ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Patients aged over 90 are being admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) with increasing frequency. The appropriateness of such decisions still remains controversial due to questionable outcome, limited resources and costs. Our objective was to determine the clinical characteristics and outcome in elderly patients (? 90 years) admitted in a medical ICU, with an additional focus on medico-economic implications. METHODS:We reviewed the charts of all patients (? 90 years) admitted to our ICU. We compared them with all other ICU patients (< 90 years), sought to identify ICU mortality predictors and also performed a long-term survival follow-up. RESULTS:In the study group of 317 stays: median age was 92 years (IQR: 91-94 years); most patients were female (71.3%.). Acute respiratory failure (52.4%) was the main admission diagnosis; mean SAPS II was 55.6±21.3; half the stays (49.2%) required mechanical ventilation (duration: 7.2±8.8 days); withholding and withdrawing decisions were made for 33.4% of all stays. ICU and hospital mortality rates were 35.7% and 42.6% respectively. Mechanical ventilation (OR = 4.83, CI95%: 1.59-15.82) was an independent predictor of ICU mortality whereas age was not (OR = 0.88, CI95%: 0.72-1.08). Social security reimbursement was significantly lower in the study group compared with all other ICU stays, both per stay (13,160 vs 22,092 Euros, p< 0.01) and per day of stay (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION:Among critically ill elderly patients (? 90 years), chronological age was not an independent factor of ICU mortality. ICU care-related costs in this population should not be considered as a limiting factor for ICU admission.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of early tracheostomy on clinical outcomes in patients requiring prolonged acute mechanical ventilation (?96 hours).<h4>Methods</h4>Data from 575 patients (69.4% male; median age, 68 years), hospitalized in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university-affiliated tertiary care hospital March 2008-February 2017, were retrospectively evaluated. Early and late tracheostomy were designated as 2-10 days and >10 days after translaryngeal intubation, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>The 90-day cumulative mortality rate was 47.5% (n=273) and 258 patients (44.9%) underwent tracheostomy. In comparison with the late group (n=115), the early group (n=125) had lower 90-day mortality (31.2% vs. 47.8%, p=0.012), shorter stays in hospital and ICU, shorter ventilator length of stay (median, 43 vs. 54; 24 vs. 33; 23 vs. 28 days; all p<0.001), and a higher rate of transfer to secondary care hospitals with post-intensive care settings (67.2% vs. 43.5% p<0.001). Also, the total medical costs of the early group were lower during hospital stays than those of the late group (26,609 vs. 36,973 USD, p<0.001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Early tracheostomy was associated with lower 90-day mortality, shorter ventilator length of stay and shorter lengths of stays in hospital and ICU, as well as lower hospital costs than late tracheostomy.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>About 5% of patients with coronavirus disease-2019 are admitted to the ICU for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Opinions differ on whether invasive mechanical ventilation should be used as first-line therapy over noninvasive oxygen support. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of early invasive mechanical ventilation in coronavirus disease-2019 with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure on day-60 mortality.<h4>Design</h4>Multicenter prospective French observational study.<h4>Setting</h4>Eleven ICUs of the French OutcomeRea network.<h4>Patients</h4>Coronavirus disease-2019 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (Pao<sub>2</sub>/Fio<sub>2</sub> ? 300?mm Hg), without shock or neurologic failure on ICU admission, and not referred from another ICU or intermediate care unit were included.<h4>Intervention</h4>We compared day-60 mortality in patients who were on invasive mechanical ventilation within the first 2 calendar days of the ICU stay (early invasive mechanical ventilation group) and those who were not (nonearly invasive mechanical ventilation group). We used a Cox proportional-hazard model weighted by inverse probability of early invasive mechanical ventilation to determine the risk of death at day 60.<h4>Measurement and main results</h4>The 245 patients included had a median (interquartile range) age of 61 years (52-69 yr), a Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score of 34?mm Hg (26-44?mm Hg), and a Pao<sub>2</sub>/Fio<sub>2</sub> of 121?mm Hg (90-174?mm Hg). The rates of ICU-acquired pneumonia, bacteremia, and the ICU length of stay were significantly higher in the early (<i>n</i> = 117 [48%]) than in the nonearly invasive mechanical ventilation group (<i>n</i> = 128 [52%]), <i>p</i> < 0.01. Day-60 mortality was 42.7% and 21.9% in the early and nonearly invasive mechanical ventilation groups, respectively. The weighted model showed that early invasive mechanical ventilation increased the risk for day-60 mortality (weighted hazard ratio =1.74; 95% CI, 1.07-2.83, p=0.03).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In ICU patients admitted with coronavirus disease-2019-induced acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, early invasive mechanical ventilation was associated with an increased risk of day-60 mortality. This result needs to be confirmed.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a major cause of hospital admission and represents a challenge for patient management during intensive care unit (ICU) stay. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a systematic search of peer-reviewed publications in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library up to 15th August 2020. Preprints and reports were also included if they met the inclusion criteria. Study eligibility criteria were full-text prospective, retrospective or registry-based publications describing outcomes in patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19, using a validated test. Participants were critically ill patients admitted in the ICU with COVID-19 infection.<h4>Results</h4>From 32 articles included, a total of 69 093 patients were admitted to the ICU and were evaluated. Most patients included in the studies were male (76 165/128 168, 59%, 26 studies) and the mean patient age was 56 (95%CI 48.5-59.8) years. Studies described high ICU mortality (21 145/65 383, 32.3%, 15 studies). The median length of ICU stay was 9.0 (95%CI 6.5-11.2) days, described in five studies. More than half the patients admitted to the ICU required mechanical ventilation (31 213/53 465, 58%, 23 studies) and among them mortality was very high (27 972/47 632, 59%, six studies). The duration of mechanical ventilation was 8.4 (95%CI 1.6-13.7) days. The main interventions described were the use of non-invasive ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, renal replacement therapy and vasopressors.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This systematic review, including approximately 69 000 ICU patients, demonstrates that COVID-19 infection in critically ill patients is associated with great need for life-sustaining interventions, high mortality, and prolonged length of ICU stay.
Project description:The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an inflammation score recognized as associated with outcome. Although inflammation has been shown to correlate with the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), we sought to investigate the role of NLR in predicting 90-day mortality in cirrhotic patients experiencing ACLF. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving a total of 108 consecutive cirrhotic patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU). NLR, clinical and biological data were recorded. Of the total, 75 patients had ACLF. The 90-day mortality rate was 53%. ACLF patients displayed higher NLR values in comparison with cirrhotic patients without ACLF throughout the ICU stay. NLR proved more elevated in nonsurvivors ACLF patients, with mortality correlating with increasing quartiles of NLR. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, NLR was found to be a predictor of mortality along with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and mechanical ventilation requirement. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was not predictive of 90-days mortality. Performance analysis revealed an area under curve of 0.71 [95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.82] regarding NLR capacity to predict 90-days mortality. When including NLR, SOFA score, and mechanical ventilation requirement into the final model, the area under curve was significantly higher (0.81 [95% confidence interval: 0.72-0.91]).These findings suggest that NLR is associated with mortality in ACLF patients admitted to the ICU. Combining NLR, SOFA score, and the need for mechanical ventilation could be a useful prognostic tool to identify ACLF patients at a higher risk of mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:insufficient feeding is frequent in the intensive care unit (ICU), which results in poor outcomes. Little is known about the nutrition pattern of patients requiring prolonged ICU stays. The aims of our study are to describe the demographic, metabolic, and nutritional specificities of chronically critically ill (CCI) patients defined by an ICU stay >2 weeks, and to identify an early risk factor. METHODS:analysis of consecutive patients prospectively admitted to the CCI program, with the following variables: demographic characteristics, Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS-2002) score, total daily energy from nutritional and non-nutritional sources, protein and glucose intakes, all arterial blood glucose values, length of ICU and hospital stay, and outcome (ICU and 90-day survival). Two phases were considered for the analysis: the first 10 days, and the next 20 days of the ICU stay. STATISTICS:parametric and non-parametric tests. RESULTS:150 patients, aged 60 ± 15 years were prospectively included. Median (Q1, Q3) length of ICU stay was 31 (26, 46) days. The mortality was 18% at ICU discharge and 35.3% at 90 days. Non-survivors were older (p = 0.024), tended to have a higher SAPSII score (p = 0.072), with a significantly higher NRS score (p = 0.033). Enteral nutrition predominated, while combined feeding was minimally used. All patients received energy and protein below the ICU's protocol recommendation. The proportion of days with fasting was 10.8%, being significantly higher in non-survivors (2 versus 3 days; p = 0.038). Higher protein delivery was associated with an increase in prealbumin over time (r2 = 0.19, p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS:High NRS scores may identify patients at highest risk of poor outcome when exposed to underfeeding. Further studies are required to evaluate a nutrition strategy for patients with high NRS, addressing combined parenteral nutrition and protein delivery.
Project description:AIM:To study the management, complications and outcomes of adult patients admitted with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS:We performed a retrospective observational study of adult patients with the diagnosis of "HLH" admitted to the two academic medical ICUs of Baylor College of Medicine between 01/01/2013 to 06/30/2017. HLH was diagnosed using the HLH-2004 criteria proposed by the Histiocyte Society. RESULTS:Sixteen adult cases of HLH were admitted to the medical ICUs over 4 years. Median age of presentation was 49 years and 10 (63%) were males. Median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at the time of ICU admission was 10. Median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 11.5 d and median hospital LOS was 29 d. Septic shock and acute respiratory failure accounted for majority of diagnoses necessitating ICU admission. Septic shock was the most common ICU complication seen in (88%) patients, followed by acute kidney injury (81%) and acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (75%). Nine patients (56%) developed disseminated intravascular coagulation and eight (50%) had acute liver failure. 10 episodes of clinically significant bleeding were observed. Multi system organ failure was the most common cause of death seen in 12 (75%) patients. The 30 d mortality was 37% (6 cases) and 90 d mortality was 81% (13 cases). There was no difference in mortality based on age (above or less than 50 years), SOFA score on ICU admission (more than or less than 10), immunosuppression, time to diagnose HLH or direct ICU admission versus floor transfer. CONCLUSION:HLH is a devastating disease associated with poor outcomes in ICU. Intensivists need to have a high degree of clinical suspicion for HLH in patients with septic shock/multi system organ failure and progressive bi/pancytopenia who are not responding to standard management in ICU.
Project description:Hanging is a frequently used method to attempt suicide in India. There is a lack of data in the Indian population regarding clinical features and outcomes of suicidal hanging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting mortality and morbidity in patients admitted with suicidal hanging to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).A 6-year retrospective study of adult patients admitted to the ICU with suicidal hanging was analysed for demographics, mode of hanging, lead time to emergency room (ER) admission, clinical presentation, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and neurological outcomes. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality rate. Secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU-LOS, time for neurological recovery, organ support and duration of mechanical ventilation. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables.We analysed data of 106 patients. The median age was 27 years [Interquartile Range (IQR) (22-34)]. The median lead time to ER admission was 1 h [IQR (0.5-1.4)] with median ICU stay of 3 days [IQR (2-4)]. Vasopressors were administered to 27.4% patients. GCS was ≤7 in 65% patients, and 84.9% patients received mechanical ventilation. Mortality rate was 10.3%. Survivors recovered with normal organ function.Suicidal hanging is associated with significant mortality. Admission GCS, APACHE II and 48 h SOFA score were predictors of poor outcome.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:On February 25, 2020, the first 2 patients were tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus?2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Tyrol, Austria. Rapid measures were taken to ensure adequate intensive care unit (ICU) preparedness for a surge of critically ill coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS:This cohort study included all COVID-19 patients admitted to an ICU with confirmed or strongly suspected COVID-19 in the State of Tyrol, Austria. Patients were recorded in the Tyrolean COVID-19 intensive care registry. Date of final follow-up was July 17, 2020. RESULTS:A total of 106 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were admitted to 1 of 13 ICUs in Tyrol from March 9 to July 17, 2020. Median age was 64 years (interquartile range, IQR 54-74 years) and the majority of patients were male (76 patients, 71.7%). Median simplified acute physiology score III (SAPS III) was 56 points (IQR 49-64 points). The median duration from appearance of first symptoms to ICU admission was 8 days (IQR 5-11 days). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in 72 patients (67.9%) and 6 patients (5.6%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment. Renal replacement therapy was necessary in 21 patients (19.8%). Median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 18 days (IQR 5-31 days), median hospital LOS was 27 days (IQR 13-49 days). The ICU mortality was 21.7% (23 patients), hospital mortality was 22.6%. There was no significant difference in ICU mortality in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and in those not receiving it (18.1% vs. 29.4%, p?=?0.284). As of July 17th, 2020, two patients are still hospitalized, one in an ICU, one on a general ward. CONCLUSION:Critically ill COVID-19 patients in Tyrol showed high severity of disease often requiring complex treatment with increased lengths of ICU and hospital stay. Nevertheless, the mortality was found to be remarkably low, which may be attributed to our adaptive surge response providing sufficient ICU resources.
Project description:Importance Pneumonia due to COVID-19 can lead to respiratory failure and death due to the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin-6 receptor, is being administered off-label to some patients with COVID-19, and although early small studies suggested a benefit, there are no conclusive data proving its usefulness. Objective To evaluate outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with or without treatment with Tocilizumab. Design, Setting, Participants Retrospective study of 1,938 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to hospitals within the Jefferson Health system in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, between March 25, 2020 and June 17, 2020, of which 307 received Tocilizumab. Exposures Confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia Main Outcomes and Measures Outcomes data related to length of stay, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), requirement of mechanical ventilation, and mortality were collected and analyzed. Results The average age was 65.2, with 47% women; 36.4% were African-American. The average length of stay was 22 days with 26.3% of patients requiring admission to the ICU and 14.9% requiring mechanical ventilation. The overall mortality was 15.3%. Older age, admission to an ICU, and requirement for mechanical ventilation were associated with higher mortality. Treatment with Tocilizumab was also associated with higher mortality, which was mainly observed in subjects not requiring care in an ICU with estimated odds ratio (OR) of 2.9 (p?=?0.0004). Tocilizumab treatment was also associated with higher likelihood of admission to an ICU (OR?=?4.8, p < 0.0001), progression to requiring mechanical ventilation (OR?=?6.6, p < 0.0001), and increased length of stay (OR?=?16.2, p < 0.0001). Conclusion and Relevance Our retrospective analysis revealed an association between Tocilizumab administration and increased mortality, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and length of stay in subjects with COVID-19. Prospective trials are needed to evaluate the true effect of Tocilizumab in this condition.
Project description:Objective:To estimate the effects of diuretic use during the first 24 hours of an intensive care unit stay on in-hospital mortality and other clinical outcomes including acute kidney injury and duration of mechanical ventilation. Design:Retrospective cohort study. Setting:Urban, academic medical center. Patients:Adult patients admitted to medical or cardiac ICUs between 2001 and 2012, excluding those on maintenance dialysis or with ICU length of stay < 24 hours. Interventions:None. Measurements and Main Results:We included 13,589 patients: 2,606 with and 10,983 without early diuretic use (loop diuretic exposure during the first 24 hours of an ICU stay). Propensity score matching generated 2523 pairs with well-balanced baseline characteristics. Early diuretic use was unassociated with in-hospital mortality (risk ratio 1.01, 99.5% confidence interval 0.83-1.22). We found no evidence of associations with ICU or hospital length of stay, or duration or provision of mechanical ventilation. Early diuretic use was associated with higher rates of subsequent acute kidney injury (risk ratio 1.41, 99.5% confidence interval 1.25 to 1.59) and electrolyte abnormalities. Results were not materially different in subgroups of patients with heart failure, chronic kidney disease, or acute lung injury. Conclusions:Early diuretic use in critical illness was unassociated with in-hospital mortality, ICU or hospital length of stay, or duration of mechanical ventilation, but risks of acute kidney injury and electrolyte abnormalities were higher.