Investigation of lignocellulolytic enzymes during different growth phases of Ganoderma lucidum strain G0119 using genomic, transcriptomic and secretomic analyses.
ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom that is well known for its ability to enhance human health, and products made from this fungus have been highly profitable. The substrate-degrading ability of G. lucidum could be related to its growth. CAZy proteins were more abundant in its genome than in the other white rot fungi models. Among these CAZy proteins, changes in lignocellulolytic enzymes during growth have not been well studied. Using genomic, transcriptomic and secretomic analyses, this study focuses on the lignocellulolytic enzymes of G. lucidum strain G0119 to determine which of these degradative enzymes contribute to its growth. From the genome sequencing data, genes belonging to CAZy protein families, especially genes involved in lignocellulose degradation, were investigated. The gene expression, protein abundance and enzymatic activity of lignocellulolytic enzymes in mycelia over a growth cycle were analysed. The overall expression cellulase was higher than that of hemicellulase and lignin-modifying enzymes, particularly during the development of fruiting bodies. The cellulase and hemicellulase abundances and activities increased after the fruiting bodies matured, when basidiospores were produced in massive quantities till the end of the growth cycle. Additionally, the protein abundances of the lignin-modifying enzymes and the expression of their corresponding genes, including laccases and lignin-degrading heme peroxidases, were highest when the mycelia fully spread in the compost bag. Type I cellobiohydrolase was observed to be the most abundant extracellular lignocellulolytic enzyme produced by the G. lucidum strain G0119. The AA2 family haem peroxidases were the dominant lignin-modifying enzyme expressed during the mycelial growth phase, and several laccases might play roles during the formation of the primordium. This study provides insight into the changes in the lignocellulose degradation ability of G. lucidum during its growth and will facilitate the discovery of new approaches to accelerate the growth of G. lucidum in culture.
Project description:The edible white rot fungus Lentinula edodes possesses a variety of lignin degrading enzymes such as manganese peroxidases and laccases. Laccases belong to the multicopper oxidases, which have a wide range of catalytic activities including polyphenol degradation and synthesis, lignin degradation, and melanin formation. The exact number of laccases in L. edodes is unknown, as are their complete properties and biological functions. We analyzed the draft genome sequence of L. edodes D703PP-9 and identified 13 multicopper oxidase-encoding genes; 11 laccases in sensu stricto, of which three are new, and two ferroxidases. lcc8, a laccase previously reported in L. edodes, was not identified in D703PP-9 genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 13 multicopper oxidases can be classified into laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1, laccase sensu stricto subfamily 2 and ferroxidases. From sequence similarities and expression patterns, laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 can be divided into two subgroups. Laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 group A members are mainly secreted from mycelia, while laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 group B members are expressed mainly in fruiting bodies during growth or after harvesting but are lowly expressed in mycelia. Laccase sensu stricto subfamily 2 members are mainly expressed in mycelia, and two ferroxidases are mainly expressed in the fruiting body during growth or after harvesting, and are expressed at very low levels in mycelium. Our data suggests that L. edodes laccases in same group share expression patterns and would have common biological functions.
Project description:The basidiomycete Chondrostereum purpureum (Silverleaf fungus) is a saprotroph and plant pathogen commercially used for combatting forest "weed" trees in vegetation management. However, little is known about its lignocellulose-degrading capabilities and the enzymatic machinery that is responsible for the degradative potential, and it is not yet clear to which group of wood-rot fungi it actually belongs. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the draft genome of C. purpureum (41.2 Mbp) and performed a quantitative proteomic approach during growth in submerged and solid-state cultures based on soybean meal suspension or containing beech wood supplemented with phenol-rich olive mill residues, respectively. The fungus harbors characteristic lignocellulolytic hydrolases (GH6 and GH7) and oxidoreductases (e.g. laccase, heme peroxidases). High abundance of some of these genes (e.g. 45 laccases, nine GH7) can be explained by gene expansion, e.g. identified for the laccase orthogroup ORTHOMCL11 that exhibits a total of 18 lineage-specific duplications. Other expanded genes families encode for proteins more related to a pathogenic lifestyle (e.g. protease and cytochrome P450s). The fungus responds to the presence of complex growth substrates (lignocellulose, phenolic residues) by the secretion of most of these lignocellulolytic and lignin-modifying enzymes (e.g. alcohol and aryl alcohol oxidases, laccases, GH6, GH7). Based on the genetic and enzymatic constitution, we consider the 'marasmioid' fungus C. purpureum as a 'phytopathogenic' white-rot fungus (WRF) that possesses a complex extracellular enzyme machinery to accomplish efficient lignocellulose degradation during both saprotrophic and phytopathogenic life phases.
Project description:Laccases (EC 188.8.131.52) are enzymes known for their ability to catalyse the oxidation of phenolic compounds using molecular oxygen as the final electron acceptor. Lignin is a natural phenylpropanoids biopolymer whose degradation in nature is thought to be aided by enzymatic oxidation by laccases. Laccase activity is often measured spectrophotometrically on compounds such as syringaldazine and ABTS which poorly relate to lignin. We employed natural phenolic hydroxycinnamates having different degree of methoxylations, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acid, and a lignin model OH-dilignol compound as substrates to assess enzyme kinetics by HPLC-MS on two fungal laccases Trametes versicolor laccase, Tv and Ganoderma lucidum laccase, Gl. The method allowed accurate kinetic measurements and detailed insight into the product profiles of both laccases. Both Tv and Gl laccase are active on the hydroxycinnammates and show a preference for substrate with methoxylations. Product profiles were dominated by the presence of dimeric and trimeric species already after 10 minutes of reaction and similar profiles were obtained with the two laccases. This new HPLC-MS method is highly suitable and accurate as a new method for assaying laccase activity on genuine phenolic substrates, as well as a tool for examining laccase oxidation product profiles.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exploring microorganisms especially bacteria associated with the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass shows great potentials in biofuels production. The rice endophytic bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 with strong lignocellulose degradation capacity has been reported in our previous study. However, a comprehensive analysis of its corresponding degradative system has not yet been conducted. The aim of this work is to identify and characterize the lignocellulolytic enzymes of the bacterium to understand its mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and facilitate its application in sustainable energy production. RESULTS:The genomic analysis revealed that there are 154 genes encoding putative carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) in P. ananatis Sd-1. This number is higher than that of compared cellulolytic and ligninolytic bacteria as well as other eight P. ananatis strains. The CAZy in P. ananatis Sd-1 contains a complete repertoire of enzymes required for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. In addition, P. ananatis Sd-1 also possesses plenty of genes encoding potential ligninolytic relevant enzymes, such as multicopper oxidase, catalase/hydroperoxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and quinone oxidoreductase. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of parts of genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes revealed that they were significantly up-regulated (at least P < 0.05) in presence of rice straw. Further identification of secretome of P. ananatis Sd-1 by nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed that considerable amounts of proteins involved in lignocellulose degradation were only detected in rice straw cultures. Rice straw saccharification levels by the secretome of P. ananatis Sd-1 reached 129.11 ± 2.7 mg/gds. Correspondingly, the assay of several lignocellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanase, exoglucanase, ?-glucosidase, xylanase-like, lignin peroxidase-like, and laccase-like activities showed that these enzymes were more active in rice straw relative to glucose substrates. The high enzymes activities were not attributed to bacterial cell densities but to the difference of secreted protein contents. CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that P. ananatis Sd-1 can produce considerable lignocellulolytic enzymes including cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninolytic relevant enzymes. The high activities of those enzymes could be efficiently induced by lignocellulosic biomass. This identified degradative system is valuable for the lignocellulosic bioenergy industry.
Project description:We have conducted a genome-level comparative study of basidiomycetes wood-rotting fungi (white, brown and soft rot) to understand the total plant biomass (lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin) -degrading abilities. We have retrieved the genome-level annotations of well-known 14 white rot fungi, 15 brown rot fungi and 13 soft rot fungi. Based on the previous literature and the annotations obtained from CAZy (carbohydrate-active enzyme) database, we have separated the genome-wide CAZymes of the selected fungi into lignin-, cellulose-, hemicellulose- and pectin-degrading enzymes. Results obtained in our study reveal that white rot fungi, especially Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus potentially possess high ligninolytic ability, and soft rot fungi, especially Botryosphaeria dothidea and Fusarium oxysporum sp., potentially possess high cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic and pectinolytic abilities. The total number of genes encoding for cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and metabolic processes were high in soft and white rot fungi. We have tentatively calculated the overall lignocellulolytic abilities among the selected wood-rotting fungi which suggests that white rot fungi possess higher lignin and soft rot fungi potentially possess higher cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic and pectinolytic abilities. This approach can be applied industrially to efficiently find lignocellulolytic and aromatic compound-degrading fungi based on their genomic abilities.
Project description:Abstract: Dickeya sp., a plant pathogen, causing soft rot with strong pectin degradation capacity was taken for the comprehensive analysis of its corresponding biomass degradative system, which has not been analyzed yet. Whole genome sequence analysis of the isolated soft-rotten plant pathogen Dickeya sp. WS52, revealed various coding genes which involved in vegetable stalk degradation-related properties. A total of 122 genes were found to be encoded for putative carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) in Dickeya sp. WS52. The number of pectin degradation-related genes, was higher than that of cellulolytic bacteria as well as other Dickeya spp. strains. The CAZy in Dickeya sp.WS52 contains a complete repertoire of enzymes required for hemicellulose degradation, especially pectinases. In addition, WS52 strain possessed plenty of genes encoding potential ligninolytic relevant enzymes, such as multicopper oxidase, catalase/hydroperoxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and quinone oxidoreductase. Transcriptome analysis revealed that parts of genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes were significantly upregulated in the presence of minimal salt medium with vegetable stalks. However, most of the genes were related to lignocellulolytic enzymes, especially pectate lyases and were downregulated due to the slow growth and downregulated secretion systems. The assay of lignocellulolytic enzymes including CMCase and pectinase activities were identified to be more active in vegetable stalk relative to MSM + glucose. However, compared with nutrient LB medium, it needed sufficient nutrient to promote growth and to improve the secretion system. Further identification of enzyme activities of Dickeya sp.WS52 by HPLC confirmed that monosaccharides were produced during degradation of tomato stalk. This identified degradative system is valuable for the application in the lignocellulosic bioenergy industry and animal production.
Project description:Organisms use diverse mechanisms involving multiple complementary enzymes, particularly glycoside hydrolases (GHs), to deconstruct lignocellulose. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) produced by bacteria and fungi facilitate deconstruction as does the Fenton chemistry of brown-rot fungi. Lignin depolymerisation is achieved by white-rot fungi and certain bacteria, using peroxidases and laccases. Meta-omics is now revealing the complexity of prokaryotic degradative activity in lignocellulose-rich environments. Protists from termite guts and some oomycetes produce multiple lignocellulolytic enzymes. Lignocellulose-consuming animals secrete some GHs, but most harbour a diverse enzyme-secreting gut microflora in a mutualism that is particularly complex in termites. Shipworms however, house GH-secreting and LPMO-secreting bacteria separate from the site of digestion and the isopod Limnoria relies on endogenous enzymes alone. The omics revolution is identifying many novel enzymes and paradigms for biomass deconstruction, but more emphasis on function is required, particularly for enzyme cocktails, in which LPMOs may play an important role.
Project description:The high lignocellulolytic activity displayed by the soft-rot fungus Penicillium purpurogenum has made it a target for the study of novel lignocellulolytic enzymes. We have obtained a reference genome of 36.2 Mb of non-redundant sequence (11,057 protein-coding genes). The 49 largest scaffolds cover 90% of the assembly, and Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach (CEGMA) analysis reveals that our assembly captures almost all protein-coding genes. RNA-seq was performed and 93.1% of the reads aligned to the assembled genome. These data, plus the independent sequencing of a set of genes of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, validate the quality of the genome sequence. P. purpurogenum shows a higher number of proteins with CAZy motifs, transcription factors and transporters as compared to other sequenced Penicillia. These results demonstrate the great potential for lignocellulolytic activity of this fungus and the possible use of its enzymes in related industrial applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Since its inception, the carbohydrate-active enzymes database (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org) has described the families of enzymes that cleave or build complex carbohydrates, namely the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the polysaccharide lyases (PL), the carbohydrate esterases (CE), the glycosyltransferases (GT) and their appended non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM). The recent discovery that members of families CBM33 and family GH61 are in fact lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO), demands a reclassification of these families into a suitable category. RESULTS: Because lignin is invariably found together with polysaccharides in the plant cell wall and because lignin fragments are likely to act in concert with (LPMO), we have decided to join the families of lignin degradation enzymes to the LPMO families and launch a new CAZy class that we name "Auxiliary Activities" in order to accommodate a range of enzyme mechanisms and substrates related to lignocellulose conversion. Comparative analyses of these auxiliary activities in 41 fungal genomes reveal a pertinent division of several fungal groups and subgroups combining their phylogenetic origin and their nutritional mode (white vs. brown rot). CONCLUSIONS: The new class introduced in the CAZy database extends the traditional CAZy families, and provides a better coverage of the full extent of the lignocellulose breakdown machinery.
Project description:Even if the ocean represents a large part of Earth's surface, only a few studies describe marine-derived fungi compared to their terrestrial homologues. In this ecosystem, marine-derived fungi have had to adapt to the salinity and to the plant biomass composition. This articles studies the growth of five marine isolates and the tuning of lignocellulolytic activities under different conditions, including the salinity. A de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly were used in combination with a proteomic approach to characterize the Carbohydrate Active Enzymes (CAZy) repertoire of one of these strains. Following these approaches, Stemphylium lucomagnoense was selected for its adapted growth on xylan in saline conditions, its high xylanase activity, and its improved laccase activities in seagrass-containing cultures with salt. De novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly indicated the presence of 51 putative lignocellulolytic enzymes. Its secretome composition was studied in detail when the fungus was grown on either a terrestrial or a marine substrate, under saline and non-saline conditions. Proteomic analysis of the four S. lucomagnoense secretomes revealed a minimal suite of extracellular enzymes for plant biomass degradation and highlighted potential enzyme targets to be further studied for their adaptation to salts and for potential biotechnological applications.