Combined Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Posterolateral Corner Reconstruction by Hamstring Tendon Autografts Through a Single Femoral Tunnel by Graft-to-Graft Suspension and Fixation.
ABSTRACT: An untreated posterolateral corner (PLC) injury in patients with a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) may be a leading cause of ACL reconstruction failure. Combined ACL and PLC reconstruction is discussed in few studies in the literature. Femoral tunnel intersection in combined reconstruction has been reported to be high. Short grafts may render combined reconstruction undoable. This Technical Note describes a technique that allows a combined ACL and PLC reconstruction. The ACL graft is a 4-stranded hamstring tendon graft from 1 limb. The PLC graft is a doubled semitendinosus tendon graft from the contralateral side. One femoral tunnel is used connecting the femoral attachment of the PLC on the lateral wall of the lateral femoral condyle to the anatomic femoral ACL footprint on the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. The PLC graft is suspended on the ACL graft to be anchored on the cortex of the lateral femoral condyle with added fixation by an interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The PLC graft limbs are used for open reconstruction of the fibular collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteofibular ligament. This Technical Note describes a technique of combined ACL and PLC reconstruction with hamstring tendon autografts through a single femoral tunnel using graft-to-graft suspension and fixation.
Project description:Combined injuries involving the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterolateral corner (PLC) occur in approximately 10% of complex knee injuries. The current tendency is to reconstruct both the ACL and the structures of the PLC. In injuries involving multiple ligaments, a potential problem in the reconstruction is the convergence of tunnels in the lateral walls of the femur. As a solution to this problem, we propose a combined technique for reconstruction of the ACL and PLC with a single tunnel in the lateral femoral wall. Combined ACL/PLC reconstruction is performed with 2 semitendinosus tendons and 1 gracilis tendon. The technique consists of making a tunnel in the lateral wall of the femur, from the outside in, at the isometric point, for reconstruction of the collateral ligament and popliteus tendon, and emerging in the joint region at the anatomic point of the ACL reconstruction. The graft is passed from the tibia to the femur with the double gracilis tendon and the simple semitendinosus tendon; the remaining portions are left for reconstruction of the structures of the PLC. This technique is very effective in terms of minimizing the number of tunnels, but it does rely on having grafts of adequate size.
Project description:The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured knee ligament, particularly among adolescents and young adults. Unrecognized posterolateral laxity is understood as a major cause of ACL reconstruction failure, and concomitant injury to the posterolateral corner (PLC) is prevalent and underdetected. We advocate screening all ACL-deficient knees for PLC injury and present a technique combining minimally invasive PLC reconstruction with anatomic all-inside ACL reconstruction. The combined procedure uses only the ipsilateral hamstring tendons representing a major surgical advantage over traditional management approaches. The semitendinosus is quadrupled and attached to 2 adjustable suspensory cortical fixation devices to form the ACL graft. The gracilis tendon is looped through the fibula head and secured in a single femoral tunnel for the PLC reconstruction via 2 minimally invasive incisions. The use of a single femoral PLC tunnel combined with a single femoral ACL socket minimizes the risk of tunnel convergence.
Project description:Patients with complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have different degrees of rotational (internal rotation) laxity. A residual pivot shift has been found to be positive in more than 15% of cases after an accurate ACL reconstruction. Improved understanding of the existence, function, and biomechanical role of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) in controlling rotational instability of the knee has redirected and refocused attention on a supplemental extra-articular reconstruction of the ALL in conjunction with the intra-articular ACL reconstruction so as to restore normal kinematics of the knee. This Technical Note describes a technique that allows for a combined ACL and ALL reconstruction using autogenous hamstring graft (semitendinosus and gracilis tendons). One femoral tunnel is used connecting the anatomic femoral attachment of the ALL on the lateral wall of the lateral femoral condyle to the anatomic femoral ACL footprint on the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. The remaining part of the graft is fixed to the proximal tibia midway between Gordy's tubercle and the head of the fibula. This Technical Note describes a technique of both ACL and ALL reconstruction with a continuous hamstring graft.
Project description:Despite technical advances in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery, there remains a need to improve postoperative outcomes with respect to graft failure rates. Recently, it has been shown that combined ACL-anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction (using a graft composed of a tripled semitendinosus and single-strand gracilis tendon) is associated with a significant reduction in graft rupture rates compared with isolated ACL reconstruction. It is recognized that the hamstring tendons are not always available (revision scenario) or are not always the primary ACL graft choice. Some surgeons prefer to use quadriceps tendon ACL grafts because of the suggestion that these grafts may be associated with equal or better functional scores. However, if surgeons wish to try to reduce the risk of graft failure by performing an ALL reconstruction, either a combined reconstruction or the use of an independent ALL graft, with a separate femoral socket, could be considered. The disadvantage of an independently performed extra-articular procedure is the risk of femoral socket collision with the femoral ACL tunnel. This Technical Note therefore describes the use of a combined ACL-ALL reconstruction using quadriceps tendon autograft (ACL graft), gracilis allograft (ALL graft), and a single femoral tunnel.
Project description:In an effort to better restore normal joint function and kinematics, recent emphasis has been placed on surgical techniques that provide a more anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). With femoral tunnel placement shown to play a vital role in the biomechanics, stability, and clinical outcomes after ACL reconstruction, approaches that better approximate the ACL's native femoral origin have been adopted. The independent anteromedial portal technique is thought to better position the femoral tunnel within the native ACL footprint and leave the graft more posteroinferior on the wall of the lateral femoral condyle than the more traditional transtibial approach. This article outlines the surgical technique for an anteromedial portal ACL reconstruction with a tibialis anterior allograft fixed with the Mitek Femoral and Tibial Intrafix sheath and screw system (DePuy Synthes, Raynham, MA).
Project description:Conventional single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction cannot improve the rotational stability of the knee. Traditional double-bundle ACL reconstruction requires is demanding, complex, time- and implant consuming, and associated with a high incidence of complications. Double-bundle ACL reconstruction using a free quadriceps tendon autograft through 3 independent tunnels provides some advantage, but the antegrade graft passage, tibial tunnel confluence, and graft site morbidity represent disadvantages. This Technical Note describes a modification of double-bundle ACL reconstruction using the hamstring tendon autograft through a single branched tibial tunnel and a single femoral tunnel using 2 interference screws (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The gracilis tendon autograft is passed through tibial tunnel stem to the posterolateral tibial tunnel branch to the posterolateral position in the femoral tunnel. The semitendinosus tendon autograft is passed through the tibial tunnel stem to the anteromedial tibial tunnel branch to the anteromedial position in the femoral tunnel. Both grafts are fixed by 2 interference screws: 1 at the femoral tunnel and 1 at the tibial tunnel stem with the knee at 20° flexion.
Project description:The outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are still unsatisfactory. Anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction has been applied to augment ACL reconstruction, with better but still nonoptimal results. An anatomical analysis revealed that the route of ALL is quite different from that of ACL on the lateral view of the knee. Thus, we hope to augment ACL reconstruction with the reconstruction of an ACL-mimicking anterolateral structure, in which the route is similar to that of ACL. Thus, we aimed to introduce a combined ACL and ACL-mimicking anterolateral structure reconstruction technique, which we named condyle-pinching double-bundle ACL reconstruction. The main indication of this technique is ACL injury with a high degree of pivot shift or general laxity. The main steps of this technique include preparation of a combined graft, creation of a common femoral tunnel and 2 tibial tunnels, graft placement, and final graft fixation to an adjustable loop. We have been obtaining obvious outcome improvement clinically with this technique and consider that this report will provide special option in ACL reconstruction.
Project description:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most extensively studied surgical procedures in orthopaedics. The importance of this ligament for knee function and stability has been widely studied. For athletes who participate in activities involving cutting, twisting, and running, surgical reconstruction of the ACL has become the standard of care. However, there is much debate regarding the techniques involved in ACL reconstruction, including graft choice, technique of drilling the femoral tunnel, and single- versus double-bundle reconstruction. In recent studies, ACL femoral tunnel drilling via a medial parapatellar or accessory anteromedial portal provides a more anatomic graft placement than transtibial femoral drilling. Long-term outcomes of these techniques have not been widely studied. This article details our technique for ACL reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft and a medial parapatellar portal.
Project description:Injuries to the posterolateral corner (PLC) often result in lateral, rotational, and dorsal instability, which need appropriate and differentiated treatment. Besides posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction for posterior instability, the technique according to LaPrade et al. efficiently stabilizes posterolateral rotational and lateral instability as described in Fanelli type B or C injuries. This technique has been exclusively used as an open procedure. In this article, we present an all-arthroscopic technique for the posterolateral stabilization procedure. To achieve this, 5 different arthroscopic portals are needed. The PLC is visualized by a trans-septal approach. Directly posterior to the popliteal tendon, arthroscopic preparation is started and the medial part of the fibular head is exposed. Two anatomic drill channels are placed in the lateral femoral condyle, with one tibial channel in the distal third of the sulcus popliteus and one channel in the fibular head. The popliteal tendon, popliteofibular ligament, and lateral collateral ligament are reconstructed with autologous hamstring tendons. The advantages of an all-arthroscopic anatomic PLC reconstruction are the protection of the soft tissues and the precise anatomic tunnel placement under direct visualization. The described procedure is a safe and anatomic method for posterolateral stabilization.
Project description:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with preservation of either the remnant or the tibial stump is performed with the hope of improving the vascularization and proprioceptive function of the graft. Remnant preservation is technically difficult because it hinders the visualization of the intra-articular tunnel site. Taking a cue from the concept of tibial stump preservation, we have modified our ACL reconstruction technique to preserve a sleeve of the soft tissue and ACL stump attached to the femoral condyle, in addition to tibial stump preservation, while still allowing adequate visualization of the femoral ACL insertion site. We describe our modification in this article and hypothesize that this should further improve graft vascularization and ligamentization.