Deconvolution of optical multidimensional coherent spectra.
ABSTRACT: Optical coherent multidimensional spectroscopy is a powerful technique for unraveling complex and congested spectra by spreading them across multiple dimensions, removing the effects of inhomogeneity, and revealing underlying correlations. As the technique matures, the focus is shifting from understanding the technique itself to using it to probe the underlying dynamics in the system being studied. However, these dynamics can be difficult to discern because they are convolved with the nonlinear optical response of the system. Inspired by methods used to deblur images, we present a method for deconvolving the underlying dynamics from the optical response. To demonstrate the method, we extract the many-particle diffusion Green's functions for excitons in a semiconductor quantum well from two-dimensional coherent spectra.
Project description:We present a Fourier-transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FT-CARS) spectroscopy technique that achieves broadband CARS measurements at an ultrahigh scan rate of more than 20,000 spectra/s - more than 20 times higher than that of previous broadband coherent Raman scattering spectroscopy techniques. This is made possible by an integration of a FT-CARS system and a rapid-scanning retro-reflective optical path length scanner. To demonstrate the technique's strength, we use it to perform broadband CARS spectroscopy of the transient mixing dynamics of toluene and benzene in the fingerprint region (200-1500 cm(-1)) with spectral resolution of 10 cm(-1) at a record high scan rate of 24,000 spectra/s. Our rapid-scanning FT-CARS technique holds great promise for studying chemical dynamics and wide-field label-free biomedical imaging.
Project description:Optical multi-dimensional coherent spectroscopy is a powerful technique for studying the structure, properties and ultrafast dynamics of atoms, molecules, semiconductor materials and complex systems. Current implementations of multi-dimensional coherent spectroscopy have long acquisition times and/or limited spectral resolution. In addition, most of the techniques utilize complex geometries or phase cycling schemes to isolate non-linear signals. We demonstrate a novel approach of using frequency combs to perform rapid, high resolution and background free multi-dimensional coherent spectroscopy of semiconductor materials. Our approach is inspired by dual-comb spectroscopy, which has been proven to be a versatile tool for obtaining one dimensional absorption spectra with high resolution in a short acquisition time. We demonstrate the method using a GaAs multi-quantum well sample.
Project description:Coherent Raman microspectroscopy imaging is an emerging technique for noninvasive, chemically specific optical imaging, which can be potentially used to analyze the chemical composition and its distribution in biological tissues. In this report, a hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman imaging of different chemical species through a turbid medium. It was demonstrated that by using readily available commercial software (Cytospec, Inc.) and cluster analysis, distinct chemical species can be imaged and identified through a rather thick layer of scattering medium. Once the clusters of different chemical composition were distinguished, a phase retrieval algorithm was used to convert coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra to Raman spectra, which were used for chemical identification of hidden microscopic objects. In particular, applications to remote optical sensing of potential biological threats and to imaging through a layer of skin tissue were successfully demonstrated.
Project description:The optical excitation of organic semiconductors not only generates charge-neutral electron-hole pairs (excitons), but also charge-separated polaron pairs with high yield. The microscopic mechanisms underlying this charge separation have been debated for many years. Here we use ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to study the dynamics of polaron pair formation in a prototypical polymer thin film on a sub-20-fs time scale. We observe multi-period peak oscillations persisting for up to about 1?ps as distinct signatures of vibronic quantum coherence at room temperature. The measured two-dimensional spectra show pronounced peak splittings revealing that the elementary optical excitations of this polymer are hybridized exciton-polaron-pairs, strongly coupled to a dominant underdamped vibrational mode. Coherent vibronic coupling induces ultrafast polaron pair formation, accelerates the charge separation dynamics and makes it insensitive to disorder. These findings open up new perspectives for tailoring light-to-current conversion in organic materials.
Project description:Optical trapping has been implemented in many areas of physics and biology as a noncontact sample manipulation technique to study the structure and dynamics of nano- and mesoscale objects. It provides a unique approach for manipulating microscopic objects without inducing undesired changes in structure. Combining optical trapping with hard X-ray microscopy techniques, such as coherent diffraction imaging and crystallography, provides a nonperturbing environment where electronic and structural dynamics of an individual particle in solution can be followed in situ. It was previously shown that optical trapping allows the manipulation of micrometer-sized objects for X-ray fluorescence imaging. However, questions remain over the ability of optical trapping to position objects for X-ray diffraction measurements, which have stringent requirements for angular stability. Our work demonstrates that dynamic holographic optical tweezers are capable of manipulating single micrometer-scale anisotropic particles in a microfluidic environment with the precision and stability required for X-ray Bragg diffraction experiments-thus functioning as an "optical goniometer." The methodology can be extended to a variety of X-ray experiments and the Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of individual particles in solution, as demonstrated here, will be markedly enhanced with the advent of brighter, coherent X-ray sources.
Project description:The quantification of peptides in Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrum analysis coupled with stable isotope standards has been used to quantify native peptides under many experimental conditions. This approach has difficulties quantifying samples containing peptides with ion currents in overlapping (convolved) spectra. In a previous article we proposed a reparametrized Gaussian mixture model based on the known characteristics of the peptides that could also accommodate overlapping spectra. We demonstrated the application of our model in a series of single and overlapping peptides quantification experiments. Here, we focus solely on studying the properties of our approach and examine the characteristics of the GMM approach in convolved peptides using simulated spectra and provide a method for simulating these spectra.
Project description:Coherent two-dimensional (2D) optical spectroscopy has revolutionized our ability to probe many types of couplings and ultrafast dynamics in complex quantum systems. The dynamics and function of any quantum system strongly depend on couplings to the environment. Thus, studying coherent interactions for different environments remains a topic of tremendous interest. Here we introduce coherent 2D electronic mass spectrometry that allows 2D measurements on effusive molecular beams and thus on quantum systems with minimum system-bath interaction and employ this to identify the major ionization pathway of 3d Rydberg states in NO2. Furthermore, we present 2D spectra of multiphoton ionization, disclosing distinct differences in the nonlinear response functions leading to the ionization products. We also realize the equivalent of spectrally resolved transient-absorption measurements without the necessity for acquiring weak absorption changes. Using time-of-flight detection introduces cations as an observable, enabling the 2D spectroscopic study on isolated systems of photophysical and photochemical reactions.
Project description:X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a widely-used materials characterization technique. In this work we present a database of computed XAS spectra, using the Green's formulation of the multiple scattering theory implemented in the FEFF code. With more than 500,000 K-edge X-ray absorption near edge (XANES) spectra for more than 40,000 unique materials, this database constitutes the largest existing collection of computed XAS spectra to date. The data is openly distributed via the Materials Project, enabling researchers across the world to access it for free and use it for comparisons with experiments and further analysis.
Project description:Multi-dimensional coherent spectroscopy (MDCS) has become an extremely versatile and sensitive technique for elucidating the structure, composition, and dynamics of condensed matter, atomic, and molecular systems. The appeal of MDCS lies in its ability to resolve both individual-emitter and ensemble-averaged dynamics of optically created excitations in disordered systems. When applied to semiconductors, MDCS enables unambiguous separation of homogeneous and inhomogeneous contributions to the optical linewidth, pinpoints the nature of coupling between resonances, and reveals signatures of many-body interactions. In this review, we discuss the implementation of MDCS to measure the nonlinear optical response of excitonic transitions in semiconductor nanostructures. Capabilities of the technique are illustrated with recent experimental studies that advance our understanding of optical decoherence and dissipation, energy transfer, and many-body phenomena in quantum dots and quantum wells, semiconductor microcavities, layered semiconductors, and photovoltaic materials.
Project description:Ultrafast spectroscopy is capable of monitoring electronic and vibrational states. For electronic states a few eV apart, an X-ray laser source is required. We propose an alternative method based on the time-domain high-order harmonic spectroscopy where a coherent superposition of the electronic states is first prepared by the strong optical laser pulse. The coherent dynamics can then be probed by the higher-order harmonics generated by the delayed probe pulse. The high nonlinearity typically modeled by the three-step mechanism introduced by Lewenstein and Corkum can serve as a recipe for generation of the coherent excitation with broad bandwidth. The main advantage of the method is that only optical (non-X-ray) lasers are needed. A semiperturbative model based on the Liouville space superoperator approach is developed for the bookkeeping of the different orders of the nonlinear response for the high-order harmonic generation using multiple pulses. Coherence between bound electronic states is monitored in the harmonic spectra from both first- and second-order responses.