Arthroscopic Suprapectoral Biceps Tenodesis With Tenodesis Screw.
ABSTRACT: There are many methods for long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) tenodesis, but a consensus on a superior method has yet to be met. In this article, we introduce a method for arthroscopic suprapectoral biceps tenodesis using a tenodesis screw in the bicipital tunnel. The intra-articular portion of the biceps tendon is transected. The subdeltoid space is then viewed via a lateral portal, and the tendon is mobilized from the bicipital tunnel. The tendon is retrieved through the anterior portal, and 5 whipstitch passes and a second distal stitch are placed. Three of the suture tails are passed through the tenodesis screwdriver, and the tendon is maneuvered to the previously reamed bone socket located 1.5 cm superior to the pec tendon, just inferior to the bicipital groove. Once the tenodesis screw is fixated in sufficient bone stock, 5 alternating half hitches reinforce the construct by creating a closed loop through the screw. This described technique allows full visualization of the LHBT dissection and tenodesis throughout the procedure. Additionally, this technique provides a method to incorporate whipstitching with an arthroscopic tenodesis screw to provide additional strength to tendon fixation.
Project description:Multiple different techniques exist for performing a biceps tenodesis, and the literature has yet to define a particular technique as superior with respect to outcomes. Factors as the center of various clinical and biomechanical studies include analyzing arthroscopic versus open techniques, optimal fixation sites, and the use specific fixation devices (i.e., anchor, screw). This article details an all-arthroscopic approach for proximal tenodesis of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) using a 2-portal method in a minimally invasive manner. Optimal biomechanical fixation of the LHBT is achieve by using 2 suture anchors in the creation of a dual lasso-loop configuration at the level of the bicipital groove. Technical pearls with respect to optimal arthroscopic viewing, efficient identification of the LHBT and subsequent release from the bicipital groove, and appropriate use of suture anchors for lasso-loop creation are presented for review. Two specific technical advantages of this technique include 2 fixation points for the LHBT to minimize failure risk, and smaller drill holes when compared with commonly performed tenodesis screw techniques to theoretically limit humeral fracture risk.
Project description:Arthroscopic repair of the long head of the biceps (LHB) is performed to treat various biceps pathologies yet the choice between tenotomy or tenodesis remains controversial. Although tenotomy is simpler and quicker, tenodesis results in fewer complications, and there are several techniques available using various fixation devices and sites. This Technical Note describes an all-arthroscopic, suprapectoral tenodesis technique using a bioresorbable interference screw, without motorized devices to create the humeral tunnel in the bicipital groove. The LHB tendon is detached from its glenoid insertion using an arthroscopic cutting instrument or electrocautery. Two portals are created 50 mm distal to the acromioclavicular joint and at 15 mm on either side of the bicipital groove. The arthroscope is introduced through the distal lateral portal till it makes contact with the humerus. The LHB is fastened within its groove using a grasper, reinforced, and then fixed in the humeral tunnel using an interference screw. The present technique is safe, simple, and reproducible. It requires 2 portals in addition to the standard posterior portal and the intra-articular working portal. It minimizes iatrogenic intra-articular damage and thereby limits possible complications. It also limits the intra-articular operative time compared with SLAP repairs.
Project description:Degeneration and tearing of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) are common intra-articular findings, and surgical intervention including tenodesis or tenotomy is beneficial. A new arthroscopic shoulder technique may be performed through an anterior portal while one is viewing from a posterior portal: (1) Visualize the intra-articular biceps tendon. (2) Identify the segment of the LHBT to be enlarged. (3) Use a tissue modulation wand to enlarge the tendon. (4) Evaluate the diameter of the enlarged segment. It should be twice the original diameter. (5) Cut the biceps tendon at the proximal end of the enlarged segment. (6) View the tendon within the tunnel. (7) Identify and cut the remaining stump of the biceps tendon. Seventeen cadaveric shoulders were used to compare the pullout force, stiffness, and displacement of outlet tenodesis versus tenotomy. There was a significant increase in pullout force for the outlet tenodesis group when compared with tenotomy. This technique is used to operatively treat LHBT intra-articular pathology in patients who would benefit from tenotomy and traditional biceps tenodesis and may minimize the retraction of the biceps tendon distally.
Project description:The long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) is a frequent source of disorders and pathology in the shoulder. Significant evidence is available on the management of disorders of the LHBT in the literature, and the LHBT is frequently addressed intraoperatively when involved in shoulder pathology. An all-arthroscopic, intra-articular biceps tenodesis with suture anchor fixation has several advantages that have not been well described previously, and it does not add significant morbidity to arthroscopic surgery to treat the rotator cuff or other sources of pain. Intra-articular LHBT tenodesis in the bicipital groove thus has advantages of less surgical time and a decreased bone footprint.
Project description:Biceps tenodesis is a common treatment for pathology of the long head of the biceps tendon. Several authors have described various arthroscopic and open techniques for biceps tenodesis. Open techniques have been associated with complications such as wound infection and nerve injury. Previously described arthroscopic techniques have placed the tenodesis site within the bicipital groove, which may lead to persistent pain. We describe an all-arthroscopic suprapectoral biceps tenodesis technique that places the tenodesis site distal to the bicipital groove. This technique potentially avoids the complications associated with open tenodesis surgery while still removing the biceps tendon from the bicipital groove.
Project description:Tenodesis of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHB) at the upper part of the bicipital groove has been related to persistent postoperative bicipital pain. This is possibly due to the inflammation of the remaining tendon within the groove. This, in turn, could be attributed to the continual mechanical stress placed on the tendon in the narrow bicipital groove. Theoretically, should the LHB be more "relaxed," the mechanical stress applied on it would be diminished. On the basis of this rationale, we present an arthroscopic biceps tenodesis technique, according to which the tendon is fixed at the entrance of the bicipital groove, using a bioabsorbable screw, relaxed by 5 mm. In this lax position, the residual LHB tension is expected to be decreased compared with the initial tension, whereas no cosmetic deformity (Popeye sign) or impaired muscular performance is anticipated.
Project description:Tenodesis is an accepted treatment option in the management of pathology involving the long head of the biceps (LHB). Among the common causes for revision surgery after tenodesis are residual pain within the bicipital groove, cramping, early biceps fatigue, and biceps deformity. Most technical descriptions of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis involve fixation of the LHB tendon within or proximal to the intertubercular sulcus and thus fail to address the described sources of pain within this proximal anatomic location. Suprapectoral tenodesis offers the surgeon the ability to remove the LHB from within the bicipital groove by fixating the biceps more distally. Cramping, early fatigue, and biceps deformity have been described when the appropriate length-tension relation of the biceps tendon has not been restored after LHB tenodesis. Our described procedure allows for a more consistent restoration of the anatomic length-tension relation of the LHB, therefore reducing the symptoms associated with this variable. This all-arthroscopic, suprapectoral biceps tenodesis with interference fixation addresses the most common causes for revision surgery and offers a comprehensive solution for LHB pathology.
Project description:A variety of techniques are available to treat pathologies of the long head of the biceps tendon. Next to a simple tenotomy and different tenodesis techniques, the loop tenodesis procedure was recently introduced. This technique represents an arthroscopically assisted surgical method for the treatment of biceps tendon disease. This procedure is based on an enlargement of the proximal tenotomized tendon to create a stable fixed tendon without foreign material to prevent distalization of the biceps muscle. This article describes an all-inside arthroscopic loop tenodesis procedure. By use of a special stitch configuration, the long head of the biceps tendon loop can be created in an all-arthroscopic manner, resulting in a stable fixed tendon at the entrance to the bicipital groove (autotenodesis). No foreign materials and only 2 arthroscopic portals are necessary for this biceps tenodesis procedure.
Project description:Arthroscopic biceps tenodesis is a commonly performed procedure; however, there is a paucity of literature regarding concomitant biceps tenodesis and double-row rotator cuff repair. In this Technical Note, we describe an all-arthroscopic biceps tenodesis using the stay sutures from the anterolateral anchor in the setting of a double-row rotator cuff repair. The anterolateral anchor is placed adjacent to the bicipital groove to accommodate the tenodesis. Two sutures loaded into the anterolateral anchor are passed through the long head of the biceps tendon in a cinch configuration without the need to externalize the tendon. The sutures are tied arthroscopically, thereby securing the tendon to the anterolateral row anchor and completing the tenodesis.
Project description:Arthroscopic suprapectoral techniques for tenodesis of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHB) are appropriate for the treatment of proximal biceps lesions. Several types of techniques and fixation devices have been described and evaluated in biomechanical studies regarding primary stability. In this technical note, we describe an all-arthroscopic suprapectoral technique using the 6.25-mm Bio-SwiveLock device (Arthrex, Naples, FL) for an interference screw-like bony fixation after having armed the tendon with a lasso-loop stitch. Both the interference screw fixation and securing of the lasso-loop tendon have been well described and approved in biomechanical tests concerning the primary stability. One advantage of this technique performed from the glenohumeral space, in addition to the strong and secure fixation with ingrowth of the tendon in a bony canal, is the avoidance of touching the soft tissue above the bicipital groove, which results in a smooth fitting of the tendon into its natural canal and therefore avoids mechanical irritation of the stump at the rotator interval. In conclusion, the all-arthroscopic suprapectoral LHB tenodesis performed from the glenohumeral space with the modified lasso-loop stitch for securing of the tendon and the 6.25-mm Bio-SwiveLock suture anchor for interference screw-like bony tendon fixation is an appropriate technique for the treatment of LHB-associated lesions.