Nanomolar-Potency 1,2,4-Triazoloquinoxaline Inhibitors of the Kidney Urea Transporter UT-A1.
ABSTRACT: Urea transporter A (UT-A) isoforms encoded by the Slc14a2 gene are expressed in kidney tubule epithelial cells, where they facilitate urinary concentration. UT-A1 inhibition is predicted to produce a unique salt-sparing diuretic action in edema and hyponatremia. Here we report the discovery of 1,2,4-triazoloquinoxalines and the analysis of 37 synthesized analogues. The most potent compound, 8ay, containing 1,2,4-triazolo[4,3- a]quinoxaline-substituted benzenesulfonamide linked by an aryl ether, rapidly and reversibly inhibited UT-A1 urea transport by a noncompetitive mechanism with IC50 ? 150 nM; the IC50 was ?2 ?M for the related urea transporter UT-B encoded by the Slc14a1 gene. Molecular modeling suggested a putative binding site on the UT-A1 cytoplasmic domain. In vitro metabolism showing quinoxaline ring oxidation prompted the synthesis of metabolically stable 7,8-difluoroquinoxaline analogue 8bl, which when administered to rats produced marked diuresis and reduced urinary osmolality. 8bl has substantially improved UT-A1 inhibition potency and metabolic stability compared with prior compounds.
Project description:Inhibitors of kidney urea transporter (UT) proteins have potential use as salt-sparing diuretics ('urearetics') with a different mechanism of action than diuretics that target salt transporters. To study UT inhibition in rats, we screened about 10,000 drugs, natural products and urea analogs for inhibition of rat UT-A1. Drug and natural product screening found nicotine, sanguinarine and an indolcarbonylchromenone with IC50 of 10-20??M. Urea analog screening found methylacetamide and dimethylthiourea (DMTU). DMTU fully and reversibly inhibited rat UT-A1 and UT-B by a noncompetitive mechanism with IC50 of 2-3?mM. Homology modeling and docking computations suggested DMTU binding sites on rat UT-A1. Following a single intraperitoneal injection of 500?mg/kg DMTU, peak plasma concentration was 9?mM with t1/2 of about 10?h, and a urine concentration of 20-40?mM. Rats chronically treated with DMTU had a sustained, reversible reduction in urine osmolality from 1800 to 600 mOsm, a 3-fold increase in urine output, and mild hypokalemia. DMTU did not impair urinary concentrating function in rats on a low protein diet. Compared to furosemide-treated rats, the DMTU-treated rats had greater diuresis and reduced urinary salt loss. In a model of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, DMTU treatment prevented hyponatremia and water retention produced by water-loading in dDAVP-treated rats. Thus, our results establish a rat model of UT inhibition and demonstrate the diuretic efficacy of UT inhibition.
Project description:Urea transporter (UT) proteins, including UT-A in kidney tubule epithelia and UT-B in vasa recta microvessels, facilitate urinary concentrating function. A screen for UT-A inhibitors was developed in MDCK cells expressing UT-A1, water channel aquaporin-1, and YFP-H148Q/V163S. An inwardly directed urea gradient produces cell shrinking followed by UT-A1-dependent swelling, which was monitored by YFP-H148Q/V163S fluorescence. Screening of ~90,000 synthetic small molecules yielded four classes of UT-A1 inhibitors with low micromolar half-maximal inhibitory concentration that fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport by a noncompetitive mechanism. Structure-activity analysis of >400 analogs revealed UT-A1-selective and UT-A1/UT-B nonselective inhibitors. Docking computations based on homology models of UT-A1 suggested inhibitor binding sites. UT-A inhibitors may be useful as diuretics ("urearetics") with a mechanism of action that may be effective in fluid-retaining conditions in which conventional salt transport-blocking diuretics have limited efficacy.
Project description:Urea transporter (UT)-A1 in the kidney inner medulla plays a critical role in the urinary concentrating mechanism and thereby in the regulation of water balance. The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of seven isoforms. They are multifunctional regulatory proteins that mainly bind to phosphorylated serine/threonine residues in target proteins. In the present study, we found that all seven 14-3-3 isoforms were detected in the kidney inner medulla. However, only the 14-3-3 ?-isoform was specifically and highly associated with UT-A1, as demonstrated by a glutathione-S-transferase-14-3-3 pulldown assay. The cAMP/adenylyl cyclase stimulator forskolin significantly enhanced their binding. Coinjection of 14-3-3? cRNA into oocytes resulted in a decrease of UT-A1 function. In addition, 14-3-3? increased UT-A1 ubiquitination and protein degradation. 14-3-3? can interact with both UT-A1 and mouse double minute 2, the E3 ubiquitin ligase for UT-A1. Thus, activation of cAMP/PKA increases 14-3-3? interactions with UT-A1 and stimulates mouse double minute 2-mediated UT-A1 ubiquitination and degradation, thereby forming a novel regulatory mechanism of urea transport activity.
Project description:The UT-A1 urea transporter plays an important role in the urinary concentration mechanism. However, the molecular mechanisms regarding UT-A1 trafficking, endocytosis, and degradation are still unclear. In this study, we identified the small GTPase Rab14 as a binding partner to the C terminus of UT-A1 in a yeast 2-hybrid assay. Interestingly, UT-A1 binding is preferential for the GDP-bound inactive form of Rab14. Coinjection of Rab14 in Xenopus oocytes results in a decrease of UT-A1 urea transport activity, suggesting that Rab14 acts as a negative regulator of UT-A1. We subsequently found that Rab14 reduces the cell membrane expression of UT-A1, as evidenced by cell surface biotinylation. This effect is blocked by chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway, but not by filipin, an inhibitor of the caveolin-mediated endocytic pathway. In kidney, Rab14 is mainly expressed in IMCD epithelial cells with a pattern identical to UT-A1 expression. Consistent with its role in participating in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, Rab14 localizes in nonlipid raft microdomains and codistributes with Rab5, a marker of the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Taken together, our study suggests that Rab14, as a novel UT-A1 partner, may have an important regulatory function for UT-A1 urea transport activity in the kidney inner medulla.
Project description:The urea channel Slc14a2 (or UT-A1) mediates vasopressin-regulated urea transport across the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). Previously, UT-A1 was found to present in a high molecular weight complex, suggesting UT-A1 is involved in certain protein-protein interactions. The present study sought to identify the proteins that interact with UT-A1 in this complex for a better understanding of how UT-A1 is regulated. Rat IMCD suspensions were treated with or without V2 receptor agonist, dDAVP, followed by in-cell crosslinking using BSOCOES and detergent solubilization. Immunoprecipitation using Dynabeads coated with UT-A1 specific antibody successfully pulled down the UT-A1 proteins. In-gel digestion protocol was carried out to prepare samples for liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic peptides using a Velos-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The peptides passing stringent spectral quality thresholds were quantified (label-free) to identify those with (UTA-1 antibody/preimmune IgG) >4. A total of 128 UT-A1 interacting proteins were identified. Gene Ontology analysis maps the distribution of these proteins throughout major cell compartments: endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, endosomes, cytosol and plasma membrane. Among them are four protein kinases (Cdc42bpb, Phkb, Camk2d, Mtor) that play roles in vasopressin-regulated phosphorylation of UT-A1. Non-label quantification was also performed to determine the stoichiometry of UT-A3 with UT-A1, the result does not support an oligomeric complex formation of UT-A1/A3. In conclusion, we have provided a refined list of UT-A1 binding proteins which can be useful for further analysis of the vasopressin signaling pathway in regulation of UT-A1 in IMCD.
Project description:The urea transporter UT-B is widely expressed and has been studied in erythrocyte, kidney, brain and intestines. Interestingly, UT-B gene has been found more abundant in bladder than any other tissue. Recently, gene analyses demonstrate that SLC14A1 (UT-B) gene mutations are associated with bladder cancer, suggesting that urea transporter UT-B may play an important role in bladder carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined UT-B expression in bladder cancer with human primary bladder cancer tissues and cancer derived cell lines. Human UT-B has two isoforms. We found that normal bladder expresses long form of UT-B2 but was lost in 8 of 24 (33%) or significantly downregulated in 16 of 24 (67%) of primary bladder cancer patients. In contrast, the short form of UT-B1 lacking exon 3 was detected in 20 bladder cancer samples. Surprisingly, a 24-nt in-frame deletion in exon 4 in UT-B1 (UT-B1?24) was identified in 11 of 20 (55%) bladder tumors. This deletion caused a functional defect of UT-B1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that UT-B protein levels were significantly decreased in bladder cancers. Western blot analysis showed a weak UT-B band of 40 kDa in some tumors, consistent with UT-B1 gene expression detected by RT-PCR. Interestingly, bladder cancer associate UT-B1?24 was barely sialylated, reflecting impaired glycosylation of UT-B1 in bladder tumors. In conclusion, SLC14A1 gene and UT-B protein expression are significantly changed in bladder cancers. The aberrant UT-B expression may promote bladder cancer development or facilitate carcinogenesis induced by other carcinogens.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified associations between markers within the solute carrier family 14 (urea transporter), member 1 (SLC14A1) gene and risk of bladder cancer. SLC14A1 defines the Kidd blood groups in erythrocytes and is also involved in concentration of the urine in the kidney. We evaluated the association between a representative genetic variant (rs10775480) of SLC14A1 and urine concentration, as measured by urinary specific gravity (USG), in a subset of 275 population-based controls enrolled in the New England Bladder Cancer Study. Overnight urine samples were collected, and USG was measured using refractometry. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate adjusted least square means for USG in relation to rs10775480. We also examined the mRNA expression of both urea transporters, SLC14A1 and SLC14A2, in a panel of human tissues. USG was decreased with each copy of the rs10775480 risk T allele (p-trend = 0.011) with a significant difference observed for CC vs. TT genotypes (p-value(tukey) =?0.024). RNA-sequencing in the bladder tissue showed high expression of SLC14A1 and the absence of SLC14A2, while both transporters were expressed in the kidney. We suggest that the molecular phenotype of this GWAS finding is the genotype-specific biological activity of SLC14A1 in the bladder tissue. Our data suggest that SLC14A1 could be a unique urea transporter in the bladder that has the ability to influence urine concentration and that this mechanism might explain the increased bladder cancer susceptibility associated with rs10775480.
Project description:Urinary bladder cancer is the second commonly diagnosed genitourinary malignancy. Previously, bio-molecular alterations have been observed within certain locations such as chromosome 9, retinoblastoma gene and fibroblast growth factor receptor-3. Solute carrier family 14 member 1 (SLC14A1) gene encodes the type-B urea transporter (UT-B) which facilitates the passive movement of urea across cell membrane, and has recently been related with human malignancies, especially for bladder cancer. Herein, we discussed the SLC14A1 gene and UT-B protein properties, aiming to elucidate the expression behavior of SLC14A1 in human bladder cancer. Furthermore, by reviewing some well-established theories regarding the carcinogenesis of bladder cancer, including several genome wide association researches, we have bridged the mechanisms of cancer development with the aberrant expression of SLC14A1. In conclusion, the altered expression of SLC14A1 gene in human urothelial cancer may implicate its significance as a novel target for research.
Project description:Activation of V2 receptors (V2R) during antidiuresis increases the permeability of the inner medullary collecting duct to urea and water. Extracellular osmolality is elevated as the concentrating capacity of the kidney increases. Osmolality is known to contribute to the regulation of collecting duct water (aquaporin-2; AQP2) and urea transporter (UT-A1, UT-A3) regulation. AQP1KO mice are a concentrating mechanism knockout, a defect attributed to the loss of high interstitial osmolality. A V2R-specific agonist, deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), was infused into wild-type and AQP1KO mice for 7 days. UT-A1 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly increased in the medullas of wild-type and AQP1KO mice following dDAVP infusion. The mRNA and protein abundance of UT-A3, the basolateral urea transporter, was significantly increased by dDAVP in both wild-type and AQP1KO mice. Semiquantitative immunoblots revealed that dDAVP infusion induced a significant increase in the medullary expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone GRP78. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that GRP78 expression colocalized with AQP2 in principal cells of the papillary tip of the renal medulla. Using immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that vasopressin induced a marked apical targeting of GRP78 in medullary principal cells. Urea-sensitive genes, GADD153 and ATF4 (components of the ER stress pathway), were significantly increased in AQP1KO mice by dDAVP infusion. These findings strongly support an important role of vasopressin in the activation of an ER stress response in renal collecting duct cells, in addition to its role in activating an increase in UT-A1 and UT-A3 abundance.
Project description:Of the three major protein variants produced by the UT-A gene (UT-A1, UT-A2, and UT-A3) UT-A1 is the largest. It contains UT-A3 as its NH(2)-terminal half and UT-A2 as its COOH-terminal half. When being part of UT-A1, UT-A3 and UT-A2 are joined by a segment, Lp, whose central part, Lc, is not part of UT-A3 or UT-A2 but is present only in UT-A1. Lc contains the phosphorylation sites S486 and S499 that are involved in protein kinase A-dependent activation, as well as the binding site for snapin, a protein involved in soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated vesicle trafficking and fusion to the plasma membrane. We attached Lc to UT-A2 and UT-A3 to test how these phosphorylation sites influenced their urea transport activity. Adding Lc to UT-A2 conferred stimulation by cAMP to the cAMP-unresponsive UT-A2, and adding Lc to UT-A3 did not further enhance its already existing cAMP response. These findings suggest that the responsiveness to vasopressin that is observed with UT-A1 can be introduced into the unresponsive UT-A2 variant through the Lc segment that is unique to UT-A1. In UT-A3, however, the Lc segment plays no significant role in its activation by cAMP. In addition, the Lc segment also gave UT-A2 the ability to bind snapin and, in Xenopus oocytes, to be stimulated in its urea transport activity by snapin and syntaxins 3 and 4, in the same way as UT-A1.