Transient HIF2A inhibition promotes satellite cell proliferation and muscle regeneration.
ABSTRACT: The remarkable regeneration capability of skeletal muscle depends on the coordinated proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells (SCs). The self-renewal of SCs is critical for long-term maintenance of muscle regeneration potential. Hypoxia profoundly affects the proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal of cultured myoblasts. However, the physiological relevance of hypoxia and hypoxia signaling in SCs in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SCs are in an intrinsic hypoxic state in vivo and express hypoxia-inducible factor 2A (HIF2A). HIF2A promotes the stemness and long-term homeostatic maintenance of SCs by maintaining their quiescence, increasing their self-renewal, and blocking their myogenic differentiation. HIF2A stabilization in SCs cultured under normoxia augments their engraftment potential in regenerative muscle. Conversely, HIF2A ablation leads to the depletion of SCs and their consequent regenerative failure in the long-term. In contrast, transient pharmacological inhibition of HIF2A accelerates muscle regeneration by increasing SC proliferation and differentiation. Mechanistically, HIF2A induces the quiescence and self-renewal of SCs by binding the promoter of the Spry1 gene and activating Spry1 expression. These findings suggest that HIF2A is a pivotal mediator of hypoxia signaling in SCs and may be therapeutically targeted to improve muscle regeneration.
Project description:Skeletal muscle stem cells, or "satellite cells" (SCs), are required for the regeneration of damaged muscle tissue. Although SCs self-renew during regeneration, the mechanisms that govern SC re-entry into quiescence remain elusive. We show that FOXO3, a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors, is expressed in quiescent SCs (QSCs). Conditional deletion of Foxo3 in QSCs impairs self-renewal and increases the propensity of SCs to adopt a differentiated fate. Transcriptional analysis of SCs lacking FOXO3 revealed a downregulation of Notch signaling, a key regulator of SC quiescence. Conversely, overexpression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) rescued the self-renewal deficit of FOXO3-deficient SCs. We show that FOXO3 regulates NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 receptor expression and that decreasing expression of NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 receptors phenocopies the effect of FOXO3 deficiency in SCs. We demonstrate that FOXO3, perhaps by activating Notch signaling, promotes the quiescent state during SC self-renewal in adult muscle regeneration.
Project description:Microenvironmental oxygen (O(2)) regulates stem cell activity, and a hypoxic niche with low oxygen levels has been reported in multiple stem cell types. Satellite cells are muscle-resident stem cells that maintain the homeostasis and mediate the regeneration of skeletal muscles. We demonstrate here that hypoxic culture conditions favor the quiescence of satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts by upregulating Pax7, a key regulator of satellite cell self-renewal, and downregulating MyoD and myogenin. During myoblast division, hypoxia promotes asymmetric self-renewal divisions and inhibits asymmetric differentiation divisions without affecting the overall rate of proliferation. Mechanistic studies reveal that hypoxia activates the Notch signaling pathway, which subsequently represses the expression of miR-1 and miR-206 through canonical Hes/Hey proteins, leading to increased levels of Pax7. More importantly, hypoxia conditioning enhances the efficiency of myoblast transplantation and the self-renewal of implanted cells. Given the robust effects of hypoxia on maintaining the quiescence and promoting the self-renewal of cultured myoblasts, we predict that oxygen levels in the satellite cell niche play a central role in precisely balancing quiescence versus activation, and self-renewal versus differentiation, in muscle stem cells in vivo.
Project description:Satellite cells are skeletal muscle stem cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation after transplantation, but whether they contribute to endogenous muscle fiber repair has been unclear. The transcription factor Pax7 marks satellite cells and is critical for establishing the adult satellite cell pool. By using a lineage tracing approach, we show that after injury, quiescent adult Pax7(+) cells enter the cell cycle; a subpopulation returns to quiescence to replenish the satellite cell compartment, while others contribute to muscle fiber formation. We demonstrate that Sprouty1 (Spry1), a receptor tyrosine kinase signaling inhibitor, is expressed in quiescent Pax7(+) satellite cells in uninjured muscle, downregulated in proliferating myogenic cells after injury, and reinduced as Pax7(+) cells re-enter quiescence. We show that Spry1 is required for the return to quiescence and homeostasis of the satellite cell pool during repair. Our results therefore define a role for Spry1 in adult muscle stem cell biology and tissue repair.
Project description:Muscle satellite cells are myogenic stem cells whose quiescence, activation, self-renewal, and differentiation are influenced by oxygen supply, an environmental regulator of stem cell activity. Accordingly, stem cell-specific oxygen signaling pathways precisely control the balance between muscle growth and regeneration in response to oxygen fluctuations, and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are central mediators of these cellular responses. However, the <i>in vivo</i> roles of HIFs in quiescent satellite cells and activated satellite cells (myoblasts) are poorly understood. Using transgenic mouse models for cell-specific HIF expression, we show here that HIF1? and HIF2? are preferentially expressed in pre- and post-differentiation myoblasts, respectively. Interestingly, double knockouts of HIF1? and HIF2? (HIF1?/2? dKO) generated with the MyoD<sup>Cre</sup> system in embryonic myoblasts resulted in apparently normal muscle development and growth. However, HIF1?/2? dKO produced with the tamoxifen-inducible, satellite cell-specific Pax7<sup>CreER</sup> system in postnatal satellite cells delayed injury-induced muscle repair due to a reduced number of myoblasts during regeneration. Analysis of satellite cell dynamics on myofibers confirmed that HIF1?/2? dKO myoblasts exhibit reduced self-renewal but more pronounced differentiation under hypoxic conditions. Mechanistically, the HIF1?/2? dKO blunted hypoxia-induced activation of Notch signaling, a key determinant of satellite cell self-renewal. We conclude that HIF1? and HIF2? are dispensable for muscle stem cell function under normoxia but are required for maintaining satellite cell self-renewal in hypoxic environments. Our insights into a critical mechanism in satellite cell homeostasis during muscle regeneration could help inform research efforts to treat muscle diseases or improve muscle function.
Project description:Skeletal muscle regeneration requires resident muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells (SCs). SCs are largely quiescent during homeostasis yet become activated upon injury to supply myonuclei and self-renewed SCs. Molecular mechanisms underlying the competence of SCs to proliferate and self-renew in response to injury remain unclear. Here, we show that CREB activity establishes proliferative potential during SC quiescence. SCs with inhibited CREB activity remain quiescent and positioned in their niche, but upon injury, they cannot enter or maintain a proliferative state for expansion and self-renewal. We demonstrate mechanistically that Mpp7 is a CREB target and its functional mediator. MPP7 loss affects the level and sub-cellular localization of AMOT and YAP1 in quiescent SCs. Furthermore, MPP7 and AMOT are required for YAP1 nuclear accumulation, and the three are individually required for a proliferative state in myoblasts. We propose that the CREB-MPP7-AMOT-YAP1 axis establishes the competence of quiescent SCs to expand and self-renew, thereby preserving stem cell function.
Project description:Quiescent satellite cells (SCs) that are activated to produce numerous myoblasts underpin the complete healing of damaged skeletal muscle. How cell-autonomous regulatory mechanisms modulate the balance among cells committed to differentiation and those committed to self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool remains poorly explored. Here, we show that miR-31 inactivation compromises muscle regeneration in adult mice by impairing the expansion of myoblasts. miR-31 is pivotal for SC proliferation, and its deletion promotes asymmetric cell fate segregation of proliferating cells, resulting in enhanced myogenic commitment and re-entry into quiescence. Further analysis revealed that miR-31 posttranscriptionally suppresses interleukin 34 (IL34) mRNA, the protein product of which activates JAK-STAT3 signaling required for myogenic progression. IL34 inhibition rescues the regenerative deficiency of miR-31 knockout mice. Our results provide evidence that targeting miR-31 or IL34 activities in SCs could be used to counteract the functional exhaustion of SCs in pathological conditions.
Project description:Skeletal muscle regeneration following injury depends on the ability of satellite cells (SCs) to proliferate, self-renew, and eventually differentiate. The factors that regulate the process of self-renewal are poorly understood. In this study we examined the role of PKC? in SC self-renewal and differentiation. We show that PKC? is expressed in SCs, and its active form is localized to the chromosomes, centrosomes, and midbody during mitosis. Lack of PKC? promotes SC symmetric self-renewal division by regulating Pard3 polarity protein localization, without affecting the overall proliferation rate. Genetic ablation of PKC? or its pharmacological inhibition in vivo did not affect SC number in healthy muscle. By contrast, after induction of muscle injury, lack or inhibition of PKC? resulted in a significant expansion of the quiescent SC pool. Finally, we show that lack of PKC? does not alter the inflammatory milieu after acute injury in muscle, suggesting that the enhanced self-renewal ability of SCs in PKC?-/- mice is not due to an alteration in the inflammatory milieu. Together, these results suggest that PKC? plays an important role in SC self-renewal by stimulating their expansion through symmetric division, and it may represent a promising target to manipulate satellite cell self-renewal in pathological conditions.
Project description:Satellite cells (SCs) are myogenic stem cells found in skeletal muscle that function to repair tissue damaged by injury or disease. SCs are quiescent at rest, although the signaling pathways required to maintain quiescence are unknown. Using a transgenic Notch reporter mouse and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of Notch target genes, we determined that Notch signaling is active in quiescent SCs. SC-specific deletion of recombining binding protein-J? (RBP-J?), a nuclear factor required for Notch signaling, resulted in the depletion of the SC pool and muscles that lacked any ability to regenerate in response to injury. SC depletion was not due to apoptosis. Rather, RBP-J?-deficient SCs spontaneously activate, fail to self-renew, and undergo terminal differentiation. Intriguingly, most of the cells differentiate without first dividing. They then fuse with adjacent myofibers, leading to the gradual disappearance of SCs from the muscle. These results demonstrate the requirement of Notch signaling for the maintenance of the quiescent state and for muscle stem cell homeostasis by the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation, processes that are all critical for normal postnatal myogenesis.
Project description:Stem cell quiescence preserves the cell reservoir by minimizing cell division over extended periods of time. Self-renewal of quiescent stem cells (SCs) requires the reentry into the cell cycle. In this study, we show that murine hair follicle SCs induce the Foxc1 transcription factor when activated. Deleting Foxc1 in activated, but not quiescent, SCs causes failure of the cells to reestablish quiescence and allows premature activation. Deleting Foxc1 in the SC niche of gene-targeted mice leads to loss of the old hair without impairing quiescence. In self-renewing SCs, Foxc1 activates Nfatc1 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, two key mechanisms that govern quiescence. These findings reveal a dynamic, cell-intrinsic mechanism used by hair follicle SCs to reinforce quiescence upon self-renewal and suggest a unique ability of SCs to maintain cell identity.
Project description:Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells [SCs]) are normally maintained in a quiescent (G0) state. Muscle injury not only activates SCs locally, but also alerts SCs in distant uninjured muscles via circulating factors. The resulting GAlert SCs are adapted to regenerative cues and regenerate injured muscles more efficiently, but whether they provide any long-term benefits to SCs is unknown. Here, we report that embryonic myogenic progenitors lacking the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) exhibit enhanced proliferation and differentiation, resulting in muscle hypertrophy but fewer SCs in adult muscles. Interestingly, Pten null SCs are predominantly in the GAlert state, even in the absence of an injury. The GAlert SCs are deficient in self-renewal and subjected to accelerated depletion during regeneration and aging and fail to repair muscle injury in old mice. Our findings demonstrate a key requirement of Pten in G0 entry of SCs and provide functional evidence that prolonged GAlert leads to stem cell depletion and regenerative failure.