipestifer (R. anatipestifer, RA), a major pathogen that causes septicemia and polyserositis in ducks, is largely unknown. Here, the functions of the putative TonB-dependent iron transporter of RA-CH-1, B739_1343, in iron utilization and pathogenicity were investigated. Under iron-starved conditions, the mutant strain RA-CH-1?B739_1343 exhibited more seriously impaired growth than the wild-type strain RA-CH-1, and the expression of B739_1343 in the mutant strain restored growth. qRT-PCR results showed that the transcription of B739_1343 was not regulated by iron conditions. In an animal model, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the mutant strain RA-CH-1?B739_1343 increased more than 104-fold (1.6×1012 CFU) compared to that of the wild-type strain RA-CH-1 (1.43×108 CFU). In a duck co-infection model, the mutant strain RA-CH-1?B739_1343 was outcompeted by the wild-type RA-CH-1 in the blood, liver and brain of infected ducks, indicating that B739_1343 is a virulence factor of RA-CH-1. Finally, immunization with live bacteria of the mutant strain RA-CH-1?B739_1343 protected 83.33% of ducks against a high-dose (100-fold LD50) challenge with the wild-type strain RA-CH-1, suggesting that the mutant strain RA-CH-1?B739_1343 could be further developed as a potential live attenuated vaccine candidate for the duck industry.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Riemerella anatipestifer is one of the most important pathogens of ducks. However, the molecular mechanisms of R. anatipestifer infection are poorly understood. In particular, the lack of genomic information from a variety of R. anatipestifer strains has proved severely limiting. RESULTS: In this study, we present the complete genomes of two R. anatipestifer strains, RA-CH-1 (2,309,519 bp, Genbank accession CP003787) and RA-CH-2 (2,166,321 bp, Genbank accession CP004020). Both strains are from isolates taken from two different sick ducks in the SiChuang province of China. A comparative genomics approach was used to identify similarities and key differences between RA-CH-1 and RA-CH-2 and the previously sequenced strain RA-GD, a clinical isolate from GuangDong, China, and ATCC11845. CONCLUSION: The genomes of RA-CH-2 and RA-GD were extremely similar, while RA-CH-1 was significantly different than ATCC11845. RA-CH-1 is 140,000 bp larger than the three other strains and has 16 unique gene families. Evolutionary analysis shows that RA-CH-1 and RA-CH-2 are closed and in a branch with ATCC11845, while RA-GD is located in another branch. Additionally, the detection of several iron/heme-transport related proteins and motility mechanisms will be useful in elucidating factors important in pathogenicity. This information will allow a better understanding of the phenotype of different R. anatipestifer strains and molecular mechanisms of infection.
Project description:One of the important elements for most bacterial growth is iron, the bioavailability of which is limited in hosts. Riemerella anatipestifer (R. anatipestifer, RA), an important duck pathogen, requires iron to live. However, the genes involved in iron metabolism and the mechanisms of iron transport are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the transcriptomic effects of iron limitation condition on R. anatipestifer CH-1 using the RNA-Seq and RNA-Seq-based analysis. Data analysis revealed genes encoding functions related to iron homeostasis, including a number of putative TonB-dependent receptor systems, a HmuY-like protein-dependent hemin (an iron-containing porphyrin) uptake system, a Feo system, a gene cluster related to starch utilization, and genes encoding hypothetical proteins that were significantly upregulated in response to iron limitation. Compared to the number of upregulated genes, more genes were significantly downregulated in response to iron limitation. The downregulated genes mainly encoded a number of outer membrane receptors, DNA-binding proteins, phage-related proteins, and many hypothetical proteins. This information suggested that RNA-Seq-based analysis in iron-limited medium is an effective and fast method for identifying genes involved in iron uptake in R. anatipestifer CH-1.
Project description:Riemerella anatipestifer infection causes serious economic losses in the duck industry worldwide. Acute septicemia and high blood bacterial loading in R. anatipestifer infected ducks indicate that R. anatipestifer may be able to obtain iron and other nutrients by lysing duck erythrocytes to support its rapid growth and proliferation in the blood. However, so far, little is known about the hemolytic activity of R. anatipestifer to duck erythrocytes. In this study, 29 of 52 R. anatipestifer strains showed hemolytic activity on duck blood agar, whereas all the tested dba+ (with hemolytic activity on duck blood agar) and dba- strains created pores in the duck red blood cells, with 4.35-9.03% hemolytic activity in a liquid hemolysis assay after incubation for 24?h. The concentrated culture supernatants of all the tested R. anatipestifer strains and the extracted outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from dba+ R. anatipestifer strains showed hemolytic activity on duck blood agar. These results, together with the median lethal dose (LD50) of some dba+ and dba- R. anatipestifer strains in ducklings, suggested that there was no direct relationship between the hemolytic capacity of R. anatipestifer on duck blood agar and its virulence.
Project description:Iron is an essential element for the replication of most bacteria, including Riemerella anatipestifer, a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen of ducks and other birds. R. anatipestifer utilizes hemoglobin-derived hemin as an iron source; however, the mechanism by which this bacterium acquires hemin from hemoglobin is largely unknown. Here, <i>rhuA</i> disruption was shown to impair iron utilization from duck hemoglobin in R. anatipestifer CH-1. Moreover, the putative lipoprotein RhuA was identified as a surface-exposed, outer membrane hemin-binding protein, but it could not extract hemin from duck hemoglobin. Mutagenesis studies showed that recombinant RhuA<sup>Y144A</sup>, RhuA<sup>Y177A</sup>, and RhuA<sup>H149A</sup> lost hemin-binding ability, suggesting that amino acid sites at tyrosine 144 (Y144), Y177, and histidine 149 (H149) are crucial for hemin binding. Furthermore, <i>rhuR</i>, the gene adjacent to <i>rhuA</i>, encodes a TonB2-dependent hemin transporter. The function of <i>rhuA</i> in duck hemoglobin utilization was abolished in the <i>rhuR</i> mutant strain, and recombinant RhuA was able to bind the cell surface of R. anatipestifer CH-1 Δ<i>rhuA</i> rather than R. anatipestifer CH-1 Δ<i>rhuR</i> Δ<i>rhuA</i>, indicating that RhuA associates with RhuR to function. The sequence of the RhuR-RhuA hemin utilization locus exhibits no similarity to those of characterized hemin transport systems. Thus, this locus is a novel hemin uptake locus with homologues distributed mainly in the <i>Bacteroidetes</i> phylum. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> In vertebrates, hemin from hemoglobin is an important iron source for infectious bacteria. Many bacteria can obtain hemin from hemoglobin, but the mechanisms of hemin acquisition from hemoglobin differ among bacteria. Moreover, most studies have focused on the mechanism of hemin acquisition from mammalian hemoglobin. In this study, we found that the RhuR-RhuA locus of R. anatipestifer CH-1, a duck pathogen, is involved in hemin acquisition from duck hemoglobin via a unique pathway. RhuA was identified as an exposed outer membrane hemin-binding protein, and RhuR was identified as a TonB2-dependent hemin transporter. Moreover, the function of RhuA in hemoglobin utilization is RhuR dependent and not vice versa. The homologues of RhuR and RhuA are widely distributed in bacteria in marine environments, animals, and plants, representing a novel hemin transportation system of Gram-negative bacteria. This study not only was important for understanding hemin uptake in R. anatipestifer but also enriched the knowledge about the hemin transportation pathway in Gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:Riemerella anatipestifer causes septicemic and exudative diseases in poultry, resulting in major economic losses to the duck industry. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as an important virulence factor in Gram-negative bacteria, can be recognized by the immune system and plays a crucial role in many interactions between bacteria and animal hosts. In this study, we screened out one LPS defective mutant strain RA?604 from a random transposon mutant library of R. anatipestifer serotype 1 strain CH3, which did not react with the anti-CH3 LPS monoclonal antibody 1C1 in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Southern blot analysis confirmed that the genome of RA?604 contained a single Tn4351 insert. Then, we found that the M949_1360 gene was inactivated by insertion of the transposon. Using silver staining and western blot analyses, we found that the LPS pattern of RA?604 was defective, as compared with that of the wild-type (WT) strain CH3. The mutant strain RA?604 showed no significant influence on bacterial growth, while bacterial counting and Live/dead BacLight Bacterial Viability staining revealed that bacterial viability was decreased, as compared with the WT strain CH3. In addition, the abilities of the mutant strain RA?604 to adhere and invade Vero cells were significantly decreased. Animal studies revealed that the virulence of the mutant strain RA?604 was decreased by more than 200-fold in a duck infection model, as compared with the WT strain CH3. Furthermore, immunization with live bacteria of the mutant strain RA?604 protected 87.5% ducks from challenge with R. anatipestifer serotype 1 strain WJ4, indicating that the mutant strain RA?604 could be used as a potential vaccine candidate in the future.
Project description:Riemerella anatipestifer is a gram-negative bacterium that causes disease in ducks and other birds. Despite being an important pathogen in poultry, the pathogenesis and drug resistance mechanisms of this bacterium are poorly understood. An analysis of our unpublished RNA-Seq data showed that lptD, a gene encoding one of the lipopolysaccharide transport components, is transcribed at higher levels in strain CH-1 than in strain ATCC11845. In addition, strain CH-1 has been shown to display broader drug resistance than strain ATCC11845. Since LptD is involved in LPS biogenesis and drug resistance, we wondered if lptD is associated with increased R. anatipestifer resistance to glutaraldehyde, a disinfectant used in the production industry. In this study, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of glutaraldehyde for strain CH-1 was determined to be 0.125% (vol/vol), whereas an MIC of 0.05% (vol/vol) was observed for strain ATCC11845. Furthermore, the level of lptD transcription in strain CH-1 was consistently 2-fold higher than that observed in strain ATCC11845. Moreover, lptD transcription was upregulated in both strains at a subinhibitory concentration of glutaraldehyde. The role of lptD in R. anatipestifer was further assessed by constructing an ATCC11845 mutant strain with low lptD expression, R. anatipestifer ATCC11845 lptD -. The growth of R. anatipestifer ATCC11845 lptD - was severely impaired, and this strain was more susceptible than the wild-type strain to glutaraldehyde. Moreover, compared to the wild-type strain, R. anatipestifer ATCC11845 lptD - exhibited decreased biofilm formation and was more sensitive to duck serum. Finally, low lptD expression led to decreased colonization in ducklings. These results suggest that LptD is involved in R. anatipestifer glutaraldehyde resistance and pathogenicity.
Project description:Riemerella anatipestifer is a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae and a major causative agent of duck serositis. Little is known about its genetics and pathogenesis. Several bacteria are competent for natural transformation; however, whether R. anatipestifer is also competent for natural transformation has not been investigated. Here, we showed that R. anatipestifer strain ATCC 11845 can uptake the chromosomal DNA of R. anatipestifer strain RA-CH-1 in all growth phases. Subsequently, a natural transformation-based knockout method was established for R. anatipestifer ATCC 11845. Targeted mutagenesis gave transformation frequencies of ?10-5 transformants. Competition assay experiments showed that R. anatipestifer ATCC 11845 preferentially took up its own DNA rather than heterogeneous DNA, such as Escherichia coli DNA. Transformation was less efficient with the shuttle plasmid pLMF03 (transformation frequencies of ?10-9 transformants). However, the efficiency of transformation was increased approximately 100-fold using pLMF03 derivatives containing R. anatipestifer DNA fragments (transformation frequencies of ?10-7 transformants). Finally, we found that the R. anatipestifer RA-CH-1 strain was also naturally transformable, suggesting that natural competence is widely applicable for this species. The findings described here provide important tools for the genetic manipulation of R. anatipestiferIMPORTANCERiemerella anatipestifer is an important duck pathogen that belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae At least 21 different serotypes have been identified. Genetic diversity has been demonstrated among these serotypes. The genetic and pathogenic mechanisms of R. anatipestifer remain largely unknown because no genetic tools are available for this bacterium. At present, natural transformation has been found in some bacteria but not in R. anatipestifer For the first time, we showed that natural transformation occurred in R. anatipestifer ATCC 11845 and R. anatipestifer RA-CH-1. Then, we established an easy gene knockout method in R. anatipestifer based on natural transformation. This information is important for further studies of the genetic diversity and pathogenesis in R. anatipestifer.
Project description:Riemerella anatipestifer is a major pathogenic microorganism in poultry causing serositis with significant mortality. Serotype 1 and 2 were most pathogenic, prevalent, and liable over the world. In this study, the intracellular metabolites in R. anatipestifer strains RA-CH-1 (serotype 1) and RA-CH-2 (serotype 2) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The metabolic profiles were performed using hierarchical clustering and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The results of hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the amounts of the detected metabolites were more abundant in RA-CH-2. RA-CH-1 and RA-CH-2 were separated by the PLS-DA model. 24 potential biomarkers participated in nine metabolisms were contributed predominantly to the separation. Based on the complete genome sequence database and metabolite data, the first large-scale metabolic models of iJL463 (RA-CH-1) and iDZ470 (RA-CH-2) were reconstructed. In addition, we explained the change of purine metabolism combined with the transcriptome and metabolomics data. The study showed that it is possible to detect and differentiate between these two organisms based on their intracellular metabolites using GC-MS. The present research fills a gap in the metabolomics characteristics of R. anatipestifer.
Project description:<i>Riemerella anatipestifer</i>, an avian pathogen, has resulted in enormous economic losses to the duck industry globally. Notwithstanding, little is known regarding the physiological, pathogenic and virulence mechanisms of <i>Riemerella anatipestifer</i> (RA) infection. However, the role of Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) in the virulence of <i>R. anatipestifer</i> has not, to date, been demonstrated. Using a genetic approach, unmarked gene deletion system, we evaluated the function of <i>fur</i> gene in the virulence of <i>R. anatipestifer</i>. For this purpose, we constructed a suicide vector containing <i>pheS</i> as a counter selectable marker for unmarked deletion of <i>fur</i> gene to investigate its role in the virulence. After successful transformation of the newly constructed vector, a mutant strain was characterized for genes regulated by iron and Fur using RNA-sequencing and a comparison was made between wild type and mutant strains in both iron restricted and enriched conditions. RNA-seq analysis of the mutant strain in a restricted iron environment showed the downregulation and upregulation of genes which were involved in either important metabolic pathways, transport processes, growth or cell membrane synthesis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was performed to identify the putative sequences recognized by Fur. The putative Fur-box sequence was 5'-GATAATGATAATCATTATC-3'. Lastly, the median lethal dose and histopathological investigations of animal tissues also illustrated mild pathological lesions produced by the mutant strain as compared to the wild type RA strain, hence showing declined virulence. Conclusively, an unmarked gene deletion system was successfully developed for RA and the role of the <i>fur</i> gene in virulence was explored comprehensively.
Project description:The outbreak of Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) infection has been confirmed in meat-type domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) for the first time in 27 years in Japan. In January 2014, increased mortality in a 14- to 21-day-old duck flock was reported to veterinary officials by the owner. The affected ducks exhibited reduced movement, ataxia and dorsal recumbency with leg paddling. Pathological findings were typical for an RA infection. Fibrinous and heterophilic pericarditis, airsacculitis, perihepatitis, ventriculitis and meningitis were observed. The bacterial isolate from duck organs was identified as RA by PCR-based 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing.