Involvement of MAFB and MAFF in Retinoid-Mediated Suppression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invasion.
ABSTRACT: Retinoids exert antitumor effects through the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα). In the present study, we sought to identify the factors involved in the RARα-mediated transcriptional regulation of the tumor suppressor gene and the tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) was used in the in vitro experiments. Cell invasiveness was measured using trans-well invasion assay. ATRA significantly increased TFPI2 expression through RARα in a human HCC cell line known as HuH7. TFPI2 was vital in the ATRA-mediated suppression of HuH7 cell invasion. The musculo-aponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B (MAFB) significantly enhanced the activation of the TFPI2 promoter via RARα while MAFF inhibited it. The knockdown of RARα or MAFB counteracted the ATRA-mediated suppression of HuH7 cell invasion while the knockdown of MAFF inhibited the invasion. TFPI2 expression in HCC tissues was significantly downregulated possibly due to the decreased expression of RARβ and MAFB. Patients with HCC expressing low MAFB and high MAFF levels showed the shortest disease-free survival time. These results suggest that MAFB and MAFF play critical roles in the antitumor effects of retinoids by regulating the expression of retinoid target genes such as TFPI2 and can be promising for developing therapies to combat HCC invasion.
Project description:HuH7 cells stably transfected with siRNA against TFPI2, MAFB, or MAFF, as well as non-targeting control shRNA were established. We showed that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induces TFPI2 expression through RARalpha, while MAFB and MAFF regulate this effect positively and negatively, respectively. To investigate global regulation of ATRA-induced transcription, this microarray analysis was performed with the shRNA-expressing cells following ATRA treatment.
Project description:The acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by chromosomal translocations that result in fusion proteins, including the promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor, alpha fusion protein (PML-RAR?). All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) treatment is the standard drug treatment for APL yielding cure rates > 80% by activating transcription and proteasomal degradation of retinoic acid receptor, alpha (RAR?). Whereas combination therapy with As2O3 has increased survival further, patients that experience relapse and are refractory to atRA and/or As2O3 is a clinically significant problem. BCL-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis and over-expression of anti-apoptotic B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family proteins has been associated with chemotherapeutic resistance in APL including impairment of the ability of atRA to induce growth arrest and differentiation. Here we investigated the novel BH3 domain mimetic, JY-1-106, which antagonizes the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-xL) and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) alone and in combination with retinoids including atRA, AM580 (RAR? agonist), and SR11253 (RAR? antagonist). JY-1-106 reduced cell viability in HL-60 cells alone and in combination with retinoids. The combination of JY-1-106 and SR11253 had the greatest impact on cell viability by stimulating apoptosis. These studies indicate that dual BCL-xL/MCL-1 inhibitors and retinoids could work cooperatively in leukemia treatment.
Project description:The synthetic retinoid fenretinide is one of the most promising clinically tested retinoids. Previously, we have shown that fenretinide induces apoptosis of Huh7 cells, but HepG2 cells are relatively resistant to fenretinide-induced apoptosis. This study examines the interactive role of fenretinide and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in inducing apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and the underlying mechanism. Trichostatin A and scriptaid can either enhance fenretinide-induced apoptosis in the fenretinide sensitive HCC cells (Huh7 and Hep3B) or sensitize the fenretinide resistant cells (HepG2) to become sensitive to the apoptotic effect of fenretinide in a cancer cell-specific manner. The sensitivity of cells to fenretinide-induced apoptosis was not associated with reactive oxygen species production nor with antioxidant gene expression. However, the level of retinoic acid receptor ? (RAR?) and Nur77 (NR4A1) was important for inducing apoptosis. Upon fenretinide and HDACi treatment, the expression of RAR? and Nur77 were induced and colocalized in the cytosol. The induction of Nur77 protein level, but not the messenger RNA level, was RAR?-dependent. In addition, RAR? interacted with Nur77. Nur77 was essential for fenretinide-induced and HDACi-induced apoptosis of Huh7 cells. Induction of the expression, the interaction, and the nuclear export of RAR? and Nur77 mediate fenretinide-induced and HDACi-induced apoptosis.Our findings suggest that targeting Nur77 and RAR? simultaneously provides an effective way to induce HCC cell death.
Project description:Retinoids, vitamin A derivatives, are important regulators of the growth and differentiation of skin cells. Although retinoids are therapeutically used for several skin ailments, little is known about their effects on P2 receptors, known to be involved in various functions in the skin. DNA array analysis showed that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), an agonist to RAR (retinoic acid receptor), enhanced the expression of mRNA for the P2Y2 receptor, a metabotropic P2 receptor that is known to be involved in the proliferation of the epidermis. The expression of other P2 receptors in NHEKs was not affected by ATRA. ATRA increased the mRNA for the P2Y2 receptor in a concentration-dependent fashion (1 nM to 1 muM). Am80, a synthesized agonist to RAR, showed a similar enhancement, whereas 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cisRA), an agonist to RXR (retinoid X receptor), enhanced P2Y2 gene expression to a lesser extent. Ca(2+) imaging analysis showed that ATRA also increased the function of P2Y2 receptors in NHEKs. Retinoids are known to enhance the turnover of the epidermis by increasing both proliferation and terminal differentiation. The DNA microarray analysis also revealed that ATRA upregulates various genes involved in the differentiation of NHEKs. Our present results suggest that retinoids, at least in part, exert their proliferative effects by upregulating P2Y2 receptors in NHEKs. This effect of retinoids may be closely related to their therapeutic effect against various ailments or aging events in skins such as over-keratinization, pigmentation and re-modeling.
Project description:Many human cancer cells are sensitive to killing by the proapoptotic ligand TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is under study for cancer treatment in clinical trials. The TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R1; also known as death receptor 4) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we show that retinoids sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulating expression of TRAIL-R1. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) upregulated TRAIL-R1 expression in human cancer cells at the transcriptional level. The ability of ATRA to activate TRAIL-R1 expression was inhibited by retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonists or siRNAs, but augmented by several RAR agonists. In analyzing how ATRA induces RAR-dependent transcriptional upregulation of TRAIL-R1, we identified 2 putative retinoic acid response elements termed Pal-17 (a palindrome separated by 17 bases) and DR-11 (a direct repeat separated by 11 bases) in the 5'-flanking region of TRAIL-R1 gene. Deletion of DR-11, but not Pal-17, abrogated the ability of ATRA to stimulate TRAIL-R1 promoter activity. Consistent with this observation, RAR binding to DR-11, but not to Pal-17, was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay in ATRA-treated cells, arguing that DR-11 was responsible for ATRA-mediated activation of the TRAIL-R1 gene. ATRA augmented TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, and this activity was attenuated by a blockade to upregulation of TRAIL-R1 expression. Taken together, our findings establish that ATRA accentuates TRAIL-induced apoptosis, reveal a novel mechanism by which retinoids modulate apoptosis, and suggest a novel strategy to augment the anti-cancer activity of TRAIL.
Project description:All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a pan-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist, is, along with other retinoids, a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of solid tumors. On the one hand, preclinical studies have shown promising anticancer effects of ATRA in breast cancer; on the other hand, resistances occurred. Autophagy is a cellular recycling process that allows the degradation of bulk cellular contents. Tumor cells may take advantage of autophagy to cope with stress caused by anticancer drugs. We therefore wondered if autophagy is activated by ATRA in mammary tumor cells and if modulation of autophagy might be a potential novel treatment strategy. Indeed, ATRA induces autophagic flux in ATRA-sensitive but not in ATRA-resistant human breast cancer cells. Moreover, using different RAR agonists as well as RAR?-knockdown breast cancer cells, we demonstrate that autophagy is dependent on RAR? activation. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy in breast cancer cells by either genetic or pharmacological approaches resulted in significantly increased apoptosis under ATRA treatment and attenuated epithelial differentiation. In summary, our findings demonstrate that ATRA-induced autophagy is mediated by RAR? in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy results in enhanced apoptosis. This points to a potential novel treatment strategy for a selected group of breast cancer patients where ATRA and autophagy inhibitors are applied simultaneously.
Project description:Retinoids, such as all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), regulate cellular differentiation and signalling pathways in chordates by binding to nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARα/β/γ). Polar interactions between receptor and ligand are important for binding and facilitating the non-polar interactions and conformational changes necessary for RAR-mediated transcriptional regulation. The constraints on activity and RAR-type specificity with respect to the structural link between the polar and non-polar functions of synthetic retinoids are poorly understood. To address this, predictions from in silico ligand-RAR docking calculations and molecular dynamics simulations for a small library of stable, synthetic retinoids (designated GZ series) containing a central thiazole linker structure and different hydrophobic region substituents, were tested using a ligand binding assay and a range of cellular biological assays. The docking analysis showed that these thiazole-containing retinoids were well suited to the binding pocket of RARα, particularly via a favorable hydrogen bonding interaction between the thiazole and Ser232 of RARα. A bulky hydrophobic region (i.e., present in compounds GZ23 and GZ25) was important for interaction with the RAR binding pockets. Ligand binding assays generally reflected the findings from in silico docking, and showed that GZ25 was a particularly strongly binding ligand for RARα/β. GZ25 also exhibited higher activity as an inducer of neuronal differentiation than ATRA and other GZ derivatives. These data demonstrate that GZ25 is a stable synthetic retinoid with improved activity which efficiently regulates neuronal differentiation and help to define the key structural requirements for retinoid activity enabling the design and development of the next generation of more active, selective synthetic retinoids as potential therapeutic regulators of neurogenesis.
Project description:Endogenous retinoids like all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) play important roles in skin homeostasis and skin-based immune responses. Moreover, retinoid signaling was found to be dysregulated in various skin diseases. The present study used topical application of selective agonists and antagonists for retinoic acid receptors (RARs) ? and ? and retinoid-X receptors (RXRs) for two weeks on mouse skin in order to determine the role of retinoid receptor subtypes in the gene regulation in skin. We observed pronounced epidermal hyperproliferation upon application of ATRA and synthetic agonists for RAR? and RXR. ATRA and the RAR? agonist further increased retinoid target gene expression (Rbp1, Crabp2, Krt4, Cyp26a1, Cyp26b1) and the chemokines Ccl17 and Ccl22. In contrast, a RAR? agonist strongly decreased the expression of ATRA-synthesis enzymes, of retinoid target genes, markers of skin homeostasis, and various cytokines in the skin, thereby markedly resembling the expression profile induced by RXR and RAR antagonists. Our results indicate that RAR? and RAR? subtypes possess different roles in the skin and may be of relevance for the auto-regulation of endogenous retinoid signaling in skin. We suggest that dysregulated retinoid signaling in the skin mediated by RXR, RAR? and/or RAR? may promote skin-based inflammation and dysregulation of skin barrier properties.
Project description:Increased vitamin A (retinol) intake has been suggested to increase bone fragility. In the present study, we investigated effects of retinoids on bone resorption in cultured neonatal mouse calvarial bones and their interaction with glucocorticoids (GC). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), retinol, retinalaldehyde, and 9-cis-retinoic acid stimulated release of (45)Ca from calvarial bones. The resorptive effect of ATRA was characterized by mRNA expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, enhanced osteoclast number, and bone matrix degradation. In addition, the RANKL/OPG ratio was increased by ATRA, release of (45)Ca stimulated by ATRA was blocked by exogenous OPG, and mRNA expression of genes associated with bone formation was decreased by ATRA. All retinoid acid receptors (RAR?/?/?) were expressed in calvarial bones. Agonists with affinity to all receptor subtypes or specifically to RAR? enhanced the release of (45)Ca and mRNA expression of Rankl, whereas agonists with affinity to RAR?/? or RAR? had no effects. Stimulation of Rankl mRNA by ATRA was competitively inhibited by the RAR? antagonist GR110. Exposure of calvarial bones to GC inhibited the stimulatory effects of ATRA on (45)Ca release and Rankl mRNA and protein expression. This inhibitory effect was reversed by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU 486. Increased Rankl mRNA stimulated by ATRA was also blocked by GC in calvarial bones from mice with a GR mutation that blocks dimerization (GR(dim) mice). The data suggest that ATRA enhances periosteal bone resorption by increasing the RANKL/OPG ratio via RAR? receptors, a response that can be inhibited by monomeric GR.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease that lacks effective therapeutic options. In this study, we profile eighteen TNBC cell lines for their sensitivity to the anti-proliferative action of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The only three cell lines (HCC-1599, MB-157 and MDA-MB-157) endowed with ATRA-sensitivity are characterized by genetic aberrations of the NOTCH1-gene, causing constitutive activation of the NOTCH1 ?-secretase product, N1ICD. N1ICD renders HCC-1599, MB-157 and MDA-MB-157 cells sensitive not only to ATRA, but also to ?-secretase inhibitors (DAPT; PF-03084014). Combinations of ATRA and ?-secretase inhibitors produce additive/synergistic effects in vitro and in vivo. RNA-sequencing studies of HCC-1599 and MB-157 cells exposed to ATRA and DAPT and ATRA+DAPT demonstrate that the two compounds act on common gene sets, some of which belong to the NOTCH1 pathway. ATRA inhibits the growth of HCC-1599, MB-157 and MDA-MB-157 cells via RAR?, which up-regulates several retinoid target-genes, including RAR?. RAR? is a key determinant of ATRA anti-proliferative activity, as its silencing suppresses the effects exerted by the retinoid. In conclusion, we demonstrate that ATRA exerts a significant anti-tumor action only in TNBC cells showing constitutive NOTCH1 activation. Our results support the design of clinical trials involving combinations between ATRA and ?-secretase inhibitors for the treatment of this TNBC subtype.