Electron transfer in an acidophilic bacterium: interaction between a diheme cytochrome and a cupredoxin.
ABSTRACT: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, a chemolithoautotrophic Gram-negative bacterium, has a remarkable ability to obtain energy from ferrous iron oxidation at pH 2. Several metalloproteins have been described as being involved in this respiratory chain coupling iron oxidation with oxygen reduction. However, their properties and physiological functions remain largely unknown, preventing a clear understanding of the global mechanism. In this work, we focus on two metalloproteins of this respiratory pathway, a diheme cytochrome c4 (Cyt c4) and a green copper protein (AcoP) of unknown function. We first demonstrate the formation of a complex between these two purified proteins, which allows homogeneous intermolecular electron-transfer in solution. We then mimic the physiological interaction between the two partners by replacing one at a time with electrodes displaying different chemical functionalities. From the electrochemical behavior of individual proteins, we show that, while electron transfer on AcoP requires weak electrostatic interaction, electron transfer on Cyt c4 tolerates different charge and hydrophobicity conditions, suggesting a pivotal role of this protein in the metabolic chain. The electrochemical study of the proteins incubated together demonstrates an intermolecular electron transfer involving the protein complex, in which AcoP is reduced through the high potential heme of Cyt c4. Modelling of the electrochemical signals at different scan rates allows us to estimate the rate constant of this intermolecular electron transfer in the range of a few s-1. Possible routes for electron transfer in the acidophilic bacterium are deduced.
Project description:At low oxygen concentrations, respiration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and other bacteria relies on activity of cytochrome cbb3 oxidases. A diheme cytochrome c4 (cyt c4) donates electrons to Pa cbb3 oxidases to enable oxygen reduction and proton pumping by these enzymes. Given the importance of this redox pathway for bacterial pathogenesis, both cyt c4 and cbb3 oxidase are potential targets for new antibacterial strategies. The structural information about these two proteins, however, is scarce, and functional insights for Pa and other bacteria have been primarily drawn from analyses of the analogous system from Pseudomonas stutzeri (Ps). Herein, we describe characterization of structural and redox properties of cyt c4 from Pa. The crystal structure of Pa cyt c4 has revealed that this protein is organized in two monoheme domains. The interdomain interface is more hydrophobic in Pa cyt c4, and the protein surface does not show the dipolar distribution of charges found in Ps cyt c4. The reduction potentials of the two hemes are similar in Pa cyt c4 but differ by about 100?mV in Ps cyt c4. Analyses of structural models of these and other cyt c4 proteins suggest that multiple factors contribute to the potential difference of the two hemes in these proteins, including solvent accessibility of the heme group, the distribution of surface charges, and the nature of the interdomain interface. The distinct properties of cyt c4 proteins from closely-related Pa and Ps bacteria emphasize the importance of examining the cbb3/cyt c4 redox pathway in multiple species.
Project description:An understanding of dynamic processes of proteins on the electrode surface could enhance the efficiency of bioelectronics development and therefore it is crucial to gain information regarding both physical adsorption of proteins onto the electrode and its electrochemical property in real-time. We combined high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) with electrochemical device for simultaneous observation of the surface topography and electron transfer of redox proteins on an electrode. Direct electron transfer of cytochrome c (cyt c) adsorbed on a self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed electrode is very attractive subject in bioelectrochemistry. This paper reports a real-time visualization of cyt c adsorption processes on an 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-modified Au electrode together with simultaneous electrochemical measurements. Adsorbing cyt c molecules were observed on a subsecond time resolution simultaneously with increasing redox currents from cyt c using EC-HS-AFM. The root mean square roughness (RRMS) from the AFM images and the number of the electrochemically active cyt c molecules adsorbed onto the electrode (?) simultaneously increased in positive cooperativity. Cyt c molecules were fully adsorbed on the electrode in the AFM images when the peak currents were steady. This use of electrochemical HS-AFM significantly facilitates understanding of dynamic behavior of biomolecules on the electrode interface and contributes to the further development of bioelectronics.
Project description:The natural catalytic cycle of cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes in human liver microsome (HLM) films was activated electrochemically via the electron transfer sequence electrode?cyt P450 reductase (CPR)?cyt P450. Cyclic voltammograms for HLM films had midpoint potentials of -0.50 V vs. SCE at pH 7.4 characteristic of CPR, not cyt P450s. HLM and CPR microsomes without cyt P450s did not electrocatalytically reduce H2O2, and did not shift midpoint potential when CO was added, also indicating that the peaks do not correspond to iron heme cyt P450 enzymes. Electrochemical activation of the natural cyt P450 cycle for substrate conversion via CPR in HLM films was confirmed by catalytic electrolysis in an electrochemical microfluidic array designed to generate and detect reactive metabolites by measuring their reactivity with DNA.
Project description:Cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductases (cd1NiRs) catalyze the one-electron reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide. Due to their catalytic reaction, cd1NiRs are regarded as promising components for biosensing, bioremediation and biotechnological applications. Motivated by earlier findings that catalytic activity of cd1NiR from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus (Mhcd1) depends on the presence of its physiological redox partner, cytochrome c552 (cyt c552), we show here a detailed surface enhanced resonance Raman characterization of Mhcd1 and cyt c552 attached to biocompatible electrodes in conditions which allow direct electron transfer between the conducting support and immobilized proteins. Mhcd1 and cyt c552 are co-immobilized on silver electrodes coated with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and the electrocatalytic activity of Ag // SAM // Mhcd1 // cyt c552 and Ag // SAM // cyt c552 // Mhcd1 constructs is tested in the presence of nitrite. Simultaneous evaluation of structural and thermodynamic properties of the immobilized proteins reveals that cyt c552 retains its native properties, while the redox potential of apparently intact Mhcd1 undergoes a ~150 mV negative shift upon adsorption. Neither of the immobilization strategies results in an active Mhcd1, reinforcing the idea that subtle and very specific interactions between Mhcd1 and cyt c552 govern efficient intermolecular electron transfer and catalytic activity of Mhcd1.
Project description:The tetraheme cytochrome c(554) (cyt c(554)) from Nitrosomonas europaea is believed to function as an electron-transfer protein from hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO). We show here that cyt c(554) also has significant NO reductase activity. The protein contains one high-spin and three low-spin c-type hemes. HAO catalyzed reduction of the cyt c(554), ligand binding, intermolecular electron transfer, and kinetics of NO reduction by cyt c(554) have been investigated. We detect the formation of a NO-bound ferrous heme species in cyt c(554) by EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopies during the HAO catalyzed oxidation of hydroxylamine, indicating that N-oxide intermediates produced from HAO readily bind to cyt c(554). In the half-reduced state of cyt c(554), we detect a spin interaction between the [FeNO](7) state of heme 2 and the low-spin ferric state of heme 4. We find that ferrous cyt c(554) will reduce NO at a rate greater than 16 s(-1), which is comparable to rates of other known NO reductases. Carbon monoxide or nitrite are shown not to bind to the reduced protein, and previous results indicate the reactions with O(2) are slow and that a variety of ligands will not bind in the oxidized state. Thus, the enzymatic site is highly selective for NO. The NO reductase activity of cyt c(554) may be important during ammonia oxidation in N. europaea at low oxygen concentrations to detoxify NO produced by reduction of nitrite or incomplete oxidation of hydroxylamine.
Project description:Cytochrome (cyt) P450s comprise the enzyme superfamily responsible for human oxidative metabolism of a majority of drugs and xenobiotics. Electronic delivery of electrons to cyt P450s could be used to drive the natural catalytic cycle for fundamental investigations, stereo- and regioselective synthesis, and biosensors. We describe herein 30 nm nanometer-thick films on electrodes featuring excess human cyt P450s and cyt P450 reductase (CPR) microsomes that efficiently mimic the natural catalytic pathway for the first time. Redox potentials, electron-transfer rates, CO-binding, and substrate conversion rates confirmed that electrons are delivered from the electrode to CPR, which transfers them to cyt P450. The film system enabled electrochemical probing of the interaction between cyt P450 and CPR for the first time. Agreement of film voltammetry data with theoretical simulations supports a pathway featuring a key equilibrium redox reaction in the natural catalytic pathway between reduced CPR and cyt P450 occurring within a CPR-cyt P450 complex uniquely poised for substrate conversion.
Project description:Immobilization of biological systems in solid matrices is presently of great interest, in view of the many potential advantages associated with both the higher stability of the immobilized macromolecules and the potential utilization for biotechnology. In the present paper the electrochemical behaviour of the undecapeptide from cytochrome c (called microperoxidase) tightly entrapped in cellulose triacetate membrane is reported; its utilization as 'solid-state' promoter in the electrochemistry of soluble metalloproteins is presented. The results obtained indicate that: (i) membrane-entrapped microperoxidase undergoes rapid reversible electron transfer at a glassy carbon electrode; (ii) the electrochemical process is diffusion-controlled; (iii) entrapped microperoxidase acts as 'solid-state' promoter in the electrochemistry of soluble cytochrome c and of azurin.
Project description:Complex III in C. glutamicum has an unusual di-heme cyt. c1 and it co-purifies with complex IV in a supercomplex. Here, we investigated the kinetics of electron transfer within this supercomplex and in the cyt. aa3 alone (cyt. bc1 was removed genetically). In the reaction of the reduced cyt. aa3 with O2, we identified the same sequence of events as with other A-type oxidases. However, even though this reaction is associated with proton uptake, no pH dependence was observed in the kinetics. For the cyt. bc1-cyt. aa3 supercomplex, we observed that electrons from the c-hemes were transferred to CuA with time constants 0.1-1 ms. The b-hemes were oxidized with a time constant of 6.5 ms, indicating that this electron transfer is rate-limiting for the overall quinol oxidation/O2 reduction activity (~210 e(-)/s). Furthermore, electron transfer from externally added cyt. c to cyt. aa3 was significantly faster upon removal of cyt. bc1 from the supercomplex, suggesting that one of the c-hemes occupies a position near CuA. In conclusion, isolation of the III-IV-supercomplex allowed us to investigate the kinetics of electron transfer from the b-hemes, via the di-heme cyt. c1 and heme a to the heme a3-CuB catalytic site of cyt. aa3.
Project description:Combining peroxidase activity-based heme staining (TMBZ/SDS/PAGE) with mass spectrometry analyses (Nano LC-MS/MS) of protein extracts from wild-type and appropriate mutants, we provide evidence that the polychlorinated biphenyl degrader Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 primarily expresses a caa3 -type cytochrome c oxidase (caa3 -Cox) using cytochrome (cyt) c4 as an electron donor in cells grown with biphenyl versus glucose as the sole carbon source. Homology modeling of KF707 caa3 -Cox using the three-dimensional structure of that from Thermus thermophilus highlights multiple similarities and differences between the proton channels in subunit I of the aa3 - and caa3 -Cox of Paracoccus and Thermus spp., respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of a caa3 -Cox using cyt c4 as an electron donor in a Pseudomonas species.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is a diflavin enzyme that transfers electrons to many protein partners. Electron transfer from CPR to cyt c has been extensively used as a model reaction to assess the redox activity of CPR. CPR is composed of multiple domains, among which the FMN binding domain (FBD) is the direct electron donor to cyt c. Here, electron transfer and complex formation between FBD and cyt c are investigated. Electron transfer from FBD to cyt c occurs at distinct rates that are dependent on the redox states of FBD. When compared with full-length CPR, FBD reduces cyt c at a higher rate in both the semiquinone and hydroquinone states. The NMR titration experiments reveal the formation of dynamic complexes between FBD and cyt c on a fast exchange time scale. Chemical shift mapping identified residues of FBD involved in the binding interface with cyt c, most of which are located in proximity to the solvent-exposed edge of the FMN cofactor along with other residues distributed around the surface of FBD. The structural model of the FBD-cyt c complex indicates two possible orientations of complex formation. The major complex structure shows a salt bridge formation between Glu-213/Glu-214 of FBD and Lys-87 of cyt c, which may be essential for the formation of the complex, and a predicted electron transfer pathway mediated by Lys-13 of cyt c. The findings provide insights into the function of CPR and CPR-cyt c interaction on a structural basis.