Mutation in an alternative transcript of CDKL5 in a boy with early-onset seizures.
ABSTRACT: Infantile-onset epilepsies are a set of severe, heterogeneous disorders for which clinical genetic testing yields causative mutations in ?20%-50% of affected individuals. We report the case of a boy presenting with intractable seizures at 2 wk of age, for whom gene panel testing was unrevealing. Research-based whole-genome sequencing of the proband and four unaffected family members identified a de novo mutation, NM_001323289.1:c.2828_2829delGA in CDKL5, a gene associated with X-linked early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 2. CDKL5 has multiple alternative transcripts, and the mutation lies in an exon in the brain-expressed forms. The mutation was undetected by gene panel sequencing because of its intronic location in the CDKL5 transcript typically used to define the exons of this gene for clinical exon-based tests (NM_003159). This is the first report of a patient with a mutation in an alternative transcript of CDKL5 This finding suggests that incorporating alternative transcripts into the design and variant interpretation of exon-based tests, including gene panel and exome sequencing, could improve the diagnostic yield.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:CDKL5-related disorders (CDD) is an epileptic encephalopathy resulted of gene mutations of CDKL5. This study aimed to explore the development process of CDD and to expand its mutation spectrum. METHODS:Clinic datawas collected about three infantile epileptic encephalopathy cases diagnosed at Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine. Next generation sequencing technology was used to find three de novo mutations of CDKL5. We searched published literatures about CDKL5 in pubmed and made an analysis about our clinic data and the related literatures. RESULTS:The three patients were all girls. Their average onset age of seizures was around 2?months, and all of them have intractable epileptic seizures, severe intellectual disability, and hypotension. Among them, two presented infantile spasm and high arrhythmia in EEG, and the other manifested clonic seizure and broad epileptiform discharge in EEG. Extracerebral space widening in cranial MRIs was demonstrated in two cases. Visual evoked potential was abnormal in two cases. Seizures were resistant to all kinds of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Gene tests showed three de novo mutations of CDKL5: one was a truncated mutation (c.2254A?>?T,P.R752X, stop279), which was pathogenic according to the ACMG guide, the other two were missense mutations (c.377G?>?T,p.Cys126Phe) and a frameshift mutation (c.362-362insG(p.Ala122GlyfsTer7), which were likely pathogenic according to the ACMG. CONCLUSIONS:All three de novo mutations are first reported. Based on the combined related literature and the manifestations observed, we diagnosed the three children as CDKL5-related disorders, and concluded that the de novo CDKL5 mutations are the reason for their epilepsy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) (NM_003159.2) gene have been associated with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies or Hanefeld variants of RTT(Rett syndrome). In order to clarify the CDKL5 genotype-phenotype correlations in Chinese patients, CDKL5 mutational screening in cases with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies and RTT without MECP2 mutation were performed. METHODS: The detailed clinical information including clinical manifestation, electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), blood, urine amino acid and organic acid screening of 102 Chinese patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies and RTT were collected. CDKL5 gene mutations were analyzed by PCR, direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) were studied in the female patients with CDKL5 gene mutation. RESULTS: De novo CDKL5 gene mutations were found in ten patients including one missense mutation (c.533G > A, p.R178Q) which had been reported, two splicing mutations (ISV6 + 1A > G, ISV13 + 1A > G), three micro-deletions (c.1111delC, c.2360delA, c.234delA), two insertions (c.1791 ins G, c.891_892 ins TT in a pair of twins) and one nonsense mutation (c.1375C > T, p.Q459X). Out of ten patients, 7 of 9 females with Hanefeld variants of RTT and the remaining 2 females with early onset epileptic encephalopathy, were detected while only one male with infantile spasms was detected. The common features of all female patients with CDKL5 gene mutations included refractory seizures starting before 4 months of age, severe psychomotor retardation, Rett-like features such as hand stereotypies, deceleration of head growth after birth and poor prognosis. In contrast, the only one male patient with CDKL5 mutation showed no obvious Rett-like features as females in our cohort. The X-chromosome inactivation patterns of all the female patients were random. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in CDKL5 gene are responsible for 7 with Hanefeld variants of RTT and 2 with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy in 71 girls as well as for 1 infantile spasms in 31 males. There are some differences in the phenotypes among genders with CDKL5 gene mutations and CDKL5 gene mutation analysis should be considered in both genders.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) located in the Xp22 region have been shown to cause a subset of atypical Rett syndrome with infantile spasms or early seizures starting in the first postnatal months. METHODS: We performed mutation screening of CDKL5 in 60 female patients who had been identified as negative for the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) mutations, but who had current or past epilepsy, regardless of the age of onset, type, and severity. All the exons in the CDKL5 gene and their neighbouring sequences were examined, and CDKL5 rearrangements were studied by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). RESULTS: Six previously unidentified DNA changes were detected, two of which were disease-causing mutations in the catalytic domain: a frameshift mutation (c.509_510insGT; p.Glu170GlyfsX36) and a complete deletion of exon 10. Both were found in patients with seizures that started in the first month of life. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the importance of CDKL5 mutations as etiological factors in neurodevelopmental disorders, and indicated that a thorough analysis of the CDKL5 gene sequence and its rearrangements should be considered in females with Rett syndrome-like phenotypes, severe encephalopathy and epilepsy with onset before 5?months of age. This study also confirmed the usefulness of MLPA as a diagnostic screening method for use in clinical practice.
Project description:Mutations in the X-linked Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Like 5 gene (CDKL5) cause early onset infantile spasms and subsequent severe developmental delay in affected children. Deleterious mutations have been reported to occur throughout the CDKL5 coding region. Several studies point to a complex CDKL5 gene structure in terms of exon usage and transcript expression. Improvements in molecular diagnosis and more extensive research into the neurobiology of CDKL5 and pathophysiology of CDKL5 disorders necessitate an updated analysis of the gene. In this study, we have analysed human and mouse CDKL5 transcript patterns both bioinformatically and experimentally. We have characterised the predominant brain isoform of CDKL5, a 9.7 kb transcript comprised of 18 exons with a large 6.6 kb 3'-untranslated region (UTR), which we name hCDKL5_1. In addition we describe new exonic regions and a range of novel splice and UTR isoforms. This has enabled the description of an updated gene model in both species and a standardised nomenclature system for CDKL5 transcripts. Profiling revealed tissue- and brain development stage-specific differences in expression between transcript isoforms. These findings provide an essential backdrop for the diagnosis of CDKL5-related disorders, for investigations into the basic biology of this gene and its protein products, and for the rational design of gene-based and molecular therapies for these disorders.
Project description:Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, almost exclusively affecting females and characterised by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Both the classic form and preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome are due to mutations in the MECP2 gene. Several other variants of Rett syndrome have been described. In 1985, Hanefeld described a variant with the early appearance of convulsions. In this variant, the normal perinatal period is soon followed by the appearance of seizures, usually infantile spasms. We have observed two patients with signs of Rett syndrome showing acquired microcephaly and stereotypic midline hand movements. The disease started with generalised convulsions and myoclonic fits at 1.5 months in the first patient and with spasms at 10 days in the other, suggesting a diagnosis of the Hanefeld variant. In these patients, MECP2 point mutations and gross rearrangements were excluded by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and real time quantitative PCR. The ARX and CDKL5 genes have been associated with West syndrome (infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and mental retardation).Based on the clinical overlap between the Hanefeld variant and West syndrome, we analysed ARX and CDKL5 in the two girls.We found frameshift deletions in CDKL5 in both patients; one in exon 5 (c.163_166delGAAA) and the other in exon 18 (c.2635_2636delCT). CDKL5 was then analysed in 19 classic Rett and 15 preserved speech variant patients, all MECP2 negative, but no mutations were found.Our results show that CDKL5 is responsible for a rare variant of Rett syndrome characterised by early development of convulsions, usually of the spasm type.
Project description:Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been described in girls with Rett-like features and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy including infantile spasms. Milder phenotypes have been associated with sequence variations in the 3'-end of the CDKL5 gene. Identification of novel CDKL5 transcripts coding isoforms characterized by an altered C-terminal region strongly questions the eventual pathogenicity of sequence variations located in the 3'-end of the gene. We investigated a group of 30 female patients with a clinically heterogeneous phenotype ranging from nonspecific intellectual disability to a severe neonatal encephalopathy and identified two heterozygous CDKL5 missense mutations, the previously reported p.Val999Met and the novel mutation p.Pro944Thr. However, these mutations have also been detected in their healthy father. Considering our results and all data from the literature, we suggest that genetic variations beyond the codon 938 in human CDKL5115 protein may have minor or no significance. It is probable that screening of exons 19-21 of the CDKL5 gene is not useful in practical molecular diagnosis of atypical Rett syndrome.
Project description:Mutations in the human CDKL5 gene have been associated with early onset seizure variant of Rett Syndrome. In order to investigate the potential involvement of CDKL5 in the regulation of gene expression, we compared expression profiles in WT vs CDKL5-mutated IPS clones from two patients (one male and one female) with different mutations using two-colour microarray experiments. For the female patient (CDKL5 mutation p.Gln347X) we compared one clone expressing the mutant CDKL5 allele to another clone from the same patient that expresses the wild-type allele. Maintenance of X chromosome inactivation and the resulting mono-allelic expression of CDKL5 were confirmed by androgen receptor assay and direct sequencing of CDKL5 mRNA. The clone derived from the male patient (CDKL5 mutation p.Thr288Ile) was compared to a clone derived from a normal newborn male. For each mutant/control pair four technical replicates were performed for a total of eight chip hybridizations.
Project description:Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) have been described in girls with Rett-like features and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy including infantile spasms. To date, with more than 80 reported cases, the phenotype of CDKL5-related encephalopathy is better defined. The main features consist of early-onset seizures starting before 5 months of age, severe mental retardation with absent speech and Rett-like features such as hand stereotypies and deceleration of head growth. On the other hand, neuro-vegetative signs and developmental regression are rare in CDKL5 mutation patients. The CDKL5 gene encodes a serine threonine kinase protein which is characterized by a catalytic domain and a long C-terminal extension involved in the regulation of the catalytic activity of CDKL5 and in the sub-nuclear localization of the protein. To our knowledge, more than 70 different point mutations have been described including missense mutations within the catalytic domain, nonsense mutations causing the premature termination of the protein distributed in the entire open reading frame, splice variants, and frameshift mutations. Additionally, CDKL5 mutations have recently been described in 7 males with a more severe epileptic encephalopathy and a worse outcome compared to female patients. Finally, about 23 male and female patients have been identified with gross rearrangements encompassing all or part of the CDKL5 gene, with a phenotype reminiscent of CDKL5-related encephalopathy combined with dysmorphic features. Even if recent data clearly indicate that CDKL5 plays an important role in brain function, the protein remains largely uncharacterized. Phenotype-genotype correlation is additionally hampered by the relatively small number of patients described.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of mutations in CDKL5 in both male and female patients with infantile spasms or early onset epilepsy of unknown cause, and to consider whether the breadth of the reported phenotype would be extended by studying a different patient group. METHODS: Two groups of patients were investigated for CDKL5 mutations. Group 1 comprised 73 patients (57 female, 16 male) referred to Cardiff for CDKL5 analysis, of whom 49 (42 female, 7 male) had epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life. Group 2 comprised 26 patients (11 female, 15 male) with infantile spasms previously recruited to a clinical trial, the UK Infantile Spasms Study. Where a likely pathogenic mutation was identified, further clinical data were reviewed. RESULTS: Seven likely pathogenic mutations were found among female patients from group 1 with epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life, accounting for seven of the 42 in this group (17%). No mutations other than the already published mutation were found in female patients from group 2, or in any male patient from either study group. All patients with mutations had early signs of developmental delay and most had made little developmental progress. Further clinical information was available for six patients: autistic features and tactile hypersensitivity were common but only one had suggestive Rett-like features. All had a severe epileptic seizure disorder, all but one of whom had myoclonic jerks. The EEG showed focal or generalised changes and in those with infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia. Slow frequencies were seen frequently with a frontal or fronto-temporal predominance and high amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of the epileptic seizure disorder, and associated EEG changes, in those with CDKL5 mutations is broader than previously reported. CDKL5 mutations are a significant cause of infantile spasms and early epileptic seizures in female patients, and of a later intractable seizure disorder, irrespective of whether they have suspected Rett syndrome. Analysis should be considered in these patients in the clinical setting.
Project description:Mutations in the CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5) gene are associated with a severe epileptic encephalopathy (early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 2, EIEE2) characterized by early-onset intractable seizures, infantile spasms, severe developmental delay, intellectual disability, and Rett syndrome (RTT)-like features. Despite the clear involvement of CDKL5 mutations in intellectual disability, the function of this protein during brain development and the molecular mechanisms involved in its regulation are still unknown. Using human neuroblastoma cells as a model system we found that an increase in CDKL5 expression caused an arrest of the cell cycle in the G(0)/G(1) phases and induced cellular differentiation. Interestingly, CDKL5 expression was inhibited by MYCN, a transcription factor that promotes cell proliferation during brain development and plays a relevant role in neuroblastoma biology. Through a combination of different and complementary molecular and cellular approaches we could show that MYCN acts as a direct repressor of the CDKL5 promoter. Overall our findings unveil a functional axis between MYCN and CDKL5 governing both neuron proliferation rate and differentiation. The fact that CDKL5 is involved in the control of both neuron proliferation and differentiation may help understand the early appearance of neurological symptoms in patients with mutations in CDKL5.