Proteomic Identification of the Galectin-1-Involved Molecular Pathways in Urinary Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Among various heterogeneous types of bladder tumors, urothelial carcinoma is the most prevalent lesion. Some of the urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas (UBUCs) develop local recurrence and may cause distal invasion. Galectin-1 de-regulation significantly affects cell transformation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell invasiveness. In continuation of our previous investigation on the role of galectin-1 in UBUC tumorigenesis, in this study, proteomics strategies were implemented in order to find more galectin-1-associated signaling pathways. The results of this study showed that galectin-1 knockdown could induce 15 down-regulated proteins and two up-regulated proteins in T24 cells. These de-regulated proteins might participate in lipid/amino acid/energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, cell proliferation, cell-cell interaction, cell apoptosis, metastasis, and protein degradation. The aforementioned dys-regulated proteins were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Proteomics results were further translated to prognostic markers by analyses of biopsy samples. Results of cohort studies demonstrated that over-expressions of glutamine synthetase, alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP?), fatty acid binding protein 4, and toll interacting protein in clinical specimens were all significantly associated with galectin-1 up-regulation. Univariate analyses showed that de-regulations of glutamine synthetase and fatty acid binding protein 4 in clinical samples were respectively linked to disease-specific survival and metastasis-free survival.
Project description:Human galectin-1 is a member of the galectin family, proteins with conserved carbohydrate-recognition domains that bind galactoside. Galectin-1 is highly expressed in various tumors and participates in various oncogenic processes. However, detailed descriptions of the function of galectin-1 in urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma have not been reported. Our previous cohort investigation showed that galectin-1 is associated with tumor invasiveness and is a possible independent prognostic marker of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma. The present study aimed to clarify the relevance of galectin-1 expression level to tumor progression and invasion. In order to decipher a mechanism for the contribution of galectin-1 to the malignant behavior of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma, two bladder cancer cell lines (T24 and J82) were established with knockdown of galectin-1 expression by shRNA. Bladder cancer cells with LGALS1 gene silencing showed reduced cell proliferation, lower invasive capability, and lower clonogenicity. Extensive signaling pathway studies indicated that galectin-1 participated in bladder cancer cell invasion by mediating the activity of MMP9 through the Ras-Rac1-MEKK4-JNK-AP1 signaling pathway. Our functional analyses of galectin-1 in urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma provided novel insights into the critical role of galectin-1 in tumor progression and invasion. These results revealed that silencing the galectin-1-mediated MAPK signaling pathway presented a novel strategy for bladder cancer therapy.
Project description:Galectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins overexpressed in bladder cancer (BCa) cells. Dendritic galactose moieties have a high affinity for galectin-expressing tumor cells. We radiolabeled a dendritic galactose carbohydrate with 18F (18F-labeled galactodendritic unit 4) and examined its potential in imaging urothelial malignancies. Methods: The 18F-labeled first-generation galactodendritic unit 4 was obtained from its tosylate precursor. We conducted in vivo studies in a galectin-expressing UMUC3 orthotopic BCa model to determine the ability of 18F-labeled galactodendritic unit 4 to image BCa. Results: Intravesical administration of 18F-labeled galactodendritic unit 4 allowed specific accumulation of the carbohydrate radiotracer in galectin-1-overexpressing UMUC3 orthotopic tumors when imaged with PET. The 18F-labeled galactodendritic unit 4 was not found to accumulate in nontumor murine bladders. Conclusion: The 18F-labeled galactodendritic unit 4 and similar analogs may be clinically relevant and exploitable for PET imaging of galectin-1-overexpressing bladder tumors.
Project description:The majority deaths of cancer patients are related to metastasis, thus genes associated with cell motility interest us. SPOCK1 was elected by data mining and serial evaluation. In addition, SPOCK1 has been reported to be highly expressed in different human cancers and been related to adverse outcomes. Therefore, we validate its prognostic significance in urothelial carcinoma (UC).Real-time RT-PCR assay was used to detect SPOCK1 transcript level in 27 urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and 27 urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) samples. Immunohistochemistry evaluated by H-score determined SPOCK1 expressions in 340 UTUCs and 295 UBUCs. The transcript and protein expression were correlated with clinicopathological features. Further evaluations of the prognostic significance of SPOCK1 for disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS) were analyzed.The expressions of SPOCK1 in UC were higher than those in normal urothelium by immunohistochemistry. The statistical analysis of clinicopathologic characteristics and immunohistochemistry showed that the higher expression of SPOCK1 was correlated to pT status (P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (UTUC, P=0.006; UBUC, P=0.033), higher histological grade (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P<0.001), vascular invasion (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P<0.001), perineurial invasion (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P=0.001) and frequent mitosis (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P=0.001). The prognosis of SPOCK1 of UC showed high SPOCK1 expression had significantly worse DSS and MeFS.The investigation demonstrated that the higher expression of SPOCK1 correlates with a poor prognosis in UC.
Project description:We aimed at investigating effects of long non-coding RNA maternally expressed 3 (MEG3) on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma cells and regulatory relationships among lncRNA MEG3, miR-96 and ?-tropomyosin 1 (TPM1). Human clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) which contains bladder urothelial carcinoma tissues and adjacent tissues were used for analysis. The expression profiles of MEG3, miR-96, TPM1, cell cycle-related genes and apoptosis-related genes were examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot. Regulating relationship among MEG3, miR-96 and TPM1 was confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay. MTT assay and flow cytometry were performed to observe cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. The effects of lncRNA MEG3 on bladder urothelial carcinoma were confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. The mRNA expression and protein expression of MEG3, TPM1 were down-regulated in carcinoma tissues, whereas miR-96 expression was up-regulated. MEG3 overexpression resulted in miR-96 downregulation along with TPM1 upregulation, which inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle but promoted cell apoptosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma cells in vitro, and at the same time inhibited tumor growth in vivo. In this process, expressions of apoptosis-related protein BCL2 associated X (Bax), cleaved-caspase 3 was up-regulated, whereas apoptosis regulator protein (Bcl-2) expression was suppressed when MEG3 was overexpressed, and cell cycle-related protein Cyclin D1 was down-regulated. LncRNA MEG3 low-expression promotes the proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma cells by regulating miR-96 along with TPM1.
Project description:Oncogenesis is a multistep process, resulting from the accumulations of multiple mutations. Of these mutations, self-sufficiency in growth signals, i.e., disruption of cell growth regulation, is the first episode. Nonetheless, the genes associated with cell growth dysregulation have seldom been systematically evaluated in either urothelial carcinomas of upper urinary tract (UTUC) or urothelial carcinomas of urinary baldder (UBUC). By data mining a published transcriptomic dataset of UBUCs (GSE31684), we identified the NDN gene as one of the most significant of those associated with the regulation of cell growth and found this gene is associated with advanced tumor status and metastatic disease (GO:0001558). Accordingly, we analyzed NDN transcript and protein expression with their clinicopathological significance.We used real time RT-PCR to detect NDN transcript levels in 27 UTUCs and 27 UBUCs, respectively. Immunohistochemical study was performed to determine NDN protein (a.k.a. Necdin) expression evaluated by H-score method in 340 UTUCs and 295 UBUCs. NDN expression was further correlated with clinicopathological features and disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS).NDN transcriptional level was significantly higher in UCs of both sites with stepwise more advanced pT statuses. Through immunohistochemistry, we found NDN protein expression was significantly associated with adverse clinicopathological parameters, e.g., advanced pT status, nodal metastasis, high grade histological patterns, and frequent mitotses (all P<0.05). In univariate analysis, NDN overexpression not only predicted worse DSS and MeFS in both the UTUC and UBUC groups, it also served as an independent prognostic factor for DSS and MeFS in multivariate analysis (all P<0.05).NDN may play an important role in tumor progression in UC and could serve as a prognostic biomarker and a potential novel therapeutic target in UC.
Project description:Muscle-invasive urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) is a lethal disease for which effective prognostic markers and potential therapy targets are still lacking. Previous array comparative genomic hybridization identified that 3q27 is frequently amplified in muscle-invasive UBUCs, one candidate proto-oncogene, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), mapped to this region. We therefore aimed to explore its downstream targets and physiological roles in UBUC progression. Methods: Specimens from UBUC patients, NOD/SCID mice and several UBUC-derived cell lines were used to perform quantitative RT-PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization immunohistochemistry, xenograft, gene stable overexpression/knockdown and a series of in vitro experiments. Results: Amplification of the BCL6 gene lead to upregulation of BCL6 mRNA and protein levels in a substantial set of advanced UBUCs. High BCL6 protein level significantly predicted poor disease-specific and metastasis-free survivals. Knockdown of the BCL6 gene in J82 cells inhibited tumor growth and enhanced apoptosis in the NOD/SCID xenograft model. In vitro experiments demonstrated that BCL6 inhibited cytostasis, induced cell migration, invasion along with alteration of the expression levels of several related regulators. At molecular level, BCL6 inhibited forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) transcription, subsequent translation and upregulation of phosphorylated/inactive FOXO3 through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MAP2K1/2) signaling pathway(s). Two BCL6 binding sites on the proximal promoter region of the FOXO3 gene were confirmed. Conclusion: Overexpression of BCL6 served a poor prognostic factor in UBUC patients. In vivo and in vitro studies suggested that BCL6 functions as an oncogene through direct transrepression of the FOXO3 gene, downregulation and phosphorylation of the FOXO3 protein.
Project description:Bladder cancer, the fourth most common noncutaneous malignancy in the United States, is characterized by high recurrence rate, with a subset of these cancers progressing to a deadly muscle invasive form of disease. Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that contain proteins, mRNA and miRNA, thus potentially modulating signaling pathways in recipient cells. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion and gain migratory and invasive properties to become mesenchymal stem cells. EMT has been implicated in the initiation of metastasis for cancer progression. We investigated the ability of bladder cancer-shed exosomes to induce EMT in urothelial cells. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from T24 or UMUC3 invasive bladder cancer cell conditioned media or from patient urine or bladder barbotage samples. Exosomes were then added to the urothelial cells and EMT was assessed. Urothelial cells treated with bladder cancer exosomes showed an increased expression in several mesenchymal markers, including ?-smooth muscle actin, S100A4 and snail, as compared with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated cells. Moreover, treatment of urothelial cells with bladder cancer exosomes resulted in decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin and ?-catenin, as compared with the control, PBS-treated cells. Bladder cancer exosomes also increased the migration and invasion of urothelial cells, and this was blocked by heparin pretreatment. We further showed that exosomes isolated from patient urine and bladder barbotage samples were able to induce the expression of several mesenchymal markers in recipient urothelial cells. In conclusion, the research presented here represents both a new insight into the role of exosomes in transition of bladder cancer into invasive disease, as well as an introduction to a new platform for exosome research in urothelial cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Urothelial carcinoma (UC) commonly occurs in the urinary bladder (UB) and rarely in upper the upper urinary tract (UT). Its molecular pathogenesis, however, remains obscure. Though the constitutive phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) is an important part of carcinogenesis generally, researchers have not systematically investigated this process specifically in relation to UC. The present study addresses this gap. Through data mining a published transcriptomic database of UBUCs (GSE32894), it identified Colony Stimulating Factor 2 (CSF2) as the stepwise upregulated gene of much significance among those related to the positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5 (GO:0042523). Since the phosphorylation of STAT5, a key process in the development of UC, is closely associated with CSF2, we then examine CSF2 transcript and protein expression, justifying their association with clinicopathological features and survival in our well-established cohort of patients with UC. DESIGN:Laser capture microdissection in conjunction with real-time qRT-PCR are used to detect CSF2 transcript levels in 24 UBUCs and 6 non-tumor urothelium samples. We then used the H-score method to evaluate the immunohistochemistry in order to determine CSF2 protein expression in 296 UBUCs and 340 UTUCs, respectively. After correlating protein expression status with key clinicopathological features, the prognostic significance of CSF2 protein expression was determined for disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). RESULTS:We exclusively detected the CSF2 transcript, which was stepwise upregulated in tumor lesions (p=0.010). In both groups of UC we found overexpression of CSF2 significantly related to incremental pT status (UTUC, p=0.011; UBUC, p<0.001), as well as with perineural invasion (UTUC, p=0.002; UBUC, p=0.001). Univariate analysis found a close correlation between CSF2 overexpression and unfavorable prognosis for both DSS (UTUC, p=0.0001; UBUC, p<0.0001) and MeFS (UTUC, p=0.0001; UBUC, p=0.0002). High expression of CSF2 still remained prognostically for DSS (UTUC, p=0.015; UBUC, p=0.004) and MeFS (UTUC, p=0.008; UBUC, p=0.027) in multivariate comparison. CONCLUSION:Our data showed that overexpression of CSF2 was inferred in advanced disease status and poor clinical outcomes for both UTUC and UBUC patients, suggesting that CSF2 may serve as an important prognosticator and a potential therapeutic target of UC.
Project description:The Notch signaling pathway mediates cell-cell communication regulating cell differentiation and proliferation and cell fate decisions in various tissues. In the urinary bladder, Notch acts as a tumor suppressor in mice, while mutations in Notch pathway components have been identified in human bladder cancer as well. Here we report that the genetic inactivation of Notch in mice leads to downregulation of cell-cell and cell-ECM interaction components, including proteins previously implicated in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), structural defects and mucosal sloughing, inflammation, and leaky urine-blood barrier. Molecular profiling of ailing mouse bladders showed similarities with IC/BPS patient tissue, which also presented low Notch pathway activity as indicated by reduced expression of canonical Notch targets. Urothelial integrity was reconstituted upon exogenous reactivation of the Notch pathway, implying a direct involvement of Notch. Despite damage and inflammation, urothelial cells failed to proliferate, uncovering a possible role for ?4 integrin in urothelial homeostasis. Our data uncover a broad role for Notch in bladder homeostasis involving urothelial cell crosstalk with the microenvironment.
Project description:The bladder urothelium functions as a urine-blood barrier and consists of basal, intermediate, and superficial cell populations. Reconstructive procedures such as augmentation cystoplasty and focal mucosal resection involve localized surgical damage to the bladder wall whereby focal segments of the urothelium and underlying submucosa are respectively removed or replaced and regeneration ensues. We demonstrate using lineage-tracing systems that urothelial regeneration following augmentation cystoplasty with acellular grafts exclusively depends on host keratin 5-expressing basal cells to repopulate all lineages of the de novo urothelium at implant sites. Conversely, repair of focal mucosal defects not only employs this mechanism, but in parallel host intermediate cell daughters expressing uroplakin 2 give rise to themselves and are also contributors to superficial cells in neotissues. These results highlight the diversity of urothelial regenerative responses to surgical injury and may lead to advancements in bladder tissue engineering approaches.